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Luca Signorelli

Luca Signorelli was an Italian Renaissance painter, noted in particular for his ability as a draftsman and his use of foreshortening. His massive frescoes of the Last Judgment in Orvieto Cathedral are considered his masterpiece, he was born Luca d'Egidio di Ventura in Tuscany. The precise date of his birth is uncertain, but birth dates between 1441 and 1445 have been proposed, he died in 1523 in his native Cortona. He was between seventy-eight and eighty-two years old, he is considered to be part of the Tuscan school, although he worked extensively in Umbria and Rome. His first impressions of art seem to originate in Perugia — including the styles of artists such as Benedetto Bonfigli, Fiorenzo di Lorenzo and Pinturicchio. Lazzaro Vasari, the great-grandfather of art historian Giorgio Vasari, was Luca's maternal uncle. According to Giorgio Vasari, Lazzaro had Luca apprenticed to Piero della Francesca. In 1472 the young artist was painting at Arezzo, in 1474 at Città di Castello, he presented to Lorenzo de' Medici a work, School of Pan.

Janet Ross and her husband Henry discovered the painting in Florence circa 1870 and subsequently sold it to the Kaiser Frederick Museum in Berlin, though it was destroyed by allied bombs in WWII. The painting's subject is the same as that which he painted on the wall of the Petrucci palace in Siena—the principal figures being Pan himself, Echo, a man reclining on the ground, two listening shepherds. Additionally, Signorelli executed various sacred pictures, displaying a study of Botticelli and Lippo Lippi. Pope Sixtus IV commissioned Signorelli to paint some frescoes, now very dim, in the shrine of Loreto—Angels, Doctors of the Church, Apostles, the Incredulity of Thomas and the Conversion of St Paul, he executed a single fresco in the Sistine Chapel in Rome, the Testament and Death of Moses, although most of it has been attributed to Bartolomeo della Gatta. In 1484 he returned to his native Cortona. In the Monastery of Monte Oliveto Maggiore in Siena he painted eight frescoes, forming part of a vast series depicting the life of St. Benedict.

In the palace of Pandolfo Petrucci he worked upon various classic or mythological subjects, including the aforementioned School of Pan. Signorelli remained healthy until his death, continuing to paint and accept commissions into his final year, including the altarpiece of the Church at Foiano. From the Monastery of Monte Oliveto Maggiore near Siena, Signorelli went to Orvieto and produced his masterpiece, the frescoes in the chapel of S. Brizio, in the cathedral; the Cappella Nuova contained two groups of images in the vaulting over the altar, the Judging Christ and the Prophets, murals begun by Fra Angelico fifty years prior. The works of Signorelli in the vaults and on the upper walls represent the events surrounding the Apocalypse and the Last Judgment; the events of the Apocalypse fill the space. The Apocalyptic events begin with the Preaching of Antichrist, proceed to the Doomsday and The Resurrection of the Flesh, they occupy each of them a single continuous narrative composition. In one of them, the Antichrist, after his portents and impious glories, falls headlong from the sky, crashing down into an innumerable crowd of men and women.

The events of the Last Judgment fill the walls around the altar. The series is composed of Paradise, the Elect and the Condemned, the Resurrection of the Dead, the Destruction of the Reprobate. To Angelico's ceiling, which contained the Judging Christ and the Prophets led by John the Baptist, Signorelli added the Madonna leading the Apostles, the Patriarchs, Doctors of the Church and Virgins; the unifying factor of the paintings is found in the scripture readings in the Roman liturgies for the Feast of All Saints and Advent. Stylistically, the daring and terrible inventions, with their powerful treatment of the nude and arduous foreshortenings, were striking in their day. Michelangelo is claimed to have borrowed, in his own fresco at the Sistine Chapel wall, some of Signorelli's figures or combinations; the lower walls, in an unprecedented style, are richly decorated with a great deal of subsidiary work connected with Dante the first eleven books of his Purgatorio, with the poets and legends of antiquity.

A Pietà composition in a niche in the lower wall contains explicit references to two important Orvietan martyr saints, San Pietro Parenzo and San Faustino. The contract for Signorelli's work is still on record in the archives of the Cathedral of Orvieto, he undertook the task of completing the ceiling on April 5, 1499 for 200 ducats, as well as 600 ducats for the walls, along with lodging, a monthly payment of two measures of wine and two quarters of corn. The contract directed Signorelli to consult the Masters of the Sacred Page for theological matters; this is the first such recorded instance of an artist receiving theological advice, although art historians believe such discussions were routine. Signorelli's first stay in Orvieto lasted no more than two years. In 1502 he returned to Cortona returning to Orvieto to continue the lower walls, he painted a dead Christ, with Mary Magdalene, the Virgin Mary, the local martyr Saints Pietro Parenzo and Faustino. The figure of the dead Christ, according to Vasari, is the image of Signorelli's son Anton

Outer Delhi (Lok Sabha constituency)

Outer Delhi Lok Sabha constituency was a Lok Sabha constituency in the Indian national capital territory of Delhi. It was one of the largest constituencies not only in Delhi but in the country, it was abolished in 2008. From 1966–93, Outer Delhi Lok Sabha constituency comprised the following Delhi Metropolitan Council segments: Shakur Basti Rampura Bawana Najafgarh Madipur Palam Mehrauli TughlaqabadFrom 1993–2008, it comprised the following Delhi Vidhan Sabha segments: Madipur Tri Nagar Shakurbasti Shalimar Bagh Badli Sahibabad Daulatpur Bawana Sultanpur Majra Mangolpuri Vishnu Garden Hastsal Najafgarh Nasirpur Palam Mahipalpur Mehrauli Saket Dr. Ambedkar Nagar Tughlakabad Badarpur Malviya Nagar Janak Puri Narela Bhalswa Jahangirpur List of former constituencies of the Lok Sabha North West Delhi

Sacred cow (idiom)

Sacred cow is an idiom, a figurative reference to sacred cows in some religions. This idiom is thought to originate in American English, although similar or identical idioms occur in many other languages; the idiom is based on the popular understanding of the elevated place of cows in Hinduism and appears to have emerged in America in the late 19th century. The reverence for cows in the traditionally agrarian Vedic Hindu society stems from the reluctance to harm an animal whose milk humans consume after being weaned off the mother's milk. In Jewish tradition, there is a similar moral stigma against cooking veal in cows milk. A literal sacred cow or sacred bull is an actual cow or bull, treated with sincere respect. A figurative sacred cow is a figure of speech for something considered immune from question or criticism unreasonably so. One writer has suggested that there is an element of paradox in the concept of respect for a sacred cow, as illustrated in a comment about the novelist V. S. Naipaul: "V. S. Naipaul... has the ability to distinguish the death of an ordinary ox, being of concern to no one, may be put out of its agony, from that of a sacred cow, which must be solicitously guarded so that it can die its agonizing death without any interference."The motto of the satirical magazine The Realist was "Irreverence is our only sacred cow".

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