Buganda is a subnational kingdom within Uganda. The kingdom of the Ganda people, Buganda is the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda, comprising all of Uganda's Central Region, including the Ugandan capital Kampala; the 6 million Baganda make up the largest Ugandan ethnic group, representing 16.9% of Uganda's population. Buganda has a extensive history. Unified in the 14th century under the first king Kato Kintu, the founder of Buganda's Kintu Dynasty, Buganda grew to become one of the largest and most powerful states in East Africa during the eighteenth and 19th centuries. During the Scramble for Africa, following unsuccessful attempts to retain its independence against British imperialism, Buganda became the centre of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. Under British rule, many Baganda acquired status as colonial administrators, Buganda became a major producer of cotton and coffee. Following Uganda's independence in 1962, the kingdom was abolished by Uganda's first Prime Minister Milton Obote in 1966.
Following years of disturbance under Obote and dictator Idi Amin, as well as several years of internal divisions among Uganda's ruling National Resistance Movement under Yoweri Museveni, the President of Uganda since 1986, the kingdom was restored in 1993. Buganda is now a kingdom monarchy with a large degree of autonomy from the Ugandan state, although tensions between the kingdom and the Ugandan government continue to be a defining feature of Ugandan politics. Since the restoration of the kingdom in 1993, the king of Buganda, known as the Kabaka, has been Muwenda Mutebi II, he is recognised as the 36th Kabaka of Buganda. The current queen, known as the Nnabagereka, is Queen Sylvia Nagginda. Buganda's boundaries are marked by Lake Victoria to the south, the River Nile to the east, Lake Kyoga to the north and River Kafu to the northwest; the Luganda language is spoken in Uganda and is the most popular second language in Uganda along with English. In literature and common discourse, Buganda is referred to as Central Uganda.
Ganda villages, sometimes as large as forty to fifty homes, were located on hillsides, leaving hilltops and swampy lowlands uninhabited, to be used for crops or pastures. Early Ganda villages surrounded the home of a chief or headman, which provided a common meeting ground for members of the village; the chief collected tribute from his subjects, provided tribute to the Kabaka, the ruler of the kingdom, distributed resources among his subjects, maintained order, reinforced social solidarity through his decision-making skills. During the late 19th century, Ganda villages became more dispersed as the role of the chiefs diminished in response to political turmoil, population migration, occasional popular revolts. Buganda is a constitutional monarchy; the current Head of State is the Kabaka, Muwenda Mutebi II who has reigned since the restoration of the kingdom in 1993. The Head of Government is the Katikkiro Charles Mayiga, appointed by the Kabaka in 2013; the Parliament of Uganda is the Lukiiko.
Prior to the Buganda Agreement of 1900, Buganda was an absolute monarchy. Under the Kabaka, there were three types of chief: bakungu chiefs, who were appointed directly by the Kabaka; the 1900 agreement, however enhanced the power of the Lukiiko at the expense of the Kabaka. While Buganda retained self-government, as one part of the larger Uganda Protectorate, it would henceforth be subject to formal British overrule; the Buganda Agreement of 1955 continued the transition from absolute to constitutional monarchy. During Uganda independence, the constitutional position of Buganda was a major issue. Discussions as part of the Uganda Relationships Commission resulted in the Buganda Agreement of 1961 and the first Constitution of Uganda, as part of which Buganda would be able to exercise a high degree of autonomy; this position was reversed during 1966–67, before the Kabakaship and Lukiiko were disestablished altogether in 1967 before being restored in 1993. Before the arrival of Europeans in the region, Buganda was an expanding, "embryonic empire".
It built fleets of war canoes from the 1840s to take control of Lake Victoria and the surrounding regions, subjugated several weaker peoples. These subject peoples were exploited for cheap labor; the first Europeans to enter the Kingdom of Buganda were British explorers John Hanning Speke and Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton while searching for the headwaters of the Nile in 1862. They found a organized political system, marred, however, by the ongoing practice of mass human sacrifice estimated at 800 persons annually; the explorer and journalist Henry Morton Stanley visited Buganda in 1875 and provided an estimate of Buganda troop strength. Stanley counted a fleet of war canoes. At Buganda's capital, Stanley found a well-ordered town surrounding the king's palace, situated atop a commanding hill. A tall cane fence surrounded the palace compound, filled with grass-roofed houses, meeting halls, storage buildings. Thronging the grounds were foreign ambassadors. Seeking audiences, chiefs going to the royal advisory council, messengers running errands, a corps of young pages.
He estimated the population of the kingdom at 2,000
Regions of Uganda
The regions of Uganda are known as Central, Western and Northern. These four regions are in turn divided into districts. There were 56 districts in 2002, which expanded into 111 districts plus one city by 2010; the national government interacts directly with the districts, so regions do not have any definite role in administration. Under British rule before 1962, the regions were functional administrative units and were called provinces, headed by a Provincial Commissioner; the central region is the kingdom of Buganda, which had a semi-autonomous government headed by the Kabaka. The equivalent of the Provincial Commissioner for Buganda was called the Resident. At Uganda's 2002 census, the Central region contained 27 percent of the country's population, the Western region contained 26 percent, Eastern region 25 percent, the Northern region had 22 percent; the country's population density by region was 226 persons per square kilometre in the Eastern region, 176 per square kilometre in the Central region, 126 per square kilometre in the Western region, 65 per square kilometre in the Northern region.
In 2002 3 million people, or 12 percent of the country's population, lived in urban areas. The Central region had 54 percent of the urban population, the Northern region 17 percent, the Western region 14 percent, the Eastern region 13 percent. Counties of Uganda Sub-counties of Uganda Uganda Local Governments Association ISO 3166-2:UG
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, historical, or cultural; the heritage of the French people is of Celtic and Germanic origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls, Ligures, Iberians, Franks and Norsemen. France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Catalan, Corsican, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. Arabic is widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century. Modern French society is a melting pot. From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration consisting of Arab-Berbers, Sub-Saharan Africans and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms.
Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration, French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law. In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies, in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland, the United States, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").
The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries; the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves; the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.
French people are the descendants of Gauls and Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples, as well as Bretons, Aquitanians and Germanic people arriving at the beginning of the Frankish Empire such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, Germanic groups such as the Vikings, who settled in Normandy and to a lesser extent in Brittany in the 9th century. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks; the Franks were a Germanic tribe. In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes, their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE, non-Celtic peoples including the Ligures, Aquitanians in Aquitaine. Some in the northern and eastern areas, may have had Germanic admixture. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58–51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar. Over the next six centuries, the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture.
In the late Roman era, in addition to colonists from elsewhere in the Empire and Gaulish natives, Gallia became home to some in-migrating populations of Germanic and Scythian origin, such as Alans. The Gaulish language is thought to have survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanizat
Saint Mary's Cathedral Rubaga referred to as Rubaga Cathedral, is the parent cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala, the oldest Roman Catholic diocese in Uganda. It is the home church of Archbishop of Kampala; the Cathedral is located on Lubaga Hill, in Lubaga Division, in the western part of the city of Kampala, the capital of Uganda and the largest city in that East African country. Lubaga is located 3 kilometres, by road, west of the central business district of Kampala; the coordinates of Rubaga Cathedral are:0°18'09.0"N, 32°33'08.0"E. Kabaka Mutesa I Mukaabya Walugembe, the 30th Kabaka of Buganda, who reigned from 1856 until 1884, once maintained a palace on Lubaga Hill; when fire destroyed the palace, he relocated to Mengo Hill. In 1889, his son Mwanga II of Buganda, donated that land to the French Catholic missionaries who were setting up the nascent Catholic church in the country, at that time. In 1914 the missionaries began constructing a modern cathedral at Lubaga. Construction was completed in 1925 and St. Mary's Cathedral Rubaga was consecrated on 31 December 1925.
The remains of the late Archbishop Joseph Kiwanka, the first African Catholic Bishop and the first African Archbishop of Kampala Diocese, are housed inside the cathedral. Rubaga Cathedral, The Seat of the Catholic Church In Uganda
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala
The Archdiocese of Kampala is the Metropolitan See for the Roman Catholic Ecclesiastical province of Kampala in Uganda. The present Kampala Archdiocese is the result of territorial changes: Victoria Nyanza Vicariate, it was established by the Holy See in 1883 and was entrusted to the Missionaries of Africa known as the White Fathers. Rubaga became the seat of the Bishop. Upper Nile Vicariate. On July 13, 1894, the Holy See erected the Upper Nile Vicariate dividing it from Victoria Nyanza Vicariate and entrusted it to the Mill Hill Missionaries. Nsambya became the seat of the Bishop; the name of Vicariate Nyanza Vicariate was changed to Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Victoria Nyanza. Vicariate of Uganda. After the erection of vicariates in territories beyond the Nile on the southern side, the name of Northern Victoria Nyanza Vicariate became the Vicariate of Uganda on January 15, 1915. Vicariate of Kampala. On June 10, 1948, the name of Upper Nile Vicariate was changed to the Vicariate of Kampala which became the diocese of Kampala in 1953.
Archdiocese of Rubaga. The Catholic hierarchy in Uganda was established on March 25, 1953; the former Vicariates of Uganda became the dioceses of Uganda. Rubaga became the Archdiocese with 5 suffragan dioceses namely: Gulu, Kampala and Tororo Archdiocese of Kampala. On August 5, 1966, the Holy See joined together what was part the Diocese of Kampala and the Archdiocese of Rubaga and created the Archdiocese of Kampala, it was covering most parts of Central Uganda. Since, three other new dioceses have been carved out of it: Kiyinda-Mityana, Kasana-Luweero and Lugazi. Ordinary: The Most Reverend Dr Cyprian Kizito Lwanga Size: 3.644.75 square km Total Population: 3,592,053 Catholic Population: 1,505,053 Parishes: 51 Sub-stations 389 Number of Priests: 324 Diocesan Priests: 261 Priests belonging to Religious Inst. 63 Professed non-Priest Religious: 186 Professed Women Religious 410 Catechists 428 Number of Seminarians: 173 Catholic Universities 1 Vocational Institutions 5 Catholic-Founded Secondary schools 45 Catholic-Founded Primary Schools 222 Catholic Hospitals 4 Health Centers and Dispensaries 20 When the Catholic White Fathers came calling in 1879, they were allocated land near Lubaga Hill.
In 1889, the reigning monarch, Mwanga II of Buganda, donated them land on Lubaga Hill itself where they built Saint Mary's Cathedral Rubaga, beginning in 1914 until 1925, with the assistance of monetary contributions from Roman Catholic congregations abroad. The early missionaries had problems pronouncing the word Lubaga, they instead pronounced it with an "r" as in Rubaga. In Luganda, there is no word that starts with an "R"; the missionaries built a hospital and a nursing school on the hill. Today, Lubaga remains the seat of the headquarters of the Catholic Church in Uganda, it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala. The remains of the first African Catholic bishop in Uganda, Bishop Joseph Nakabaale Kiwanuka and those of the first African Catholic Cardinal, Cardinal Emmanuel Kiwanuka Nsubuga are kept in the Catholic Mission on the hill. St. Mary's Cathedral Rubaga Administrative centre of the Kampala Archdiocese Residence of the Archbishop of Kampala Archdiocese Lubaga Hospital: A 300-bed community hospital administered by the Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala Lubaga Nurses School Pope Paul VI Memorial Community Center Headquarters of Lubaga Division: One of the five administrative divisions of the city of Kampala.
Lubaga Campus of Uganda Martyrs University, whose main campus is at Nkozi in Mpigi District. Kisubi Mapeera Secondary School The seat of the Archbishop is Saint Mary’s Cathedral in Lubaga Division, in western Kampala. There is a Minor Basilica, the Basilica of the Uganda Martyrs at Namugongo in Wakiso District. Other important churches in the Archdiocese include Lady of Africa Church in Mbuya and the Former Cathedral of Saint Peter at Nsambya and Munyonyo Martyrs Shrine Vicars Apostolic of Northern Victoria Nyanza Bishop Henri Streicher, M. Afr.: 1897-1915Vicars Apostolic of Uganda Bishop Henri Streicher, M. Afr.: 1915-1933 Bishop Edouard Michaud, M. Afr.: 1933-1945 Archbishop Louis Joseph Cabana, M. Afr.: 1947-1953Metropolitan Archbishops of Rubaga Archbishop Louis Joseph Cabana, M. Afr.: 1953-1960 Archbishop Joseph Kiwánuka, M. Afr.: 1960-1966Metropolitan Archbishops of Kampala Cardinal Emmanuel Nsubuga: 1966 - 1990 Cardinal Emmanuel Wamala: 1990 - 2006 Archbishop Cyprian Kizito Lwanga: 2006–Present GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy 0°18′09″N 32°33′08″E
A palace is a grand residence a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences. Most European languages have a version of the term, many use it for a wider range of buildings than English. In many parts of Europe, the equivalent term is applied to large private houses in cities of the aristocracy. Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, hotels, or office buildings; the word is sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions, such as a movie palace. The word palace comes from Old French palais, from Latin Palātium, the name of one of the seven hills of Rome; the original "palaces" on the Palatine Hill were the seat of the imperial power while the "capitol" on the Capitoline Hill was the religious nucleus of Rome. Long after the city grew to the seven hills the Palatine remained a desirable residential area.
Emperor Caesar Augustus lived there in a purposely modest house only set apart from his neighbours by the two laurel trees planted to flank the front door as a sign of triumph granted by the Senate. His descendants Nero, with his "Golden House", enlarged the house and grounds over and over until it took up the hill top; the word Palātium came to mean the residence of the emperor rather than the neighbourhood on top of the hill. Palace meaning "government" can be recognized in a remark of Paul the Deacon. AD 790 and describing events of the 660s: "When Grimuald set out for Beneventum, he entrusted his palace to Lupus". At the same time, Charlemagne was consciously reviving the Roman expression in his "palace" at Aachen, of which only his chapel remains. In the 9th century, the "palace" indicated the housing of the government too, the travelling Charlemagne built fourteen. In the early Middle Ages, the palas was that part of an imperial palace, that housed the Great Hall, where affairs of state were conducted.
In the Holy Roman Empire the powerful independent Electors came to be housed in palaces. This has been used as evidence that power was distributed in the Empire. In modern times, the term has been applied by archaeologists and historians to large structures that housed combined ruler and bureaucracy in "palace cultures". In informal usage, a "palace" can be extended to a grand residence of any kind; the earliest known palaces were the royal residences of the Egyptian Pharaohs at Thebes, featuring an outer wall enclosing labyrinthine buildings and courtyards. Other ancient palaces include the Assyrian palaces at Nimrud and Nineveh, the Minoan palace at Knossos, the Persian palaces at Persepolis and Susa. Palaces in East Asia, such as the imperial palaces of Japan, Vietnam, Thailand and large wooden structures in China's Forbidden City, consist of many low pavilions surrounded by vast, walled gardens, in contrast to the single building palaces of Medieval Western Europe; the Brazilian new capital, Brasília, hosts modern palaces, most designed by the city's architect Oscar Niemeyer.
The Alvorada Palace is the official residence of Brazil's president. The Planalto Palace is the official workplace; the Jaburu Palace is the official residence of Brazil's vice-president. Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of the Portuguese Empire and the Empire of Brazil, houses numerous royal and imperial palaces as the Imperial Palace of São Cristóvão, former official residence of the Brazil's Emperors, the Paço Imperial, its official workplace and the Guanabara Palace, former residence of Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. Besides palaces of the nobility and aristocracy; the city of Petropolis, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, is known for its palaces of the imperial period such as the Petrópolis Palace and the Grão-Pará Palace. In Canada, Government House is a title given to the official residences of the Canadian monarchy and various viceroys. Though not universal, in most cases the title is the building's sole name; the use of the term Government House is an inherited custom from the British Empire, where there were and are many government houses.
Rideau Hall is, since 1867, the official residence in Ottawa of both the Canadian monarch and his or her representative, the Governor General of Canada, has been described as "Canada's house". It stands in Canada's capital on a 0.36 km2 estate at 1 Sussex Drive, with the main building consisting of 175 rooms across 9,500 m2, 27 outbuildings around the grounds. While the equivalent building in many countries has a prominent, central place in the national capital, Rideau Hall's site is unobtrusive within Ottawa, giving it more the character of a private home. Along with Rideau Hall, the Citadelle of Quebec known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General, it is located atop adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, Quebec. The citadel is the oldest military building in Canada, forms part of the fortifications of Quebec City
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send"; the word was used in light of its biblical usage. The term is most used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology. A Christian missionary can be defined as "one, to witness across cultures"; the Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement". Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. In the Bible, Jesus is recorded as instructing the apostles to make disciples of all nations; this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The Christian Church expanded throughout the Roman Empire in New Testament times and is said by tradition to have reached further, to Persia and to India.
During the Middle Ages, the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the European boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England. In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and in other Western colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. Emblematic in many respects is Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China from 1582, peaceful and non-violent; these missionary movements should be distinguished from others, such as the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, which were arguably compromised in their motivation by designs of military conquest.
Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel. As the Catholic Church organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders, some specializing in it, undertook most missionary work in the era after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Over time, the Holy See established a normalized Church structure in the mission areas starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. At a stage of development these foundations are raised to regular diocesan status with a local bishops appointed. On a global front, these processes were accelerated in the 1960s, in part accompanying political decolonization. In some regions, they are still in course. Just as the Bishop of Rome had jurisdiction in territories considered to be in the Eastern sphere, so the missionary efforts of the two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius were conducted in relation to the West rather than the East, though the field of activity was central Europe.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople undertook vigorous missionary work under the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. This had lasting effects and in some sense is at the origin of the present relations of Constantinople with some sixteen Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; the Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after the mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century. Orthodox missionaries worked among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Under the Russian Empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Moldova, Estonia and China.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century; the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, resulting in the establishment of many new dioceses in the diaspora, from which numerous converts have been made in Eastern Europe, North America, Oceania. Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers