China Eastern Airlines
China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited is an airline headquartered in the China Eastern Airlines Building, on the grounds of Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Changning District, Shanghai. It is a major Chinese airline operating international and regional routes, its main hubs are at Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. China Eastern Airlines is China's second-largest carrier by passenger numbers. China Eastern and its subsidiary Shanghai Airlines became the 14th member of SkyTeam on 21 June 2011; the parent company of China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited is China Eastern Air Holding Company. China Eastern Airlines was established on 25 June 1988 under the Civil Aviation Administration of China Huadong Administration. In 1997, China Eastern took over the unprofitable China General Aviation and became the country's first airline to offer shares on the international market. In 1998 it founded China Cargo Airlines in a joint venture with COSCO.
In March 2001, it completed the takeover of Great Wall Airlines. China Yunnan Airlines and China Northwest Airlines merged into China Eastern Airlines in 2003; the Chinese government has a majority ownership stake in China Eastern Airlines, while some shares are publicly held. On 20 April 2006 the media broke the news of a possible sale of up to 20% of its stake to foreign investors, including Singapore Airlines and Japan Airlines, with Singapore Airlines confirming that negotiations were underway. After receiving approval from the State Council of China, it was announced that on 2 September 2007 Singapore Airlines and Temasek Holdings would jointly acquire shares of China Eastern Airlines. On 9 November 2007 investors signed a final agreement to buy a combined 24% stake in China Eastern Airlines: Singapore Airlines would own 15.73% and Temasek Holdings an 8.27% stake in the airline. Singapore Airlines' pending entry into the Chinese market prompted the Hong Kong carrier Cathay Pacific to attempt to block the deal by buying a significant stake in China Eastern and voting down the deal together with Air China at the shareholders' meeting in December 2007.
However, on 24 September Cathay Pacific announced. Air China's parent company, state-owned China National Aviation Corporation, announced in January 2008 that it would offer 32% more than Singapore Airlines for the 24% stake in China Eastern complicating the deal that Singapore Airlines and Temasek had proposed. However, minority shareholders declined the offer made by Singapore Airlines, it is thought. On 11 June 2009, it was announced; the merger of China Eastern and Shanghai Airlines was expected to reduce excess competition between the two Shanghai-based carriers while consolidating Shanghai's status as an international aviation hub. In February 2010 the merger was completed. Shanghai Airlines became a wholly owned subsidiary of China Eastern Airlines. However, Shanghai Airlines retained its livery; the new combined airline was expected to have over half of the market share in Shanghai, the financial hub of China. In March 2012, it was announced that China Eastern was forging a strategic alliance with the Qantas Group to set up Jetstar Hong Kong, a new low cost airline to be based at Hong Kong International Airport, which would commence operations in 2013.
China Eastern would hold a 50% stake in the new airline, with the Qantas Group holding the other 50%, representing a total investment of US$198 million. However, in June 2015, the Hong Kong authority refused to issue operating license to Jetstar Hong Kong. China Eastern and Qantas subsequently announced the end of the investment. In April 2013, China Eastern got a temporary permit to operate in the Philippines, but the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines required them to obtain a technical permit and an airport slot. In 2012, China Eastern was awarded the “Golden Ting Award” at the China Capital Market Annual Conference 2012, recognizing it as one of the 50 most valuable Chinese brands by WPP and ranking in the top ten of FORTUNE China's CSR Ranking 2013. On September 9, 2014, China Eastern introduced new livery. In 2015, the airline entered a partnership with Delta Air Lines in which Delta will buy a 3.55% share in China Eastern for $450 million. China Eastern from June 30, 2015 is launching new service to the US, as the Skyteam member plans 3 weekly Chengdu – Nanjing – Los Angeles operation with Airbus A330-200 aircraft.
In 2017, China Eastern Airlines reported a net profit of CNY6.4 billion, up 41% over net income of CNY4.5 billion in 2016 China Eastern Airlines has a strong presence on routes in Asia, North America and Australia. The airline looks to exploit the domestic market potential as it boosts flight frequencies from Shanghai to other Chinese cities; the airline is accelerating the pace of international expansion by increasing flight frequencies to international destinations. In 2007 it began operations to New York City from Shanghai, making it the longest non-stop route for the airline. China Eastern Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: As of April 2019, the China Eastern Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: China Eastern Airlines was the first Chinese airline to place an order with Airbus; the backbone of the fleet is the A320 series, which are used on domestic flights. In 2005, China Eastern Airlines pla
Wattay International Airport
Wattay International Airport is one of the few international airports in Laos and the country's main international gateway, serving the capital Vientiane, located 3 km outside of the city centre. A larger domestic terminal was connected to the international terminal. There is a Lao Air Force installation at one end of the airport; the airport is in Sikhodtabong District in Vientiane. The head office of the Department of Civil Aviation is on the airport property; the head office of Lao Air is on the airport property. Lao Airlines is revising flying to Yangon; the largest airplane, flown to Vientiane is the A330. This is flown by Thai Airways; the largest airplane that has visited this airport is the Boeing 747-400, carrying Park Geun-hye – then-president of South Korea – for the 2016 ASEAN summit. Banks Bars Restaurants Duty-free shop Post office Shops Internet caféThe airport has a bonded warehouse building for air cargo passing through the airport; the facility is operated by Lao-Japan Airport Terminal Building Service Co. Ltd.
Access to airport by shuttle bus, taxi and tuk-tuk. A taxi rank is located outside the main arrival hall; the shuttle bus stop is located outside the international terminal. On 24 March 1976, Douglas C-47A Skytrain XW-TAF and C-47Bs XW-TDF and XW-TDR of Royal Air Lao were damaged beyond economic repair in a storm. On 16 October 2013, Lao Airlines Flight 301 crashed on approach to Pakse International Airport from Vientiane. All 49 aboard died. Media related to Wattay International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Laos Travel Information Portal Vientiane Airport Guide Airport information for VLVT at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Haikou Meilan International Airport
Haikou Meilan International Airport is the airport serving Haikou, the capital of Hainan Province, China. It is located 25 kilometres southeast of the city center and was opened in 1999, replacing the old Dayingshan Airport located along what is now the city's Guoxing Avenue; the airport is operated by HNA Infrastructure. Haikou Meilan International Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Hainan, the second busiest being Sanya Phoenix International Airport. In 2017, it was the 17th busiest airport in China; the airport terminal has 60,200 square metres of space, with 45 check-in counters and 11 security checkpoints. The airport is staffed by 565 employees. A new, international terminal opened on August 14, 2013. Situated at the east side of the existing terminal, this new apron increases international capacity to ten flights, from the previous capacity of three. Construction of this new terminal began on April 18, 2011. In order to meet the increasing passenger flow demand, the second phase of the project was launched in 2016.
The newly built flight area of this project is located directly to the north, parallel to the main part. It has a rating of 4F, a new 3,600 long runway, two parallel taxiways and contact road system are built. A total investment of 14.468 billion yuan will be made in the construction of a new T2 terminal covering 296,000 square meters and various types of platforms with 59 seats. The construction target of the project is to meet the annual passenger throughput of 35 million person-times and annual freight and postal throughput of 400,000 tons by 2025; the project is scheduled to be completed in December 2018. The installation and commissioning of electro-mechanical equipment will begin in 2019 and will be put into use at the end of the same year. Getting to the airport from Haikou city by taxi costs about RMB 60 and takes about 30 minutes; the Meilan Railway Station connects. List of airports in China China's busiest airports by passenger traffic Airport information for ZJHK at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006. Official website
Chiang Mai sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai" is the largest city in northern Thailand. It is the capital of Chiang Mai Province and was a former capital of the kingdom of Lan Na, which became the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, a tributary state of Siam from 1774 to 1899, the seat of princely rulers until 1939, it is 700 km north of Bangkok near the highest mountains in the country. The city sits astride the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai means "New City" and was so named because it became the new capital of Lan Na when it was founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai, the former capital founded in 1262, its ceremonial full name is Nopburi Si-Nakhonping Chiangmai which means Chiangmai, Ping's City of the Nine referring the ancient nine Lannese tribes in this area. In May 2006 Chiang Mai was the site of the Chiang Mai Initiative, concluded between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the "ASEAN+3" countries. Chiang Mai was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailand's bid to host the World Expo 2020.
Ayutthaya was chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition. In early December 2017, Chiang Mai was awarded the UNESCO title of Creative City. In 2015, Chiang Mai was on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage inscription. Chiang Mai was one of two tourist destinations in Thailand on TripAdvisor's 2014 list of "25 Best Destinations in the World", where it stands at number 24. Chiang Mai's historic importance is derived from its close proximity to the Ping River and major trading routes. While the city of Chiang Mai only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai District, with a population of 160,000, the city's sprawl extends into several neighboring districts; the Chiang Mai metropolitan area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai Province. The city is subdivided into four khwaeng: Nakhon Ping, Srivijaya and Kawila; the first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, Kawila is on the east bank. Nakhon Ping District includes the northern part of the city.
Srivijaya and Kawila consist of the western and eastern parts, respectively. The city center—within the city walls—is within Srivijaya ward; the Ping River, one of the main tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, originates at Doi Thuai, in the mountains of the Daen Lao Range in Chiang Dao District. The river, the largest in the region, runs from north to south, forming a river basin east of Chiang Mai. Mae Ping River served as the route of trade and communication between Chiang Mai and its controlled states in Lanna, as well as the outside world. Mangrai founded Chiang Mai in 1294 or 1296 on the site of an older city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi. Gordon Young, in his 1962 book The Hill tribes of Northern Thailand, mentions how a Wa chieftain in British Burma told him that the Wa, a people who are related to the Lawa, once lived in the Chiang Mai valley in "sizeable cities". Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the capital of Lan Na. Pha Yu enlarged and fortified the city, built Wat Phra Singh in honor of his father Kham Fu.
The ruler was known as the chao. The city was surrounded by a moat and a defensive wall since nearby Taungoo Dynasty of the Bamar people was a constant threat, as were the armies of the Mongol Empire, which only decades earlier had conquered most of Yunnan, in 1292 overran the bordering Dai kingdom of Chiang Hung. With the decline of Lan Na, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Taungoo in 1556. Chiang Mai formally became part of the Thonburi Kingdom in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, after the Thonburi king Taksin helped drive out the Taungoo Bamar; because of Taungoo counterattacks, Chiang Mai was abandoned between 1776 and 1791. Lampang served as the capital of what remained of Lan Na. Chiang Mai slowly grew in cultural and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of Northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok; the modern municipality dates to a sanitary district, created in 1915. It was upgraded to a municipality on 29 March 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, Book No. 52 section 80.
First covering just 17.5 km2, the city was enlarged to 40.2 km2 on 5 April 1983. "... Chiang Mai represents the prime diamond on the crown of Thailand, the crown cannot be sparkle and beauteous without the diamond..." The city emblem shows the stupa at Wat Phra That Doi Suthep in its center. Below it are clouds representing the moderate climate in the mountains of northern Thailand. There is a nāga, the mythical snake said to be the source of the Ping River, rice stalks, which refer to the fertility of the land. Chiang Mai has a tropical savanna climate, tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and much lower than daytime highs; the maximum temperature recorded was 42.4 °C in May 2005. Cold and hot weather effects occur but cold effects last longer than hot effects and contribute to higher cold related motility risk among old people aged more than 85 years. A continuing environmental issue in Chiang Mai is the incidence of air pollution that occurs every year towards the end of the dry season between February and April.
In 1996, speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference—held in Chiang Mai that year—the Go
Vietnam Airlines is the flag carrier of Vietnam. The airline was founded in 1956 and established as a state-owned enterprise in April 1989. Vietnam Airlines is headquartered in Long Biên District, with hubs at Noi Bai International Airport and Tan Son Nhat International Airport; the airline flies to 64 destinations excluding codeshared services. From its inception until the early 1990s, Vietnam Airlines was a minor carrier within the aviation industry as it was hampered by a variety of factors including the socio-economic and political situation of the country. With the government's normalization of relations with the United States, the airline was able to expand, improve its products and services, modernize its ageing fleet. In 1996, the Vietnamese government brought together 20 service companies to form Vietnam Airlines Corporation, with the airline itself as the centrepiece. In 2010, the corporation was restructured into a limited liability company and renamed Vietnam Airlines Company Limited.
A seven-seat management board, members of which are appointed by the Vietnamese Prime Minister, oversees the company. As passenger transport constitutes its core activity, Vietnam Airlines plays a crucial role in the economic development of the country, it owns 100% of Vietnam Air Service Company – a regional airline in southern Vietnam, 70% of the low-cost carrier Jetstar Pacific Airlines, 49% of the Cambodian national airline Cambodia Angkor Air. In addition, the corporation earns revenue from airline catering and the maintenance and overhauling of aircraft through a number of its subsidiaries, including Vietnam Airlines Engineering Company and Vietnam Airlines Caterers; the company has diversified its investments in the aircraft-leasing and airport ground-servicing industries, is looking to manufacture aircraft components. It operates a cargo division, Vietnam Airlines Cargo. Vietnam Airlines became a member of SkyTeam in June 2010, making it the first Southeast Asian carrier to have joined that alliance.
Vietnam Airlines has its origins in January 1956, when it was established by the North Vietnamese government under the name Vietnam Civil Aviation following the nationalization of Gia Lam Airport. It was instituted. 666/TTg. The airline was created as part of the air force for civilian purposes with support from both the Soviet Union and China; this was due to an embargo that prohibited the airline from leasing and/or buying American technology or components. The airline's development and expansion was hampered by the Vietnam War. Following the war, its first international destination was Beijing, followed by Vientiane in 1976. During that year, the airline was known as General Department of Civil Aviation in Vietnam, began full operations. In 1978, another important destination of Vietnam Airlines was added, with flights offered to Bangkok; the late 1980s and early 1990s saw the expansion of the network to Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. In 1990, the company initiated discussions regarding the incorporation of Western-built aircraft into the fleet.
That year, the carrier had to cancel the acquisition of two Airbus A310s due to their use of US-manufactured engines. By July 1991, the airline struck a wet-lease agreement with Dutch lessor TransAvia; the aircraft involved was a Boeing 737-300. However, the aircraft was returned after the U. S. State Department pressured the Dutch lessor to remove the aircraft from Vietnam. Subsequently, Vietnam Airlines organized a similar but more complicated deal with TEA Basle, who spent the rest of 1991 negotiating a deal with US authorities. A solution stating that " must be positioned outside Vietnam, with no logo or lettering of Vietnam Airlines. On these conditions, it could operate on behalf of Vietnam Airlines". In December 1991, Cathay Pacific and Vietnam Airlines agreed on a 50–50 joint venture to operate between Hong Kong and Vietnam, as the airline's Tupolev Tu-134 fleet did not meet Kai Tak Airport's noise restrictions. In October 1992, the Boeing 737 was supplemented with an Airbus A310. However, a dispute with Bulgarian Jes Air over who should pay for the repairs after the aircraft sustained an engine failure led to its replacement with another A310 from GATX operated by Jes Air.
A similar dispute with United Technologies encouraged the airline to switch from Airbus to Boeing. Hence, a Boeing 767-200ER, leased from Ansett Worldwide Aviation Services, arrived in January 1993, a Royal Brunei Airlines Boeing 767-300ER, arrived the following year. In October 1993, the first Airbus A320-200 was incorporated over a two-year wet-lease contract with Air France. Vietnam Airlines by now had started discussions with Air France about a partnership, the French carrier agreed to lease its Airbuses to Vietnam Airlines, to provide customer support and pilot/crew training. By that time the route network had further expanded internationally, seeing the incorporation of destinations such as Paris, Seoul, Taipei and Melbourne. In 1993, the airline carried 1.06 million passengers. The airline became the flag carrier of Vietnam in 1993, after having completed a restructuring programme, started four years earlier. In that year, the airline split from the Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam and
Thai AirAsia is a joint venture of Malaysian low-fare airline AirAsia and Thailand's Asia Aviation. It serves AirAsia's scheduled domestic and international flights from Bangkok and other cities in Thailand. Thai AirAsia was once the only low-cost airline operating both domestic and international flights from Suvarnabhumi Airport. However, the airline transferred all operations in Bangkok from Suvarnabhumi Airport to Don Mueang International Airport effective 1 October 2012. Thai AirAsia launched operations on February 2004; the first flight of Thai AirAsia from Bangkok-Don Mueang to Hat Yai. On 15 February 2006 it was announced that Asia Aviation PLC, a registered Thai company, had taken Shin Corp's 50 percent stake in Thai AirAsia. Asia Aviation was a joint venture set up by Shin Corp. which held 49 percent of Asia Aviation's shares while 51 percent was held by Thai investor Sittichai Veerathammanoon. In May 2007, Thai AirAsia's management acquired 100 percent of Asia Aviation. Thai AirAsia is 55 percent owned by Asia Aviation and 45 percent owned by Malaysia-based AirAsia Group.
In June 2016 King Power purchased a US$225 million stake in Thai AirAsia. The purchase of 39 percent of holding company Asia Aviation makes King Power the second largest shareholder in Thai AirAsia; as of December 2018, the Thai AirAsia fleet consists of the following aircraft: In June 2016, Tassapol Bijleveld, chief executive of AAV, said that, "Thai AirAsia will continue to grow and invest as planned for in 2016, accepting delivery of 51 new aircraft which, together with our existing fleet, will fly our estimated 17 million passengers to various destinations across the region...". The airline sponsors of Thailand national football team, Leicester City, Queens Park Rangers, the Thai Fight Muay Thai, the Thai football teams Bangkok Glass, Bangkok United, Buriram United, SCG Muangthong United, Super Power Samut Prakan, BEC Tero Sasana, Sisaket, Samut Prakan City, Rajnavy FC, Ubon UMT United, Air Force Central, Port, TTM Customs, Udon Thani, Nakhon Ratchasima, Gulf Saraburi, Khon Kaen, Samut Prakan CUTD, Nakhon Phanom, Loei City, Phayao, Phuket City, The referee of FAT, Coke Cup and Thailand Volleyball Association.
Thai AirAsia has endorsement deals with the following: Mum Jokmok Pleumjit Thinkaow Aed Carabao Nadech Kugimiya AirAsia King Power