Lower Manhattan

Lower Manhattan known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census. Lower Manhattan is defined most as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, on the south by New York Harbor; when referring to the Lower Manhattan business district and its immediate environs, the northern border is designated by thoroughfares about a mile-and-a-half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the island's southern tip: around Chambers Street from near the Hudson east to the Brooklyn Bridge entrances and overpass.

Two other major arteries are sometimes identified as the northern border of "Lower" or "Downtown Manhattan": Canal Street half a mile north of Chambers Street, 23rd Street half a mile north of 14th Street. The Lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street, it includes the World Trade Center site. At the island's southern tip is Battery Park. South of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area; the neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers Street on the west side. North of Chambers Street and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New York's oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are located in this area; the Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal Street. North of Canal Street and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy and the East Village. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, as well as Gramercy, with the large residential development known as Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town situated on the eastern flank of this zone.

The area that would encompass modern-day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically identical Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami. European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading post in Lower Manhattan called New Amsterdam in 1626; the first fort was built at The Battery to protect New Netherland. Soon thereafter, most in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began; the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers. Early directors included Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became a director in 1638 but five years was embroiled in Kieft's War against the Native Americans; the Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643. Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes nearly defeated the Dutch; the Dutch Republic sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29, 1645.

On May 27, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival. The colony was granted self-government in 1652, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653; the first mayors of New Amsterdam, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, were appointed in that year. In 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it "New York" after the Duke of York and the city of York in Yorkshire. At that time, people of African descent made up 20% of the population of the city, with European settlers numbering 1,500, people of African descent numbering 375. While it has been claimed that African slaves comprised 40% of the small population of the city at that time, this claim has not been substantiated. During the mid 1600s, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres where Washington Square Park developed; the Dutch regained the city in 1673, renaming the city "New Orange", before permanently ceding the colony of New Netherland to the English for what is now Suriname in November 1674.

The new English rulers of the Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland renamed the settlement back to New York. As the colony grew and prospered, sentiment grew for greater autonomy. In the context of the Glorious Revolution in England, Jacob Leisler led Leisler's Rebellion and controlled the city and surrounding areas from 1689–1691, before being arrested and executed. By 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished to 200. By 1703, 42% of households in New York had slaves, a higher percentage than in Philadelphia or Boston; the 1735 libel trial of John Peter Zenger in the city was a seminal influence on freedom of the press in North America. It would be a standard for the basic articles of freedom in the United States Declaration of Independence. By the 1740s, with expansion of settlers, 20% of the population of New York were slaves, totaling about 2,500 people. After a series of fires in 1741, the city became panicked that black

Liu Limin

Liu Limin is a former swimmer from China who won the silver medal in the 100 m butterfly at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. She attended college at the University of Reno in the United States, she was inducted into the university's athletic hall of fame in 2010. Limin Liu won three NCAA individual championships during her career, winning the 200 m butterfly at the NCAA Championships in 1999 and the 100 m and 200 m fly in 2000, she holds school and Big West Conference records in 200 m fly. A three-time All-American, Liu was named the Big West Swimmer of the Year in 2000. Evans, Hilary. "Liu Limin". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC. University of Nevada, Reno profile


KidGuard is a parental monitoring application for iOS and Android mobile phones. The application uses proprietary software to help parents monitor their children’s text messages, browser history, social media activity, stored videos or photos and phone GPS location. KidGuard was developed by a Los Angeles-based team and released in 2016. After KidGuard's launch, the application received coverage on ABC Inc.. Magazine. In 2017, KidGuard partnered with the startup incubator OnRamp Lab, located in Taiwan; the same year, international security consultant Gene Yu joined the KidGuard advisory board to aid with kidnapping response and prevention measures. Following the software as a service model, KidGuard is run through a web application that allows a parent to view all activity on a child's phone, including: Reading sent and received text messages, including deleted messages and texts sent via popular alternative messaging applications such as WhatsApp. Accessing browser history, call history and application usage, including duration and frequency.

Viewing all photos and videos saved to a child's phone, Using a smartphone's GPS to track location, as well as setting geo-fencing to alert parents. KidGuard includes a feature it calls a "Situation 360 Report," in which the application automatically creates a report to aid law enforcement in the event of a child's disappearance; the report includes a full profile of a child's recent locations and message history. Critics have raised concerns about the potential capability of KidGuard and its competitors to violate privacy laws or to be used as a tool by stalkers and abusers. In May 2018, KidGuard was featured in a New York Times article which criticized the application's developers for running advertisements aimed at adults attempting to spy on their spouses or discover infidelity. After KidGuard was contacted for comment, a spokesman responded that these advertisements had been developed by a marketing partner. All content relating to infidelity was subsequently removed from the KidGuard website.

KidGuard maintains an annual "KidGuard for Education Essay Scholarship" for high school students in the United States. The scholarship is awarded to an undisclosed number of participants, based on the results of an essay content whose topics concern online safety and cyberbullying. In 2017, KidGuard donated $25,000 in grants to 18 non-profit organizations focused on child safety and online threat prevention; the largest grant of $5,000 was awarded to the Megan Meier Foundation. Parental controls mSpy Official Website