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Lucasfilm

Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television production company, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company; the studio is best known for creating and producing the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises, as well as its leadership in developing special effects and computer animation for film. Lucasfilm was founded by filmmaker George Lucas in 1971 in California. Disney acquired Lucasfilm in December 2012 for $1.855 billion in stock. Lucasfilm was founded by filmmaker George Lucas in 1971, incorporated as Lucasfilm Ltd. on September 12, 1977. In the mid-1970s, the company's offices were located on the Universal Studios Lot. Lucas founded The Star Wars Corporation, Inc. as a subsidiary to control various legal and financial aspects of Star Wars, including copyright, sequel and merchandising rights. It produced the 1978 Star Wars Holiday Special for 20th Century Fox Television; that year, Lucas hired Los Angeles-based real-estate specialist Charles Weber to manage the company, telling him that he could keep the job as long as he made money.

Lucas wanted the focus of the company to be making independent films, but the company became enlarged from five employees to 100, increasing in middle management and running up costs. In 1980, after Weber asked Lucas for $50 million to invest in other companies and suggested that they sell Skywalker Ranch to do so, Lucas fired Weber and had to let half of the Los Angeles staff go. By the same year, the corporate subsidiary had been discontinued and its business was absorbed into the various divisions of Lucasfilm. In 2005, Lucasfilm opened a studio in Singapore. In January 2012, Lucas announced his retirement from producing large-scale blockbuster films and instead re-focusing his career on smaller, independently budgeted features. In June 2012, it was announced that producer Kathleen Kennedy, a long-term collaborator with Steven Spielberg and a producer of the Indiana Jones films, had been appointed as co-chair of Lucasfilm Ltd, it was reported that Kennedy would work alongside Lucas, who would remain chief executive and serve as co-chairman for at least one year, after which she would succeed him as the company's chairperson, which she did in June 2013.

On July 8, 2012, Lucasfilm's marketing and licensing units moved into the new Letterman Digital Arts Center located in the Presidio in San Francisco. It shares the complex with Industrial Magic. Lucasfilm had planned an expansion at Skywalker Ranch in Marin County, but shelved the plan in 2012 due to opposition from neighbors. However, it still plans to expand elsewhere. Skywalker Sound remains the only Lucasfilm division based at Skywalker Ranch. On September 5, 2012, Micheline Chau, who served as president and COO of Lucasfilm for two decades, announced that she was retiring. With her departure, senior executives for each of the Lucasfilm divisions will report directly to Kathleen Kennedy. Chau was credited with keeping the Lucasfilm and Star Wars brands strong through animation spin-offs and licensing initiatives. Discussions relating to the possibility of The Walt Disney Company signing a distribution deal with Lucasfilm began in May 2011, after a meeting that George Lucas had with Disney CEO Bob Iger during the inauguration of the Star Tours – The Adventures Continue attraction.

Lucas told Iger he was considering retirement and planned to sell the company, as well as the Star Wars franchise. On October 30, 2012, Disney announced a deal to acquire Lucasfilm for $4.05 billion, with half in cash and half in shares of Disney stock. Lucasfilm had collaborated with the company's Walt Disney Imagineering division to create theme park attractions centered on Star Wars and Indiana Jones for various Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide. Kathleen Kennedy, co-chairman of Lucasfilm, became president of Lucasfilm, reporting to Walt Disney Studios Chairman Alan Horn. Additionally she serves as the brand manager for Star Wars, working directly with Disney's global lines of business to build, further integrate, maximize the value of this global franchise. Kennedy serves as producer on new Star Wars feature films, with George Lucas announced as serving as creative consultant; the company announced the future release of new Star Wars films, starting with Star Wars: Episode VII – The Force Awakens in 2015.

Under the deal, Disney acquired ownership of Star Wars, Indiana Jones, Lucasfilm's operating businesses in live-action film production, consumer products, video games, visual effects, audio post-production. Disney acquired Lucasfilm's portfolio of entertainment technologies; the intent was for Lucasfilm employees to remain in their current locations. Star Wars merchandising would begin under Disney in the fiscal year 2014. Starting with Star Wars Rebels, certain products will be co-branded with the Disney name, akin to what Disney has done with Pixar. On December 4, 2012, the Disney-Lucasfilm merger was approved by the Federal Trade Commission, allowing the acquisition to be finalized without dealing with antitrust problems. On December 18, 2012, Lucasfilm Ltd. converted from a corporation to a limited liability company, changing its name to Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC in the process. On December 21, 2012, Disney completed the acquisition and Lucasfilm became a wholly owned subsidiary of Disney. Iger confirmed that Lucasfilm had plans to have standalone Star Wars films released sometime during the six-year period the sequel trilogy is being released, with Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg each developing a title.

In April 2013, the development arm of the LucasArts division was closed down and most of its staf

Isma'il Pasha

Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent, was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing in industrial and economic development and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa, his philosophy can be glimpsed at in a statement that he made in 1879: "My country is no longer in Africa. It is therefore natural for us to abandon our former ways and to adopt a new system adapted to our social conditions". In 1867 he secured Ottoman and international recognition for his title of Khedive in preference to Wāli, used by his predecessors in the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt and Sudan. However, Isma'il's policies placed the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt and Sudan in severe debt, leading to the sale of the country's shares in the Suez Canal Company to the United Kingdom, his ultimate toppling from power at British hands.

The city of Ismailia is named in his honor. The second of the three sons of Ibrahim Pasha, the grandson of Muhammad Ali, Ismail, of Albanian descent, was born in Cairo at Al Musafir Khana Palace, his mother was third wife of his father. She was a sister of Valide Sultan Pertevniyal. Pertevniyal was a wife of Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire and mother of Abdülaziz I. After receiving a European education in Paris where he attended the École d'état-major, he returned home, on the death of his elder brother became heir to his uncle, Said I, the Wāli and Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. Said, who conceived his safety to lie in ridding himself as much as possible of the presence of his nephew, employed him in the next few years on missions abroad, notably to the Pope, the Emperor Napoleon III, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. In 1861 he was dispatched at the head of an army of 18,000 to quell an insurrection in Sudan, a mission which he accomplished. After the death of Said, Ismail has proclaimed Khedive on 19 January 1863, though the Ottoman Empire and the other Great Powers recognized him only as Wāli.

Like all Egyptian and Sudanese rulers since his grandfather Muhammad Ali Pasha, he claimed the higher title of Khedive, which the Ottoman Porte had refused to sanction. In 1867, Isma'il succeeded in persuading the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz to grant a firman recognizing him as Khedive in exchange for an increase in the tribute. Another firman changed the law of succession to direct descent from father to son rather than brother to brother, a further decree in 1873 confirmed the virtual independence of the Khedivate of Egypt from the Porte. Ismail spent heavily—some went to bribes to Constantinople to facilitate his reform projects. Much of the money went for the construction of the Suez Canal. About £46 million went to construct 8,000 miles of irrigation canals to help modernize agriculture, he built over 900 miles railroads, 5,000 miles of telegraph lines, 400 bridges, harbor works in Alexandria, 4,500 schools. The national debt rose from £3 million to about £90 million, in a country with 5 million population and an annual treasury revenue of about £8 million.

Ismail launched vast schemes of internal reform on the scale of his grandfather, remodeling the customs system and the post office, stimulating commercial progress, creating a sugar industry, building the cotton industry, building palaces, entertaining lavishly, maintaining an opera and a theatre. Over one hundred thousand Europeans came to work in Cairo, where he facilitated building an entire new quarter of the city on its western edge modeled on Paris. Alexandria was improved, he launched a vast railroad building project that saw Egypt and Sudan rise from having none to the most railways per habitable kilometer of any nation in the world. Education reform increased the education budget more than tenfold. Traditional primary and secondary schools were expanded and specialized technical and vocational schools were created. Students were once again sent to Europe to study on educational missions, encouraging the formation of a Western-trained elite. A national library was founded in 1871. One of his most significant achievements was to establish an assembly of delegates in November 1866.

Though this was supposed to be a purely advisory body, its members came to have an important influence on governmental affairs. Village headmen dominated the assembly and came to exert increasing political and economic influence over the countryside and the central government; this was shown in 1876 when the assembly persuaded Ismail to reinstate the law that allowed landownership and tax privileges to persons paying six years' land tax in advance. Ismail tried to reduce slave trading and with the advice and financial backing of Yacoub Cattaui extended Egypt's rule in Africa. In 1874 he annexed Darfur, but was prevented from expanding into Ethiopia after his army was defeated by Emperor Yohannes IV, first at Gundat on 16 November 1875, again at Gura in March of the following year. Ismail dreamt of expanding his realm across the entire Nile including its diverse sources, over the whole African coast of the Red Sea. This, together with rumours about rich raw material and fertile soil, led Ismail to expansive policies directed against Ethiopia under the Emperor Yohannes IV.

In 1865 the Ottoman Sublime Porte ceded the Ottoman Province of Habesh (with Massawa and Suakin

Juan Asenjo

Professor Juan A. Asenjo is a Chilean chemical engineer who specialises in biotechnology, he serves as the director of the Centre for Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology at the University of Chile and is the President of the Chilean Academy of Science. Asenjo studied for his first degree in chemical engineering at the University of Chile, graduating in 1974, he moved to the University of Leeds, UK to complete an MSc, followed by a PhD at University College London supervised by Peter Dunnill and M. D. Lilly, he moved back to Chile for one year before being appointed Assistant Professor in biochemical engineering at Columbia University, New York where he remained until 1986. In 1987 he moved to the University of Reading to become a Reader in biochemical engineering and the director of the biochemical engineering laboratory. In 1995 he returned to Chile and established the Centre for Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology at the University of Chile which he continues to direct. Asenjo has made scientific contributions where the fields of mathematics and computer science merge with biology and biotechnology.

This has included developing models of enzyme systems for the lysis of microbial cells and for predicting the behaviour of proteins in aqueous two-phase systems. He has been involved in the purification of several proteins including alpha amylase, tissue plasminogen activator, monoclonal antibodies and virus-like particles, his group have begun working in the fields of protein engineering, metabolic engineering and functional genomics. One specific area of research is an attempt to produce detergents which work at low temperatures based on trypsin enzymes isolated from Antarctic krill; the Santiago Times reported in 2013 that Asenjo's group was to begin testing a vaccine for alcoholism on mice and hoped to begin pre-clinical trials in humans that year. In November 2013 the vaccine was in stage 2 clinical trials; the vaccine acts to inhibit acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing people to experience a hangover shortly after consuming alcohol. He has called for Chile to invest more in scientific research and development, which would allow the country to add value to its exports, for example by exporting lithium batteries rather than raw lithium.

He was elected as a member of the Chilean Academy of Science in 1999 and was appointed as its Vice President in 2004 and President in 2010. In 2004 he was awarded the Chilean National Prize for Applied Sciences and Technologies, with the jury noting his research was of a high impact and quality, as demonstrated by over 100 publications, several patents and having supervised over 40 doctoral students