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Lowndes County, Alabama

Lowndes County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,299, its county seat is Hayneville. The county is named in honor of William Lowndes, a member of the United States Congress from South Carolina. Lowndes County is part of Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area, it has been considered part of the Black Belt, known for its fertile soil, cotton plantations, high number of African-American workers, both enslaved and freedmen. Lowndes County was formed from Montgomery and Butler counties, by an act of the Alabama General Assembly on January 20, 1830; the county is named for South Carolina statesman William Lowndes. It is part of the Black Belt, where cotton plantations were developed in the antebellum years and agriculture continued as a dominant part of the economy into the 20th century. Following Reconstruction and years in which blacks continued to be elected to local office, white Democrats regained power and control of the state legislature, they adopted a new constitution in 1901 that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.

Requirements were added for payment of a cumulative poll tax before registering to vote, difficult for poor people to manage who had no cash on hand. From the end of the 19th through the early decades of the 20th centuries, organized white violence increased against blacks, with 16 lynchings recorded in the county, the fourth-highest total in the state, among those in the South with the highest rate of per capita lynchings. Most victims were black men, subjected to white extra-legal efforts to maintain white supremacy by racial terrorism. Seven of these murders were committed in Letohatchee, an unincorporated community south of Montgomery. In 1900 mobs killed a black man accused of killing a white man; when local black resident Jim Cross objected, he was killed, too, at his house, followed by his wife and daughter. In 1917 two black brothers were killed by a white mob for alleged "insolence" to a white farmer on the road. On July 31, 2016, a historical marker was erected at Letohatchee by the Equal Justice Initiative in coordination with the city to commemorate the people who had suffered these extrajudicial executions.

Because of the shift in agriculture and the Great Migration of blacks to leave oppressive conditions, population in the rural county has declined by two thirds since the 1900 high of more than 35,000. The effects of farm mechanization and the boll weevil infestation, which decimated the cotton crops and reduced the need for farm labor in the 1920s and 1930s, caused widespread loss of jobs. By 1960, the population had declined to about 15,000 residents and was about 80 percent-majority black; the rural county was referred to as "Bloody Lowndes", the rusty buckle of Alabama's Black Belt, because of the high rate of white violence against blacks to maintain segregation. In 1965, a century after the American Civil War and decades after whites had disenfranchised blacks via the 1901 state constitution, they maintained white supremacy by intimidation and violence, suppressing black voting. County population had fallen by more than half from its 1900 high, as both blacks and whites moved to urban areas.

Blacks still outnumbered whites by a 4-to-1 ratio. Eighty-six white families owned 90 percent of the land in the county and controlled the government, as whites had since 1901. With an economy based on agriculture, black residents worked in low-level rural jobs. In the civil rights era, not one black resident was registered to vote before March 1, 1965; the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in August of that year encouraged civil rights leaders to believe they could fight racism in Lowndes. The Lowndes County Freedom Organization was founded in the county as a new, independent political party designed to help blacks stand up to intimidation and murder. Organized by the young civil rights leader Stokely Carmichael of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, in the summer of 1965 Lowndes residents launched an intensive effort to register blacks in the county to vote. SNCC's plan was simple: to get enough black people to vote so blacks might be represented in the local government and redirect services to black residents, 80 percent of whom lived below the poverty line.

Carmichael and others organized registration drives and political education classes in support of the black residents. The Voting Rights Act authorized the federal government to oversee voter registration and voting processes in places such as Lowndes County where substantial minorities were under-represented; the police continued to arrest protesters in the summer of 1965. A group of protesters were released from jail in the county seat of Hayneville on August 20, 1965; as four of them approached a small store, Thomas Coleman, an unpaid special deputy, ordered them away. When he aimed his shotgun at one of the young black women Jonathan Myrick Daniels pushed her down, taking the blast, which killed the Episcopal seminarian. Coleman shot Father Thomas Morrisroe, a Catholic priest, in the back stopped, he was indicted for the murder of Daniels. Coleman had been appointed as special deputy by the county sheriff. In 1966 after working to register African-American voters, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization

Geoffrey Francis Taylor Colby

Sir Geoffrey Francis Taylor Colby was a British colonial administrator, Governor of the protectorate of Nyasaland between 1948 and 1956. He fought unsuccessfully against creation of the Federation of Nyasaland. Colby was born on 25 March 1901, son of a doctor, was raised in Woking Surrey, England, he attended St Wilfred's, a preparatory school, at Bexhill-on-Sea between the ages of seven and thirteen, in 1914 went on to Charterhouse, a school that taught the virtues of leadership, public service and keeping a cool head in emergencies. An excellent sportsman, he played both football for the school. Colby retained a passion for cricket throughout his life, it was said that when Governor of Nyasaland he delayed a meeting of his executive council for half an hour so he could listen to the closing overs of a test match. Colby won an open scholarship to Clare College at the University of Cambridge, as well as a leaving exhibition from Charterhouse, where he read Natural Sciences from 1919, taking a third-class degree in 1922.

He owned a Norton motorcycle which he used to go on trips to London. He was known quite to climb into college after hours up a wall, considered by a fellow undergraduate and Alpine mountaineer to be a difficult and dangerous climb. After leaving university, Colby spent a year as an assistant master at his old prep school, a year working in a fellmongers factory at Galashiels, he applied for an appointment in the Colonial Service, was posted to Nigeria in 1925. In Nigeria he was first a District Officer in the Northern region at a salary of £500, with £60 advanced for essential equipment, his duties involved lengthy tours on horseback in the hot, dry climate of the North to check on tax collection, the courts and public works. His health during this period was poor, he always had a jaundiced appearance in part due to poor diet; when on leave in England in 1930, Colby was introduced to Lilian Florence Illingworth aged 25. They became engaged, were married on 17 January 1931, he was unable to take his wife back with him to Nigeria, since his position did not allow for a wife, it took a year before he obtained a suitable post in the Lands and Mines department in the Kaduna secretariat, where he was joined by Lilian.

Colby was posted to Kontagora in 1935 as an isolated post. He was an efficient administrator, improving the roads and increasing crop production. In 1939 he became an Assistant Secretary in the Finance branch of the Lagos secretariat, he rose through the ranks to be made an Administrative Secretary in 1945, in which role he acted as Chief Secretary and Governor's Deputy. This appointment was created for him by the governor, Sir Arthur Richards, represented an unusual advancement over the heads of scores of other colonial officers. In 1947 he was awarded CMG in the Birthday Honours List, he was knighted two years later. Colby was appointed Governor of Nyasaland by Secretary of State Arthur Creech Jones, arriving there on 7 January 1948; this was a Class III Governorship under the Governors' Pension Act and so somewhat disappointing. It carried a salary of £2,500 per annum with a £500 duty allowance, he inherited an awkward problem of land allocation. The BCA Company owned large areas of land, some densely populated, that could not be developed without evicting the tenants.

Other estates were underdeveloped. A Land Planning Committee recommended that the government acquire some of this land for use by Africans. In November 1948, at Colby's recommendation, the composition of the Legislative Council was changed to include two African and one Asian "unofficials" and three officials. Colby supported greater educational opportunities for Africans, he opposed compulsory attendance, as requested by the chiefs, supported age limits for entry into school. The latter harmed girls, who would delay entering school until a age. Colby accepted the position of Chief Scout of the Nyasaland Boy Scouts, his wife became President of the Girl Guides, giving both these organisations a boost. Colby was opposed to the creation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland against the wish of African leaders such as James Frederick Sangala, he advised the Colonial Office to exclude Nyasaland from the planned federation, but his advice was ignored. The Conservative government pushed ahead with plans, deciding in a January 1953 conference that the federation would come into effect in August 1953.

When the federation was inaugurated there were riots in which eleven Africans were killed and many injured. For a period, the moderate influence of the Nyasaland African Congress was weakened. In a letter to his successor, Robert Armitage, Colby said: "I advised against the inclusion of Nyasaland not because I objected so much to the idea of federation but rather because I was convinced that there was no goodwill towards us or understanding of our problem in Salisbury. I fear. I do not believe that federation can succeed unless there is a complete change of heart in Salisbury – at present I can see no sign of this". With federation a fait accompli, Colby said "Our job and primary object in the next few years must be to allay African fears... and to convince the African population that Federation is in their best interests and indeed is in the interest of all communities in this territory". Colby recommended giving Africans a greater say in government, including opening more civil service jobs to Africans who were qualified, paying more attention to African leaders.

He expected that Nyasalan

Elsie Ward

Elsie Ward was an American sculptor born in Fayette, Missouri. Ward began her art studies in Denver, studying with Preston Powers. After moving to New York she attended the Art Students League where she studied with Daniel Chester French, H. Siddons Mowbray and Augustus Saint-Gaudens, she became an assistant to Saint-Gaudens, completing some of his commissions following his death in 1907. While working for him she met another of Henry Hering. "After her marriage to Henry Hering in 1910, she worked independently but assisted her husband on his projects." The Huguenot for the 1901-2 South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition. Boy and Frog, 1904, This work won the bronze medal at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition and copies are located at both Brookgreen Gardens and the Denver Botanic Gardens. Large figure of George Rogers Clark for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, permanently erected in St. Louis

Lancaster Independent School District

Lancaster Independent School District is a public school district based in Lancaster, Texas. The district serves most of the city of Lancaster, a small portion of Dallas, a small portion of the city of Hutchins. In 2010, the school district was rated "academically acceptable" by the Texas Education Agency. Lancaster High School Elsie Robertson Lancaster Middle School STEM Engagement Center George Washington Carver 6th Grade Center Belt Line Elementary School Houston Elementary School Lancaster Elementary School Pleasant Run Elementary School Rolling Hills Elementary School Rosa Parks/Millbrook Elementary School West Main Elementary School The district is led by a Superintendent as well as a seven-member Board of Trustees; the Superintendent is appointed by the Board of Trustees as its Chief Executive Officer. The current Superintendent, Michael McFarland, was appointed in 2010 after Inter Superintendent Dr. Dana Marable. 2011. Members of the Board of Trustees are elected from seven single-member districts to serve staggered three-year terms.

The Board's main responsibilities include funding the maintenance and operation of district schools, approving district personnel, submitting bond issues to voters for the construction of school facilities, general management of the district. School Board elections take place in May. LISD Board of Trustees District 1 – Marion Hamilton District 2 – Cynthia Corbin-Jarvis District 3 – Jeff Melcher District 4 – Irene Mejia District 5 – Joe Kana District 6 – Marjorie King District 7 – Ellen Clark The history of education in Lancaster dates back to 1846; that year, the first school – housed in a one-room log cabin – opened in the area. A tuition of ten cents per student per day was the initial teacher pay. In 1857, the first frame school house was built near the present-day intersection of Jefferson and Third Streets, it was private and tuition based. A school tax was instituted in 1869. In 1902, citizens petitioned for a bond and tax election to be held for the purpose of constructing a public school building.

The Lancaster Independent School District was established in 1905. The William L. White School opened that same year, serving students in grades 1-12. A new high school located on Centre Avenue opened in 1923. Lancaster High School was accepted to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1929, becoming the first such in Dallas County to receive this designation. Lancaster's population began to rise during the 1950s. Three schools were built during this period to accommodate the growing number of students; the first, Lancaster Elementary opened in 1951. Pleasant Run Elementary and Rocky Crest Elementary, a campus for African-Americans, both opened in 1955. In 1965, Lancaster High School moved to another location – 822 West Pleasant Run Road; this was followed two years by the opening of Houston Elementary. Houston became the first school in Lancaster to have a Kindergarten program. In 1970, Lancaster Middle School was built at 1005 Westridge Avenue to house the district's 6th, 7th, 8th graders.

The name of Lancaster High School was changed to Lancaster Elsie Robertson High School in 1980 to honor Elsie Robertson, a teacher who had served Lancaster students for 47 years. Lancaster Intermediate School opened in 1984 to serve 6th graders. Three additional campuses opened in the late 1980s – Millbrook Elementary in 1986, Rolling Hills Elementary in 1989, Lancaster Junior High in 1989; as the city and the district continued to grow, it began to diversify. The percentage of European-American students in the district fell below 50% during the 1992-1993 school year. At the same time, there was a significant increase in the number of African-American students. By the 1995-1996 school year, a majority of Lancaster ISD students were African-American; these trends – a declining number of European-American students, an increasing number of African-American students as well as a slower, but growing number of Hispanic students continue to this date. Hispanics displaced European-Americans as the district's largest minority group in the 2001-2002 school year.

In 2005 Larry Lewis, superintendent of the district, said that the affluence within some students in the district lead to apathy regarding school performance. Lewis said "Johnny has his own room, his own computer, his own DVD player, his own XBox, his own everything, but he brings home C's and F's. He'll get his own car, he thinks life is going to be that way the rest of his life, his priorities aren't what they should be." When the Texas Education Agency asked for neighboring districts to take over the troubled Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District in mid-2005, Lancaster ISD was given the first offer. Lancaster school board trustees rejected the proposal and the Dallas Independent School District agreed to educate Wilmer-Hutchins students; the district approved a plan to reconfigure grades served at each school, which took effect at the beginning of the 2006-2007 school year. Under the old system, elementary schools served grades pre-kindergarten through four, the intermediate school served grades five and six, the junior high grades seven and eight, the high school grades nine through twelve.

The new system abolished the need for an intermediate campus by moving fifth graders to elementary schools and sixth graders to the middle school. The district's intermediate and junior high schools were converted into two elementary campuses - Belt Line Elementary and

Iruma, Saitama

Iruma is a city located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 148,460, a population density of 3,320 persons per km², its total area is 44.69 square kilometres. Located in the Sayama Highlands of far southern Saitama Prefecture, Iruma is bordered by Tokyo to the south; the Iruma River flows through the city. Saitama Prefecture Sayama Hannō Tokorozawa Tokyo Metropolis Oume Mizuho Iruma developed as a series of three post towns on the Nikkō Wakiōkan highway during the Edo period; the town of Toyooka and villages of Kaneko, Miyadera and Higashikaneko were created within Iruma District, Saitama with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889. The Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy established an airfield in the area in 1938, which developed into Iruma Air Base. On April 1, 1954 Higashikaneko became Seibu Town. On September 30, 1956, Kaneko, Miyadera and Seibu merged to form the town of Musashi. Musashi was elevated to city status on November 1966, becoming the city of Iruma.

In 2017 Japan became the first country to elect an transgender man to any public office when Tomoya Hosoda was elected as a councillor for the city of Iruma. Iruma has a mixed economy with numerous industrial parks for light manufacturing and serves as a regional commercial center. Due to its location, it is a bedroom community for people commuting to the Tokyo metropolis for work. In terms of agriculture and neighboring Sayama are famous for the green tea they produce. Musashino Academia Musicae – Iruma campus Iruma has 16 public elementary schools, 11 public and one private middle school, two public and four private high schools. JR East - Hachikō Line Kaneko Seibu Railway - Seibu Ikebukuro Line Musashi-Fujisawa --- Irumashi - Bushi - Motokaji Ken-O Expressway Japan National Route 16 Japan National Route 299 Japan National Route 463 Japan National Route 407 Japan National Route 468 Iruma Air Base, located in Iruma and the neighboring the city of Sayama is a facility of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.

The base holds an open house annually in early November. This air base was known as Johnson Air Base while under the control of the United States Air Force. Iruma is twinned with: Sado, Japan Wolfratshausen, since October 14, 1987 Fenghua, China, friendship city since May 16, 2000 Iruma City Museum Wataru Kozuki, Takarazuka performer Yūsei Matsui, manga artist Junpei Yasuda, journalist Keisuke Ishii, professional wrestler Official Website

Peter Solowka

Peter Solowka or Solovka was born in late 1959 in Oldham of Ukrainian and Yugoslavian descent. He has been involved in music since 1985, most notably as guitarist with The Wedding Present from its inception until 1991, with The Ukrainians till the present day; the Wedding Present was formed when Peter joined with old school friend David Gedge, Keith Gregory and Shaun Charman. The band released many singles as well as three successful albums. George Best Bizarro Seamonsters The group performed at major festivals, appeared in national and indie charts, plus TV shows. During this time, Peter developed an interest in his ethnic roots and worked with the band to produce an album of Ukrainian-inspired music, they were helped in this by Len Liggins. The album featured for the first time in three John Peel Sessions, it was released by RCA records. Українські Виступи в Івана Піла The album reached no 22 in the national album charts - a record for an Eastern European language record in the UK. The interest in the music was such.

Throughout 1990, the band were working on 2 albums and this caused tensions between individual band members. Both albums were finished in early 1991, after which it was decided that it would be best if Peter concentrated on the Ukrainian music; the RCA album recorded by The Wedding Present was released as The Ukrainians first album The Ukrainians After leaving the Wedding Present, Peter formed The Ukrainians with Roman Remeynes, Len Liggins and Stepan Pasicznyk. Known as the originators of Ukrainian Folk Rock, The Ukrainians have released ten albums since 1991; the group have performed over 1000 gigs in 20 countries, including many of the major international world music festivals. The Ukrainians Pisni iz The Smiths. Vorony Live in Germany Kultura Drink to my Horse! The Ukrainians Live Anarchy In The UK. Respublika Istoriya: The Best of the Ukrainians Live in Czeremcha Diaspora 20 Years A History of Rock Music in Ukrainian