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Lower Mississippi River

The Lower Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River downstream of Cairo, Illinois. From the confluence of the Ohio River and Upper Mississippi River at Cairo, the Lower flows just under 1600 kilometers to the Gulf of Mexico, it is the most travelled component of the Mississippi River System. Unlike on the upper rivers, there are no dams on the Lower Mississippi; the river is, constrained by levees and dikes to control flooding and secure a navigation channel for barges. The Old River Control Structure, the Bonnet Carré Spillway, the Mississippi River – Gulf Outlet Canal and other man-made structures on the lower reaches of the river seek to manipulate the flow of water in the vicinity of New Orleans; the political and engineering focus in the 20th century was to separate the Lower Mississippi River from its floodplain. Levees and channelization—along with substantial loss of bottomland forests to agriculture in the alluvial valley—have resulted in a loss of wildlife and fish habitat, decreased water quality, an expansion of the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico.

Agricultural runoff has resulted in increased turbidity, pollution from pesticides, toxicity to aquatic organisms, oxygen depletion and eutrophication. Channel depth of 9 feet is maintained by the Corps of Engineers from St. Louis, Missouri to Baton Rouge, Louisiana. On the lower Mississippi, from Baton Rouge to the Gulf, the navigation depth is 45 feet, allowing for container ships and cruise ships to dock at the Port of New Orleans and bulk cargo ships shorter than 150 foot air draft to fit under the Huey P. Long Bridge and traverse the Mississippi to Baton Rouge. There is a feasibility study to dredge this portion of the river to 50 feet to allow New Panamax ship depths. List of crossings of the Lower Mississippi River 2011 Mississippi River floods


The Toophan is an Iranian SACLOS anti-tank guided missile reverse-engineered from the American BGM-71 TOW missile. The Toophan 1, an unlicensed copy of the BGM-71A TOW missile, began mass production in 1988 and the Toophan 2, a BGM-71C ITOW variant, was publicly shown in 2000; the Toophan comes in at least 11 variants, many of which are poorly documented, including variants with laser guidance, thermobaric warheads, tandem-warheads with increased penetration. The Toophan is manufactured jointly by the Aerospace Industries Organization of Iran and Iran Electronics Industries; the Toophan is deployed from ground-based tripods, can be mounted on fighting vehicles and helicopters. Like the BGM-71 TOW missile, the Toophan is a large, rugged and reliable anti-tank guided missile deployed by small teams against tanks, armored vehicles and other targets; the Toophan forms the backbone of the Iranian Armed Forces's ATGM inventory and is procured in large quantities in a variety of variants. The Toophan has been exported to the governments of Iraq and Syria and to a large number of non-state actors in the Middle East, has been used in the Iran–Iraq War, the 2006 Lebanon War and the Iraqi and Yemeni Civil Wars.

Iran was among the earliest countries to import the TOW missile, as far back as 1971. Extensive repair and assembly facilities were set up at the Iran Electronics Industries by the Texas-based Emerson Energy Systems, as well as Hughes Missile Systems, to repair TOW and FGM-77A Dragon missiles. In May 1975, negotiations between Iran and Hughes Missile Systems on co-production of TOW and AGM-65 Maverick missiles stalled over disagreements in the pricing structure. Hughes set the royalty and initial investment costs for Iran at $20 million for the TOW and $25 million for the Maverick; the subsequent Iranian Revolution in 1979 ended. The Iran–Iraq war lead to Iran having an acute need for anti-tank guided missiles to counter Iraq's massive armored formations, leading Iran to import thousands more TOW missiles, as well as Soviet AT-3 Sagger ATGMs. Attempts at local production of both systems began in the first half of the war, with the TOW missile being prioritized due to its better performance; the earliest prototype version was ready in mid-1985, but performance was disappointing compared to Iran's US-made TOW missiles, which received widespread praise in Iran at the time.

Following about a year and a half more of R&D work, the Toophan was tested against Iraqi tanks and showed better performance. The missile was shown on an Iranian TV show on March 21, 1987, production of what would be named the Toophan 1 began by early 1988. R&D and production work continued through the 1990s; the missile was not publicly revealed until 2000, when the Toophan 1 and Toophan 2 were publicly unveiled at the same time. The Toophan has since become Iran's primary anti-tank guided missile. In addition to Toophan missiles, Iran produces reverse engineered tripod launchers, guidance sets, storage boxes, all of which bear the Toophan name. Toophan missiles can be fired from TOW launchers, their components are interchangeable. A number of sources say that the Toophan's quality is inferior to that of original American-made TOW missiles, but is still robustly capable. In 2014 Iran showed a Toophan/TOW simulator. In a December 2016 military exercise Iran used the missile against naval targets.

In 2018 Iran showed off thermal-sights. The Toophan can be mounted on Boragh ATVs, or Safir jeeps. Toophan missiles can be repaired by Iran's Shiraz Electronics Industries; the Toophan was developed into the Sadid-1, an ambitious project to build a competitor to the Israeli Spike-ER fire-and-forget missile for attack helicopters and drones. The Sadid-1 had limited success, but was used to develop the successful Sadid-345 glide bomb, which in turn spun off a smaller counterpart, the Qaem air-to-ground munition. Prototype versions of the Toophan-1 were used in the tail end of the Iran–Iraq War. Hezbollah received Toophan missiles in the early 2000s and used them against Israeli Merkava tanks and other vehicles during the 2006 Lebanon War; the Toophan missile has seen extensive use in the Syrian Civil War. Hezbollah is one of the missile's most prominent users; the missiles have been provided to the Syrian Army and Iranian-backed Shiite militias in Syria. Toophan missiles first appeared in Syria in October 2015.

Overall the Toophan missile's use in Syria is poorly documented, but Toophan-1 missiles seem to be the most common. Furthermore, the Kurdish YPG militia has used Toophan 1 missiles as well; the missiles have since proliferated to a wide range of non-state actors operating in Syria. In addition, Toophan missiles have been captured by groups fighting the Syrian government, including ISIS and al-Nusra; the first known Iraqi group to receive Toophans was Asaib-Ahl-Al-Haq in 2014. The Badr Organization obtained Toophans in 2015 and the Toophan has since been provided to other Shiite militias organized under the Popular Mobilization Units. Iraq's Federal Police have been delivered Toophans. Iran has shipped Toophan missiles to the Houthis in Yemen as well, where they have been used in combat; the first video of Houthis using a Toophan missile was published in November 2018. Identifying Toophan missiles is hard; the Toophan ATGM is similar to the American BGM-71 TOW ATGM on which it is reverse engineered.

Toophan missiles, control units, crates are interchangeable with their American counterparts and are mixed together. The many variations of TOW and Toophan missiles poses challen

Augustine Hailwood

Augustine Hailwood JP, was a British baker and Unionist Party politician, MP for Manchester Ardwick from 1918-22. Hailwood was born the son of Elizabeth Hailwood, he was educated at Manchester. He married Mary Hilda Amiel, they had three sons. Hailwood was a member of Manchester City Council from 1909–11, he was Hon. Secretary of the East Manchester Unionist Association, he was Unionist candidate for the Manchester Ardwick division at the 1918 General Election. He was endorsed by the Coalition government and was elected, he was defeated at the 1922 General Election, lost again in 1923 and did not stand in 1924. He was a Justice of the peace for the City of Manchester, he was a Governor of Manchester. He did not stand for parliament again

Wendouree railway station

Wendouree railway station is located on the Serviceton line in Victoria, Australia. It serves the north-western Ballarat suburb of Wendouree opening on 12 June 2009. There was a railway station at Wendouree until the early 1980s, it was sited just west of the Forest street level crossing, 750 metres east of the present station. At Gillies Street, near the site of the current station stood a 19th-century signal box, for the Ballarat Cattle Yards junction. After falling into disrepair the Public Transport Corporation was approached by Kim Lynden, who successfully tendered to move the building to Blampied to become a bed and breakfast in 1998. In September 2006 the State Government announced a new station would be built to relieve congestion at Ballarat station, following a passenger boom after the completion of the Regional Fast Rail project; the station was due for completion in 2008. The name was the subject of a competition which closed in April 2007. Construction work started in May 2008; the cost of the station and associated works was projected to be $11 million, but cost $18.7 million.

The station was opened by Public Transport Minister Lynne Kosky on 11 June 2009, with services commencing on 14 June 2009. Wendouree has two platforms, it is serviced by V/Line Ararat line services. Platform 1: Ballarat line: V/Line services to & from Southern Cross Ararat line: V/Line services to Ararat & Southern CrossPlatform 2: Bus Bay 1 - Wendouree to Southern Cross Via Ballarat Bus Bay 2 10-Alfredton to Ballarat Station Via Wendouree 11-Wendouree Station to Ballarat Station Via Howitt Street 12-Wendouree Station to Ballarat Station Via Forest Street 31-Wendouree Station to Miners Rest Via Mitchell Park Rail Geelong gallery Melway map at

Graph paper

Graph paper, coordinate paper, grid paper, or squared paper is writing paper, printed with fine lines making up a regular grid. The lines are used as guides for plotting graphs of functions or experimental data and drawing curves, it is found in mathematics and engineering education settings and in laboratory notebooks. Graph paper is available either as loose leaf paper or bound in notebooks; the first commercially published "coordinate paper" is attributed to a Dr. Buxton of England, who patented paper, printed with a rectangular coordinate grid, in 1794. A century E. H. Moore, a distinguished mathematician at the University of Chicago, advocated usage of paper with "squared lines" by students of high schools and universities; the 1906 edition of Algebra for Beginners by H. S. Hall and S. R. Knight included a strong statement that "the squared paper should be of good quality and ruled to inches and tenths of an inch. Experience shows that anything on a smaller scale is worthless in the hands of beginners."The term "graph paper" did not catch on in American usage.

A School Arithmetic by H. S. Hall and F. H. Stevens had a chapter on graphing with "squared paper". Analytic Geometry by W. A. Wilson and J. A. Tracey used the phrase "coordinate paper"; the term "squared paper" remained in British usage for longer. Quad paper, sometimes referred to as quadrille paper from French quadrillé,'small square', is a common form of graph paper with a sparse grid printed in light blue or gray and right to the edge of the paper. In the U. S. and Canada, it has two, four or five squares to the inch for work not needing too much detail. Metric paper with sparse grid has one or two squares per centimeter. Dot grid paper uses dots at intersections instead of gridlines, it is used for bullet journalling. Engineering paper, or an Engineer's Pad, is traditionally printed on light green or tan translucent paper, it may have five or ten squares per inch. The grid lines are printed on the back side of each show through faintly to the front side; each page has an unprinted margin. When photocopied or scanned, the grid lines do not show up in the resulting copy, which gives the work a neat, uncluttered appearance.

In the U. S. and Canada, some engineering professors require student homework to be completed on engineering paper. Millimeter paper is used for technical drawings. Hexagonal paper shows regular hexagons instead of squares; these can be used to map geometric tesselated designs among other uses. Isometric graph paper or 3D graph paper is a triangular graph paper which uses a series of three guidelines forming a 60° grid of small triangles; the triangles are arranged in groups of six to make hexagons. The name suggests the use for pseudo-three-dimensional views. Among other functions, they can be used in the design of trianglepoint embroidery, it can be used to draw angles accurately. Logarithmic paper has rectangles drawn in varying widths corresponding to logarithmic scales for semi-log plots or log-log plots. Normal probability paper is another graph paper with rectangles of variable widths, it is designed so that "the graph of the normal distribution function is represented on it by a straight line", i.e. it can be used for a normal probability plot.

Polar coordinate paper has concentric circles divided into small arcs or'pie wedges' to allow plotting in polar coordinates. In general, graphs showing grids are sometimes called Cartesian graphs because the square can be used to map measurements onto a Cartesian coordinate system, it is available without lines but with dots at the positions where the lines would intersect. Notebook Ruled paper Exercise book Examination book Laboratory notebook Graph paper downloads at

2004 Atlantic Sun Conference Baseball Tournament

The 2004 Atlantic Sun Conference Baseball Tournament was held at Melching Field at Conrad Park on the campus of Stetson University in DeLand, Florida from May 26 through 29. Florida Atlantic won its first and only tournament championship to earn the Atlantic Sun Conference's automatic bid to the 2004 NCAA Division I Baseball Tournament; the top six teams from the conference earn. The following players were named to the All-Tournament Team. Rusty Brown was named Tournament Most Valuable Player. Brown was an infielder for Florida Atlantic