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Lublin

Lublin is the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 339,682. Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is about 170 km to the southeast of Warsaw by road. One of the events that contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo in 1385. Lublin thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism. At the turn of the century, Lublin was recognized for hosting a number of outstanding poets and historians of the epoch.

Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the royal election. In 1578, Lublin was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, for centuries, the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with Kraków, Poznań, Lwów. Although Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World War II, its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved; the district is one of Poland's official national historic monuments, as designated May 16, 2007, tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland. The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment, the analytical Financial Times Group has found Lublin to be one of the best cities for business in Poland; the Foreign Direct Investment ranking placed Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category.

Lublin is noted for a high standard of living. Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin and in its environs in the sixth to seventh centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the sixth century were discovered in the center of today's Lublin on Czwartek Hill; the period of the early Middle Ages was marked by intensification of habitation in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centered around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, one of the main centers of Lendians tribe; when the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the center shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin in the early medieval period. One of them was most erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century; the castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but was quite present from the start of the 12th or 10th century.

The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction, it was ruled by Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302. Lublin was founded as a town by Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of prince Bolesław V the Chaste. Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dated to 1335–1370 exists to this day. In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between Poland and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries.

In 1474, the area around Lublin was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the town grew rapidly; the largest trade fairs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Lublin. During the 16th century, the noble parliaments were held in Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania; the Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin was one of the most influential cities of the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland; some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578, the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland region, was established in Lublin. Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city.

One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin around this time. Jews established a respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue and education centre and built the Grodzka Gate

Cape Fear Skyway

The Cape Fear Skyway is a proposed limited access toll road and bridge to be built in North Carolina, United States, that would pass through portions of New Hanover and Brunswick counties. The proposed 9.5-mile route connects the south-end of Wilmington to Brunswick County, by crossing over the Cape Fear River. It will have a clearance of 225 ft to allow large tankers or cruise ships to pass underneath and will most be a cable-stayed bridge. On the deck of the bridge, it will support a maximum of 6 lanes across; the road extension will begin at Independence Blvd and extend to the proposed southern extension of Interstate 140. It is a $555 million to $1.18 billion USD project that would have begun sometime after 2015. In May 2013, the North Carolina General Assembly rescinded the project's authorization. However, NCDOT states that planning and environmental studies are funded in the 2016-2025 State Transportation Improvement Plan. A similar project of undetermined timing remains under discussion in Wilmington, but NCDOT says construction will not start before 2029.

As of August 2019, NCDOT has halted design and planning of the bridge, putting the project on hold indefinitely. Transport portal Engineering portal United States portal "North Carolina Turnpike Authority advances four pikes". Toll Roads News. February 17, 2005. Archived from the original on November 22, 2005. Pope, Terry. "Toll bridge for county". The State Port Pilot. Cape Fear Skyway Project #: U-4738 Cape Fear Skyway

John J. Carter

John Joyce Carter was an Irish officer who fought in the American Civil War. Carter received the United States' highest award for bravery during combat, the Medal of Honor, for his action during the Battle of Antietam in Maryland on 17 September 1862, he was honored with the award on 10 September 1897. Carter was born on 16 June 1842 in Westport and emigrated to the United States in 1845, he enlisted into the 33rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment at Nunda, New York in May 1861, commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in June 1862. Following his Medal of Honor action, he mustered out with the 33rd NY Infantry in June 1863. After a short time as a civilian, he was appointed as a Captain of the 1st New York Veteran Cavalry in October 1863, he again mustered out with his regiment in July 1865. Following the war Carter resided in Pennsylvania and pursued various business ventures including a clothing store in Titusville and an oil company called Carter Oil which became known as Exxon. Carter died on 3 January 1917 and his remains are interred at the Woodlawn Cemetery in Titusville, Pennsylvania.

While in command of a detached company, seeing his regiment thrown into confusion by a charge of the enemy, without orders made a countercharge upon the attacking column and checked the assault. Penetrated within the enemy's lines at night and obtained valuable information. List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F