Luís Vaz de Camões is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, Homer and Dante, he wrote a considerable amount of lyrical poetry and drama but is best remembered for his epic work Os Lusíadas. His collection of poetry The Parnasum of Luís de Camões was lost in his lifetime; the influence of his masterpiece Os Lusíadas is so profound that Portuguese is sometimes called the "language of Camões". Many details concerning the life of Camões remain unknown, but he is thought to have been born around 1524. Luís Vaz de Camões was the only child of wife Ana de Sá de Macedo, his birthplace is unknown. Lisbon, Coimbra or Alenquer are presented as his birthplace, although the latter is based on a disputable interpretation of one of his poems. Constância is considered a possibility as his place of birth: a statue of him can be found in the town. Camões belonged to a family originating from the northern Portuguese region of Chaves near Galicia.
At an early age, his father Simão Vaz left his family to pursue personal riches in India, only to die in Goa in the following years. His mother remarried. Camões was educated by Dominicans and Jesuits. For a period, due to his familial relations he attended the University of Coimbra, although records do not show him registered, his uncle, Bento de Camões, is credited with this education, owing to his position as Prior at the Monastery of Santa Cruz and Chancellor at the University of Coimbra. He had access to exclusive literature, including classical Greek and Latin works. Camões, as his love of poetry can attest, was a idealist, it was rumored that he fell in love with Catherine of Ataíde, lady-in-waiting to the Queen, Princess Maria, sister of John III of Portugal. It is likely that an indiscreet allusion to the king in his play El-Rei Seleuco, as well as these other incidents, may have played a part in his exile from Lisbon in 1548, he traveled to the Ribatejo where he stayed in the company of friends who fed him.
He stayed in the province for about six months. He enlisted in the overseas militia, traveled to Ceuta in the fall of 1549. During a battle with the Moors, he lost the sight in his right eye, he returned to Lisbon in a changed man, living a bohemian lifestyle. In 1552, during the religious festival of Corpus Christi, in the Largo do Rossio, he injured Gonçalo Borges, a member of the Royal Stables. Camões was imprisoned, his mother pleaded for visiting royal ministers and the Borges family for a pardon. Released, Camões was ordered to serve three years in the militia in the Orient, he departed in 1553 for Goa on board the São Bento, commanded by Fernão Alves Cabral. The ship arrived six months later. In Goa, Camões was imprisoned for debt, he found Goa "a stepmother to all honest men", he studied local customs and mastered the local geography and history. On his first expedition, he joined a battle along the Malabar Coast; the battle was followed by skirmishes along the trading routes between India.
The fleet returned to Goa by November 1554. During his time ashore, he continued his writing publicly, as well as writing correspondence for the uneducated men of the fleet. At the end of his obligatory service, he was given the position of chief warrant officer in Macau, he was charged with managing the properties of deceased soldiers in the Orient. During this time he worked on his epic poem Os Lusíadas in a grotto, he was accused of misappropriations and traveled to Goa to respond to the accusations of the tribunal. During his return journey, near the Mekong River along the Cambodian coast, he was shipwrecked, saving his manuscript but losing his Chinese lover, Dinamene, his shipwreck survival in the Mekong Delta was enhanced by the legendary detail that he succeeded in swimming ashore while holding aloft the manuscript of his still-unfinished epic. In 1570 Camões made it back to Lisbon, where two years he published Os Lusíadas, for which he was considered one of the most prominent Iberian poets at the time.
In recompense for this poem or for services in the Far East, he was granted a small royal pension by the young and ill-fated King Sebastian. In 1578 he heard of the appalling defeat of the Battle of Alcácer Quibir, where King Sebastian was killed and the Portuguese army destroyed; the Castilian troops were approaching Lisbon when Camões wrote to the Captain General of Lamego: "All will see that so dear to me was my country that I was content to die not only in it but with it". Camões died in Lisbon in 1580, at the age of 56; the day of his death, 10 June OS, is Portugal's national day. He is buried near Vasco da Gama in the Jerónimos Monastery in the parish of Belém in Lisbon. Camões is the subject of the first romantic painting from a Portuguese painter, A Morte de Camões, by Domingos Sequeira, now lost, he is one of the characters in Gaetano Donizetti's grand opera Roi de Portugal. Camões figures prominently in the book Het verboden rijk by the Dutch writer J. Slauerhoff, who himself made several voyages to the Far East as a ship's doctor.
DUALabs was the name of an American company that created and disseminated microdata and aggregate data files for the 1960 and 1970 censuses. The DUALabs 1960 census microdata file was noteworthy because it was designed to compatible with data from the 1970 census, allowing easy analysis of economic and demographic change between 1960 and 1970; the compatible DUALabs microdata inspired the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series which provides compatible census microdata for the period since 1850. DUALabs used a proprietary compression algorithm to compress the 1960 and 1970 census data under NSF grant 7249358 to the Center for Research Libraries. DUALabs received funding for the project from the Ford Foundation and NICHD; this algorithm made. After DUALabs declared bankruptcy in the early 1980s, some data became inaccessible because the decompression software was not available to researchers. All DUALabs census data are now recovered and are available through the National Historical Geographic Information System and the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The company was headed by former Census Bureau employee Jack Beresford, who had worked on the compilation of the 1960 census, the company headquarters was in Rosslyn, Virginia. Other persons associated with this project were Gary Hill, an employee of DUALabs and subsequently an employee of Donnelly Marketing and CACA in Rosslyn, VA. Private sector organizations were members of DUALabs and Spindletop Research, Inc. Lexingon, Kentucky was a member. Bill Davenall, was a professional researcher employed at Spindletop Research (a 5013 associated with the University of Kentucky and the Commonwealth of Kentucky.2012 William F Davenhall, Redlands, California, 2012 Ginda, Thomas. Old Census, New Twist. Pg. E1 Jacobs, Sanford. "Data Analyst Sues to Save Program Priced at $8,000, Vs. U. S.'s $110 Tag", Dec 18, 1981. P. 25. Ruggles, The Minnesota Population Center Data Integration Projects: Challenges of Harmonizing Census Microdata Across Time and Place 2005 Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Government Statistics Section, Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, pp. 1405–1415
Kurt Blome was a high-ranking Nazi scientist before and during World War II. He was the Deputy Reich Health Leader and Plenipotentiary for Cancer Research in the Reich Research Council. In his autobiography Arzt im Kampf, he equated medical and military power in their battle for life and death. Blome was tried at the Doctors' Trial in 1947 on charges of practicing euthanasia and conducting experiments on humans, he only admitted that he had been ordered in 1943 to experiment with plague vaccines on concentration camp prisoners. In reality, starting in 1943 he "assumed responsibility for all research into biological warfare sponsored by the Wehrmacht" and the S. S. Although he was acquitted of war crimes charges at the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial, this was due to the intervention of the United States as his earlier admissions were well known, it was accepted that he had indeed participated in chemical and biological warfare experiments on concentration camp inmates. As Plenipotentiary for Cancer Research in the Third Reich, Blome had a longstanding interest in the "military use of carcinogenic substances" and cancer-causing viruses.
According to Ute Deichmann's book Biologists under Hitler, in 1942 he became director of a unit affiliated with the Central Cancer Institute at the University of Posen. Although he claimed that the work at this institute involved only'defensive' measures against biological weapons, Heinrich Himmler, Herman Goering, Erich Schumann, head of the Wehrmacht's Science Section supported the offensive use of chemical and biological weapons against Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States. In 1943, Schumann wrote to Dr. Heinrich Kliewe, one of the Wehrmacht's biological warfare experts that "in particular, America must be attacked with various human and animal epidemic pathogens as well as plant pests." According to Kliewe, typhoid and anthrax were being developed as weapons, as well as a new "synthetic medium for the spread of these bacteria" which would allow them to remain virulent for eight to twelve weeks. As part of the Nazi biological warfare program code-named Blitzableiter, Blome's institute was therefore "a camouflaged operation for the production of biological warfare agents", its construction was overseen by Karl I.
Gross, an S. S. officer and specialist in tropical diseases, who had conducted lethal experiments on 1,700 prisoners at the Mauthausen concentration camp. It was surrounded by a ten-foot high wall, guarded by a special S. S. unit, designed to prevent the accidental release of the various biological agents being produced there. By May 1944, the institute had sections devoted to physiology-biology and vaccines, pharmacology, cancer statistics and a tumor farm, had received at least 2.7 million Reichsmarks in funding from the Wehrmacht and S. S. in 1943–45. Blome worked on methods of storage and dispersal of biological agents like plague, cholera and typhoid, infected prisoners with plague in order to test the efficacy of vaccines. At the University of Strassburg, a "special unit" headed by Prof. Eugen von Haagan and employing researchers like Kurt Gutzeit and Arnold Dohmen, tested typhus, hepatitis and other chemical and biological weapons on concentration camp inmates. Gutzeit was in charge of hepatitis research for the German Army, he and his colleagues carried out virus experiments on mental patients, Russian POWs and Gypsies in Sachsenhausen and other locations.
In October 1944, Himmler ordered Blome to experiment with plague on concentration camp prisoners. In 1943, Blome proposed spreading malaria "artificially by means of mosquitoes" and experimented on prisoners at Dachau and Buchenwald with lice in order to cause typhus epidemics. Eduard May, director of the Entomological Division of the SS Institute for Practical Research in Military Science, received a commission to experiment on concentration camp prisoners with "humanly harmful insects" starting in October 1943, connected with Blome's biological warfare program. May collaborated with him in experiments on "the artificial mass transmission of the malaria parasite to humans", with infected mosquitoes dropped from planes. In addition, the Wehrmacht's Veterinary Section, which included research projects on animal diseases being conducted by Erich Traub at the Insel Riems Institute, was developing methods to spread these by aircraft over Britain, the U. S. and the Soviet Union. Like Kurt Blome's cancer research institute in Posen, the State Research Institute at Insel Riems was a dual use facility during the Second World War where at least some biological warfare experiments were conducted.
It was founded in 1909–10 to study foot-and-mouth disease and by World War II employed about 20 scientists and a staff of about 70–120. From 1919 to 1948, its director was Otto Waldmann. Hans-Christoph Nagel, a veterinarian and biological warfare expert for the German Army, was in charge of research into the use of animal and insect diseases as biological weapons. Like Blome, Traub was employed by the U. S. government after the war as a biological warfare expert. Blome worked on aerosol dispersants and methods of spraying nerve agents like Tabun and Sarin from aircraft, tested the effects of these gases on prisoners at Auschwitz. I. G. Farben had developed nerve gas in 1936 as a result of its research into insecticides, Blome's duties included preparing defensive measures against possible Allied use of insect-borne biological weapons, either in a first strike or in retaliation for German use of such weapons; as early as Septe
Yang Hui, courtesy name Qianguang, was a Chinese mathematician and writer during the Song dynasty. From Qiantang, Yang worked on magic squares, magic circles and the binomial theorem, is best known for his contribution of presenting Yang Hui's Triangle; this triangle was the same as Pascal's Triangle, discovered by Yang's predecessor Jia Xian. Yang was a contemporary to the other famous mathematician Qin Jiushao; the earliest extant Chinese illustration of'Pascal's Triangle' is from Yang's book Xiangjie Jiuzhang Suanfa of 1261 AD, in which Yang acknowledged that his method of finding square roots and cubic roots using "Yang Hui's Triangle" was invented by mathematician Jia Xian who expounded it around 1100 AD, about 500 years before Pascal. In his book known as Rújī Shìsuǒ or Piling-up Powers and Unlocking Coefficients, known through his contemporary mathematician Liu Ruxie. Jia described the method used as'li cheng shi suo', it appeared again in a publication of Zhu Shijie's book Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns of 1303 AD.
Around 1275 AD, Yang had two published mathematical books, which were known as the Xugu Zhaiqi Suanfa and the Suanfa Tongbian Benmo. In the former book, Yang wrote of arrangement of natural numbers around concentric and non concentric circles, known as magic circles and vertical-horizontal diagrams of complex combinatorial arrangements known as magic squares and magic circles, providing rules for their construction. In his writing, he harshly criticized the earlier works of Li Chunfeng and Liu Yi, the latter of whom were both content with using methods without working out their theoretical origins or principle. Displaying a somewhat modern attitude and approach to mathematics, Yang once said: The men of old changed the name of their methods from problem to problem, so that as no specific explanation was given, there is no way of telling their theoretical origin or basis. In his written work, Yang provided theoretical proof for the proposition that the complements of the parallelograms which are about the diameter of any given parallelogram are equal to one another.
This was the same idea expressed in the Greek mathematician Euclid's forty-third proposition of his first book, only Yang used the case of a rectangle and gnomon. There were a number of other geometrical problems and theoretical mathematical propositions posed by Yang that were strikingly similar to the Euclidean system. However, the first books of Euclid to be translated into Chinese was by the cooperative effort of the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci and the Ming official Xu Guangqi in the early 17th century. Yang's writing represents the first in which quadratic equations with negative coefficients of'x' appear, although he attributes this to the earlier Liu Yi. Yang was well known for his ability to manipulate decimal fractions; when he wished to multiply the figures in a rectangular field with a breadth of 24 paces 3 4⁄10 ft. and length of 36 paces 2 8⁄10, Yang expressed them in decimal parts of the pace, as 24.68 X 36.56 = 902.3008. History of mathematics List of mathematicians Chinese mathematics Needham, Joseph.
Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Li, Jimin, "Yang Hui". Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed. Yang Hui at MacTutor
The 1974 Grand Prix German Open was a combined men's and women's tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It was the 66th edition of the event and was part of the 1974 Commercial Union Assurance Grand Prix circuit, it took place at the Am Rothenbaum in Hamburg, West Germany, from 20 May through 26 May 1974. Third-seeded Eddie Dibbs won the singles title. Eddie Dibbs defeated Hans-Joachim Plötz 6–2, 6–2, 6–3 Helga Masthoff defeated Martina Navratilova 6–4, 5–7, 7–3 Jürgen Fassbender / Hans-Jürgen Pohmann defeated Brian Gottfried / Raúl Ramírez 6–3, 6–4, 6–4 Helga Hösl / Raquel Giscafré defeated Martina Navratilova / Renáta Tomanová 6–3, 6–2 Heide Orth / Jürgen Fassbender defeated Katja Ebbinghaus / Hans-Jürgen Pohmann 7–6, 6–3 Official website Official website Association of Tennis Professionals tournament profile International Tennis Federation tournament edition details
Model-based definition, sometimes digital product definition, is the practice of using 3D models within 3D CAD software to define individual components and product assemblies. The types of information included are geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, component level materials, assembly level bills of materials, engineering configurations, design intent, etc. By contrast, other methodologies have required accompanying use of 2D engineering drawings to provide such details. Modern 3D CAD applications allow for the insertion of engineering information such as dimensions, GD&T, notes and other product details within the 3D digital data set for components and assemblies. MBD uses such capabilities to establish the 3D digital data set as the source of these specifications and design authority for the product; the 3D digital data set may contain enough information to manufacture and inspect product without the need for engineering drawings. Engineering drawings have traditionally contained such information.
In many instances, use of some information from 3D digital data set allows for rapid prototyping of product via various processes, such as 3D printing. A manufacturer may be able to feed 3D digital data directly to manufacturing devices such as CNC machines to manufacture the final product. Limited Dimension Drawing, sometimes Reduced Dimension Drawing, are 2D drawings that only contain critical information, noting that all missing information is to be taken from an associated 3D model. For companies in transition to MBD from traditional 2D documentation a Limited Dimension Drawing allows for referencing 3D geometry while retaining a 2D drawing that can be used in existing corporate procedures. Only limited information is placed on the 2D drawing and a note is placed to notify manufactures they must build off the 3D model for any dimensions not found on the 2D drawing. In 2003, ASME published the ASME Y14.41-2003 Digital Product Definition Data Practices, revised in 2012 as ASME Y14.41-2012.
The standard provides for the use of many MBD aspects, such as GD&T display and other annotation behaviors within the solid model. ISO 16792:2015 standardizes MBD within the ISO standards, sharing many similarities with the ASME standard. Other standards, such as ISO 1101:2004 and of AS9100 make use of MBD. In 2013, the United States Department of Defense released MIL-STD-31000 Revision A to codify the use of MBD as a requirement for technical data packages. CAD standards ASME Design World, 2008 Patel, Nikunj. "The Argument Against Model-Based Definition". Design News. Ruemler, Shawn P. "Promoting Model-Based Definition to Establish a Complete Product Definition". Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 139: 051008. Doi:10.1115/1.4034625. PMC 5215895. PMID 28070155. Quintana, Virgilio. "Will Model-based Definition replace engineering drawings throughout the product lifecycle? A global perspective from aerospace industry". Computers in Industry. 61: 497–508. Doi:10.1016/j.compind.2010.01.005. Miller, Alexander Mcdermott.
"Towards an extended model-based definition for the digital twin". Computer-Aided Design and Applications. 15: 880–91. Doi:10.1080/16864360.2018.1462569. Zhu, Wenhua. "Implementations of Model Based Definition and Product Lifecycle Management Technologies: A Case Study in Chinese Aeronautical Industry". IFAC-PapersOnLine. 49: 485–90. Doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.07.664. Miller, Alexander Mcdermott. "Towards Identifying the Elements of a Minimum Information Model for Use in a Model-Based Definition". Volume 3: Manufacturing Equipment and Systems. V003T04A017. Doi:10.1115/MSEC2017-2979. ISBN 978-0-7918-5074-9. Furrer, David U. "Making the Case for a Model-Based Definition of Engineering Materials". Integrating Materials and Manufacturing Innovation. 6: 249–63. Doi:10.1007/s40192-017-0102-7. Uski, Pekka. Aaltonen, Jussi. Can a sheet metal product be manufactured without drawings? – Product lifecycle's point of view. Proceedings of the 1st Annual SMACC Research Seminar 2016. Tampere: Tampere University of Technology.
Pp. 109–11. ISBN 978-952-15-3832-2. Quintana, Virgilio. "Re-engineering the Engineering Change Management process for a drawing-less environment". Computers in Industry. 63: 79–90. Doi:10.1016/j.compind.2011.10.003. Hedberg, Thomas D. "Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product life cycle". International Journal of Production Research. 55: 819–827. Doi:10.1080/00207543.2016.1213453. PMC 5155444. PMID 27990027. Ma, Qin Yi. "Development of CAD Model Annotation System Based on Design Intent". Applied Materials. 863: 368–72. Doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.863.368