1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group of people by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves. Most lynchings were of African-American men in the South, but women were lynched, white lynchings of blacks occurred in Midwestern and border states during the 20th-century Great Migration of blacks out of the South; the purpose was to intimidate blacks through racial terrorism. On a per capita basis lynchings were common in California and the Old West of Latinos, although they represented less than 10% of the national total. Native Americans and Asian Americans were lynched. Other ethnicities, including Finnish-Americans, Jewish-Americans, German-Americans and Italian-Americans were lynched occasionally; the stereotype of a lynching is a hanging, because hangings are what crowds of people saw, are easy to photograph. Some hangings were professionally photographed and sold as postcards, which were popular souvenirs in some parts of the U.
S. Victims were killed by mobs in a variety of other ways: shot burned alive, forced to jump off a bridge, dragged behind cars, the like. Sometimes they were tortured as well, with body parts sometimes sold as souvenirs. Lynchings were not fatal. A "mock" lynching, putting the rope around the neck of someone suspected of concealing information, might be used to compel "confessions". According to the Tuskegee Institute, 4,743 people were lynched between 1882 and 1968 in the United States, including 3,446 African Americans and 1,297 whites. More than 73 percent of lynchings in the post-Civil War period occurred in the Southern states. According to the Equal Justice Initiative, 4,084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950 in the South. Lynchings were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892. Lynchings were large mob actions, attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers; as in the case of Ell Parsons, they were sometimes announced in advance in newspapers and in one instance with a special train.
However, in the 20th century lynchings became more secretive, were conducted by smaller groups of people. According to Michael Pfeifer, the prevalence of lynching in postbellum America reflects lack of confidence in the "due process" judicial system, he links the decline in lynching in the early twentieth century with "the advent of the modern death penalty": "legislators renovated the death penalty...out of direct concern for the alternative of mob violence". He cites "the modern, racialized excesses of urban police forces in the twentieth century and after" as having characteristics of lynching. "More black people killed by cops in 2015 than were lynched in the worst year of Jim Crow."On April 26, 2018, in Montgomery, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened. Founded by the Equal Justice Initiative of that city, it is the first large memorial to document lynchings of African Americans in the United States. After the Reconstruction era, most of the South was politically dominated by white Democrats.
Lynchings were used to intimidate blacks by racial terrorism. The rate of lynchings in the South has been associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching; the granting of U. S. Constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War the vote, was resisted by many white Southerners; some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, post-war economic losses, loss of social and political privilege. During Reconstruction and white people working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence as well as by poll taxes and literacy tests. White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disfranchised by the states from 1885 to 1908 through constitutional changes and laws that created barriers to voter registration across the South.
White Democrats enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks' second-class status. During this period that spanned the late 19th and early 20th centuries, lynchings reached a peak in the South. Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900 to 1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900 to 1931 with 302 incidents, according to The Tuskegee Institute. Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, the numbers vary depending on the sources, the years considered, the definition used to define an incident; the Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks and 1,297 whites being lynched between 1882 and 1968, with the annual peak occurring in the 1890s, at a time of economic stress in the South and increasing political suppression of blacks. A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men and children were lynched in the twelve Southern states between 1877 and 1950.
Over this period Georgia's 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways. Intellectuals and journalists encouraged public education protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and gover
Noxubee County, Mississippi
Noxubee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,545, its county seat is Macon. The name is derived from the Choctaw word nakshobi meaning to stink. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 700 square miles, of which 695 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 45 Mississippi Highway 14 Mississippi Highway 21 Mississippi Highway 39 Lowndes County Pickens County, Alabama Sumter County, Alabama Kemper County Winston County Oktibbeha County Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,545 people residing in the county. 71.6% were Black or African American, 27.1% White, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.4% of some other race and 0.5% of two or more races. 0.8% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,548 people, 4,470 households, 3,222 families residing in the county; the population density was 18 people per square mile.
There were 5,228 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 69.30% Black, 29.49% White, 0.15% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 1.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,470 households, out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.00% were married couples living together, 24.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.90% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.36. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.70% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 19.50% from 45 to 64, 12.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 90.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $22,330, the median income for a family was $27,312. Males had a median income of $25,008 versus $17,636 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,018. About 29.20% of families and 32.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.60% of those under age 18 and 25.30% of those age 65 or over. Public elementary and secondary education is administered by the Noxubee County School District. Noxubee County is within the service area of the East Mississippi Community College system; the system offers classes in the Macon Extension at Noxubee County High School in Macon. At one time, many more schools existed within the county. In the early twentieth century, nineteen of these were consolidated into two districts consisting of six schools, which were Salem, Lynn Creek, Center Point, Cooksville-Paulette and Brooksville; the old Salem School was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The Noxubee County Agricultural School at Mashulaville opened in 1910 and included a forty acre farm and provided living arrangements for up to 40 boarding students.
The public school population is 1% white, compared to 27% of the county population. Central Academy in Macon, founded in 1968 as a segregation academy, closed in 2017. In 1982, private deals, made between board members to use public funds to aid Central Academy became public; as a result, the NAACP called for the resignation of all Noxubee county school board members who had knowledge of the board’s aid to Central Academy, which at the time did not enroll any black students. In 2005, the U. S. Department of Justice began an investigation and the following year filed suit under the Voting Rights Act alleging that the chairman of the Noxubee County Democratic Party, Ike Brown, had conspired to orchestrate "relentless racial discrimination" against white voters; the court ruled that Brown, in conjunction with the Noxubee Democratic Executive Committee, had "manipulated the political process in ways intended and designed to impair and impede participation of white voters and to dilute their votes".
This was the first time the voting rights act of 1965 had been used to allege discrimination against whites. Macon Brooksville Shuqualak Bigbee Valley Gholson Mashulaville Paulette Prairie Point National Register of Historic Places listings in Noxubee County, Mississippi Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge
Carroll County, Mississippi
Carroll County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,597, its county seats are Vaiden. The county is named for Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving signatory of the U. S. Declaration of Independence. Carroll County is part of Micropolitan Statistical Area. Bordered by the Yazoo River on the west and the Big Black River to the east, it is considered within the Mississippi Delta region. Most of its land is in the hill country; the Porter Wagoner song "The Carroll County Accident" was set here. The county is referred to in the third verse of Bobbie Gentry's 1967 hit song, "Ode to Billie Joe"; this area was developed by European Americans for cotton plantations near the rivers. These were dependent on the labor of large gangs of enslaved African Americans. After the American Civil War, many freedmen worked as sharecroppers or tenant farmers on the plantations. Other areas were harvested for timber. Whites used intimidation to suppress voting and enforce white supremacy.
In 1890 the state legislature disenfranchised most blacks, who were a majority in the state, by creating barriers to voter registration. In the period from 1877 to 1950, Carroll County had 29 documented lynchings of African Americans, the second-highest number in the state. Nearby LeFlore County had a total of 48 lynchings in this period. Twenty-five of these killings were committed in little more than a one-month period in Carrollton, the county seat, in the late winter of 1886. One local man was lynched in February, taken from jail. Twenty-four deaths are associated with what has been known as the "Carrollton Courthouse Massacre", called a "riot" at the time and blamed on African Americans by the grand jury, but 60 armed, masked white men entered the courthouse, fatally shooting brothers Ed and Charley Brown, the black plaintiffs who had filed an assault case against a white man, 18 other blacks, who died that day. Another three black men died of their wounds soon after; the father of the two Brown brothers was fatally shot days later.
No one was prosecuted for these killings. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 635 square miles, of which 628 square miles is land and 6.3 square miles is water. Interstate 55 U. S. Route 51 U. S. Route 82 Mississippi Highway 17 Mississippi Highway 35 Grenada County Montgomery County Attala County Holmes County Leflore County From 1940 to 1970, the county population declined markedly, as many African Americans left in the Great Migration to West Coast cities that had a growing defense industry. Others went North to Chicago and other industrial cities. Rural whites moved to cities to find work; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,769 people, 4,071 households, 3,069 families residing in the county. The population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 4,888 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 62.67% White, 36.61% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 0.36% from two or more races.
0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,071 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 15.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.01. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Carroll County were English 51%, African 38.6%, Scots-Irish 12.1% In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,878, the median income for a family was $35,711.
Males had a median income of $28,459 versus $19,695 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,744. About 13.70% of families and 16.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 23.50% of those age 65 or over. Carroll County School District is the area public school district. Carroll Academy is an area private school, financially supported by the Council of Conservative Citizens, a white supremacist group. Pillow Academy in unincorporated Leflore County, near Greenwood, enrolls some students from Carroll County, it was a segregation academy. Carrollton North Carrollton Vaiden Avalon Black Hawk Coila McCarley Teoc Valley Hill Henry Pinckney McCain - born in Carroll County, 1861 John S. McCain, Sr. - born in Carroll County, 1894. 1893, blues musician National Register of Historic Places listings in Carroll County, Mississippi
Mississippi's 1st congressional district
Mississippi's 1st congressional district is in the northeast corner of the state. It includes much of the northern portion of the state including Columbus, Oxford and Tupelo. One of the state's major universities, the University of Mississippi, is located within the district at Oxford; the district includes Alcorn, Calhoun, Choctaw, Clay, DeSoto, Lafayette, Lowndes, Monroe, Prentiss, Tippah, Union and Winston counties and a portion of Oktibbeha County. From statehood to the election of 1846, Mississippi elected representatives at-large statewide on a general ticket; the congressional seat has been held by Republican Trent Kelly who won a June, 2015 special election to fill the vacant seat held by Republican Alan Nunnelee who died February 6, 2015. In the November 2010 election, Nunnelee had defeated Democratic incumbent Travis Childers, Constitutionalist Gail Giaramita, Independent Conservative Party candidate Wally Pang of Batesville, Libertarian Harold Taylor, Reformist Barbara Dale Washer.
Mississippi's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Columbus is a city in and the county seat of Lowndes County, on the eastern border of Mississippi, United States, located east, but north and northeast of the Tombigbee River, referred to as the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. It is 146 miles northeast of Jackson, 92 miles north of Meridian, 63 miles south of Tupelo, 60 miles northwest of Tuscaloosa, 120 miles west of Birmingham, Alabama; the population was 25,944 at the 2000 census and 23,640 in 2010. The population in 2012 was estimated to be 23,452. Columbus is the principal city of the Columbus Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the larger Columbus-West Point Combined Statistical Area. Columbus is part of the area of Mississippi called The Golden Triangle, consisting of Columbus, West Point and Starkville, in the counties of Lowndes and Oktibbeha; the first record of the site of Columbus in Western history is found in the annals of the explorer Hernando de Soto, reputed to have crossed the nearby Tombigbee River on his search for El Dorado.
However, the site does not enter the main continuity of United States history until December 1810, when John Pitchlynn, the U. S. Indian agent and interpreter for the Choctaw Nation, moved to Plymouth Bluff, where he built a home, established a farm, transacted Choctaw Agency business. After the Battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson recognized the urgent need for roads to connect New Orleans to the rest of the country. In 1817 Jackson ordered a road be built to provide a direct route from Nashville to New Orleans, his surveyor, Captain Hugh Young, chose a place on the Tombigbee River where high ground approached the river on both sides as the location for a ferry to be used for crossing the river when high water prevented fording the river. A military bridge was constructed where the present-day Tombigbee Bridge was developed in Columbus, Mississippi. Jacksons' Military Road opened the way for development in the area. Columbus was founded in 1819 and as it was believed to be in Alabama it was first recognized by an Alabama Legislative act as the Town of Columbus on December 6, 1819.
Before its incorporation, the town site was referred to informally as Possum Town, a name, given by the local Native Americans, who were Choctaw and Chickasaw. The name Possum Town remains the town's nickname among locals; the town was settled where Jackson's Military Road crossed the Tombigbee River 4 miles south of John Pitchlynn's residence at Plymouth Bluff. In 1820 the post office, at Pitchlynn's relocated in Columbus. Pitchlynn's, settled in 1810 became the town of Plymouth in 1836 and is now the location of an environmental center for Mississippi University for Women. Silas McBee suggested the name Columbus; the city's founders soon established a school known as Franklin Academy. It is known as Mississippi's first public school; the territorial boundary of Mississippi and Alabama had to be corrected as, a year earlier, Franklin Academy was indicated as being in Alabama. In fact, during its early post-Mississippi-founding history, the city of Columbus was still referred to as Columbus, Alabama.
During the American Civil War, Columbus was a hospital town. Its arsenal manufactured handguns and a few cannons; because of this, the Union ordered the invasion of Columbus, but was stopped by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest. This is substantiated in the book The Battle of West Point: Confederate Triumph at Ellis Bridge by John McBride. Many of the casualties from the Battle of Shiloh were brought to Columbus. Thousands were buried in the town's Friendship Cemetery. One of the hospitals was located at Annunciation Catholic Church, built in 1863 and still operating in the 21st century; the decision of a group of ladies to decorate the Union and Confederate graves with flowers together on April 25, 1866, is an early example of what became known as Memorial Day. A poet, Francis Miles Finch, read about it in the New York newspapers and commemorated the occasion with the poem "The Blue and the Grey". Bellware and Gardiner noted this observance of the holiday in The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday in America.
They recognized the events in Columbus as the earliest manifestation of an annual spring holiday to decorate the grave of Southern soldiers. While the call was to celebrate on April 26, several newspapers reported that the day was the 25th, in error; as a result of Forrest preventing the Union Army from reaching Columbus, its antebellum homes were spared from being burned or destroyed, making its collection second only to Natchez as the most extensive in Mississippi. These antebellum homes may be toured during the annual Pilgrimage, in which the Columbus residences open their homes to tourists from around the country; when Union troops approached Jackson, the state capital was moved to Columbus before moving to a more permanent home in Macon. During the war, Columbus attorney Jacob H. Sharp served as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. After the war, he owned the Columbus Independent newspaper, he was elected to two terms in the State House, serving four years representing the district in the Mississippi House of Representatives.
The mural Out of the Soil was completed in 1939 for the Columbus post office by WPA Section of Painting and Sculpture artist Bealah Betterworth. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through "the Section" of the U. S. Treasury Department. Columbus has hosted Columbus Air Force Base since World War II. CAFB was founded as a flight training school. After a stint in the 1950s and 1960s as a Strategic Air Command base (earning Columbus a spo
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c