Charles Babbage was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Considered by some to be a "father of the computer", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that led to more complex electronic designs, though all the essential ideas of modern computers are to be found in Babbage's analytical engine, his varied work in other fields has led him to be described as "pre-eminent" among the many polymaths of his century. Parts of Babbage's incomplete mechanisms are on display in the Science Museum in London. In 1991, a functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Babbage's birthplace is disputed, but according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography he was most born at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, England.
A blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event. His date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792; the parish register of St. Mary's, London, shows that Babbage was baptised on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791. Babbage was one of four children of Betsy Plumleigh Teape, his father was a banking partner of William Praed in founding Praed's & Co. of Fleet Street, London, in 1801. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth. Around the age of eight, Babbage was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever. For a short time he attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, but his health forced him back to private tutors for a time. Babbage joined the 30-student Holmwood Academy, in Baker Street, Middlesex, under the Reverend Stephen Freeman; the academy had a library. He studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy.
The first was a clergyman near Cambridge. He was brought home, to study at the Totnes school: this was at age 16 or 17; the second was an Oxford tutor, under whom Babbage reached a level in Classics sufficient to be accepted by Cambridge. Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1810, he was self-taught in some parts of contemporary mathematics. As a result, he was disappointed in the standard mathematical instruction available at the university. Babbage, John Herschel, George Peacock, several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812; as a student, Babbage was a member of other societies such as The Ghost Club, concerned with investigating supernatural phenomena, the Extractors Club, dedicated to liberating its members from the madhouse, should any be committed to one. In 1812 Babbage transferred to Cambridge, he did not graduate with honours. He instead received a degree without examination in 1814, he had defended a thesis, considered blasphemous in the preliminary public disputation.
Considering his reputation, Babbage made progress. He lectured to the Royal Institution on astronomy in 1815, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816. After graduation, on the other hand, he applied for positions unsuccessfully, had little in the way of career. In 1816 he was a candidate for a teaching job at Haileybury College. In 1819, Babbage and Herschel visited Paris and the Society of Arcueil, meeting leading French mathematicians and physicists; that year Babbage applied to be professor at the University of Edinburgh, with the recommendation of Pierre Simon Laplace. With Herschel, Babbage worked on the electrodynamics of Arago's rotations, publishing in 1825, their explanations were only transitional, being broadened by Michael Faraday. The phenomena are now part of the theory of eddy currents, Babbage and Herschel missed some of the clues to unification of electromagnetic theory, staying close to Ampère's force law. Babbage purchased the actuarial tables of George Barrett, who died in 1821 leaving unpublished work, surveyed the field in 1826 in Comparative View of the Various Institutions for the Assurance of Lives.
This interest followed a project to set up an insurance company, prompted by Francis Baily and mooted in 1824, but not carried out. Babbage did calculate actuarial tables for that scheme, using Equitable Society mortality data from 1762 onwards. During this whole period Babbage depended awkwardly on his father's support, given his father's attitude to his early marriage, of 1814: he and Edward Ryan wedded the Whitmore sisters, he made a home in Marylebone in London, founded a large family. On his father's death in 1827, Babbage inherited a large estate. After his wife's death in the same year he spent time travelling. In Italy he met Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, foreshadowing a visit to Piedmont. In April 1828 he was in Rome, relying on Herschel to manage the difference engine project, when he heard that he had become professor at Cambridge, a positio
John Colson was an English clergyman and mathematician, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. John Colson was educated at Lichfield School before becoming an undergraduate at Christ Church, though he did not take a degree there, he became a schoolmaster at Sir Joseph Williamson's Mathematical School in Rochester, was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1713. He was Vicar of Chalk, Kent from 1724 to 1740, he lectured at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. From 1739 to 1760 he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, he was Rector of Lockington, Yorkshire. In 1726 he published his Negativo-Affirmativo Arithmetik advocating a modified decimal system of numeration, it involved "reduction small figures" by "throwing all the large figures 9, 8, 7, 6 out of a given number, introducing in their room the equivalent small figures 1 1 ¯, 1 2 ¯, 1 3 ¯, 1 4 ¯ respectively". John Colson translated several of Isaac Newton's works into English, including De Methodis Serierum et Fluxionum in 1736.
Method of Fluxions Witch of Agnesi Cooper, Thompson. "Colson, John". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 11. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 405–406. Robert Bruen. "Lucasian Chair: John Colson". Lucasian Chair.org. Cambridge University. Retrieved 2 April 2008. "A Brief History of The Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics at Cambridge University" – Robert Bruen, Boston College, May 1995 John Colson "A Short Account of Negativo-Affirmativo Arithmetik", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 34:161–73. Available as Early Journal Content from JSTOR
Charles II of England
Charles II was king of England and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, king of England and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim.
After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance; the major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir, Duke of York, was a Catholic.
The crisis saw the birth of anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685, he was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England, known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he was succeeded by his brother James. Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630, his parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII.
Charles was their second child. Their first son died within a day. England and Ireland were predominantly Anglican and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud, he was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country.
By spring 1646, his father was losing the war, Charles left England due to fears for his safety. Setting off from Falmouth after staying at Pendennis Castle, he went first to the Isles of Scilly to Jersey, to France, where his mother was living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king. Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who falsely claimed that they had secretly married, her son, James Crofts, was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.
Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, England became a republic. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland; when negotiations with the Scot
Thomas Turton was an English academic and divine, the Bishop of Ely from 1845 to 1864. Thomas Turton was Ann Turton of Hatfield, West Riding, he was admitted to Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1801 but migrated to St Catharine's College in 1804. In 1805 he equal Smith's Prizeman. Elected a fellow of St Catharine's in 1806, he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 1822 to 1826 and Regius Professor of Divinity from 1827 to 1842. After various other clerical appointments, Turton was Dean of Peterborough from 1830 to 1842, Dean of Westminster from 1842 to 1845 and Bishop of Ely from 1845 to 1864, he is buried at Kensal Green Cemetery. Frost, Maurice ed.. Historical Companion to Hymns Ancient & Modern. London: William Clowes & Sons Ltd. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Robert Bruen. "Lucasian Chair: Thomas Turton". Lucasian Chair.org. Retrieved 2 April 2008. Works by or about Thomas Turton in libraries
Data (Star Trek)
Data is a character in the fictional Star Trek franchise. He appears in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation and the feature films Star Trek Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, Star Trek: Nemesis. Data is portrayed by actor Brent Spiner. Data was found by Starfleet in 2338 as the sole survivor on Omicron Theta in the rubble of a colony left after an attack from the Crystalline Entity, he was a synthetic life form with artificial intelligence and designed and built by Doctor Noonien Soong in his own likeness. Data is a self-aware, sapient and anatomically functional android who serves as the second officer and chief operations officer aboard the Federation starship USS Enterprise-D and the USS Enterprise-E, his positronic brain allows him impressive computational capabilities. He experienced ongoing difficulties during the early years of his life with understanding various aspects of human behavior and was unable to feel emotion or understand certain human idiosyncrasies, inspiring him to strive for his own humanity.
This goal led to the addition of an "emotion chip" created by Soong, to Data's positronic net. Although Data's endeavor to increase his humanity and desire for human emotional experience is a significant plot point throughout the series, he shows a nuanced sense of wisdom and curiosity, garnering respect from his peers and colleagues. Data is in many ways a successor to the original Star Trek's Spock, in that the character offers an "outsider's" perspective on humanity. Gene Roddenberry told Brent Spiner that over the course of the series, Data was to become "more and more like a human until the end of the show, when he would be close, but still not quite there; that was the idea and that's the way that the writers took it." Spiner felt that Data exhibited the Chaplinesque characteristics of a tragic clown. To get into his role as Data, Spiner used the character of Robby the Robot from the film Forbidden Planet as a role model. Commenting on Data's perpetual albino-like appearance, he said: "I spent more hours of the day in make-up than out of make-up", so much so that he called it a way of method acting.
Spiner portrayed Data's manipulative and malignant brother Lore, Data's creator, Dr. Noonien Soong. Additionally, he portrayed another Soong-type android, B-4, in the film Star Trek: Nemesis, one of Soong's ancestors in three episodes of Star Trek: Enterprise. Spiner said his favorite Data scene takes place in "Descent", when Data plays poker on the holodeck with a re-creation of the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, played by Hawking himself. Spiner reprised his role of Data in the Star Trek: Enterprise series finale "These Are the Voyages..." in an off-screen speaking part. Spiner felt that he had visibly aged out of the role and that Data was best presented as a youthful figure. Dialog in "Datalore" establishes some of Data's backstory, it is stated that he was deactivated in 2336 on Omicron Theta before an attack by the Crystalline Entity, a spaceborne creature which converts life forms to energy for sustenance. He reactivated by Starfleet personnel two years later. Data went to Starfleet Academy from 2341–45 and served in Starfleet aboard the USS Trieste.
He was assigned to the Enterprise under Captain Jean-Luc Picard in 2364. In "Datalore", Data discovers his amoral brother and learns that he was created after Lore. Lore fails in an attempt to betray the Enterprise to the Crystalline Entity, Wesley Crusher beams Data's brother into space at the episode's conclusion. In "Brothers", Data reunites with Dr. Soong. There he meets again with Lore. Lore fatally wounds Soong. Lore returns in the two-part episode "Descent", using the emotion chip to control Data and make him help with Lore's attempt to make the Borg artificial lifeforms. Data deactivates Lore, recovers, but does not install the damaged emotion chip. In "The Measure of a Man", a Starfleet judge rules; the episode establishes that Data has a storage capacity of 800 quadrillion bits and a total linear computational speed of 60 trillion operations per second. Data's family is expanded in "The Offspring", which introduces Lal, a robot based on Data's neural interface and whom Data refers to as his daughter.
Lal “dies” shortly after activation. His mother Julianna appears in the episode "Inheritance" and reunites with Data, though the crew discovers she was an android duplicate built by Soong after the real Julianna's death, programmed to die after a long life, to believe she is the true Julianna, unaware of the fact she is an android. Faced with the decision, Data chooses not to disclose this to her and allow her the chance to continue on with her normal life. In "All Good Things...", the two-hour concluding episode of The Next Generation, Captain Picard travels between three different time periods. The Picard of 25 years into the future goes with La Forge to seek advice from Professor Data, a luminary physicist who holds the Lucasian Chair at Cambridge University. In "The Child" Data clarifies to the newly arrived ship's chief medical officer, Dr. Katherine Pulaski, that the correct pronunciation of his name is Day'ta, not Dah'ta. Although several androids and artificial intelligences were seen in the original
Joshua King was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge from 1839 to 1849. He was the President of Queens' College, from 1832 until his death and Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University from 1833–4. Educated at Hawkshead Grammar School, Joshua King went first to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1815 but moved to Queens' College in February 1816 as a sizar, graduated Senior Wrangler in 1819, he was elected a Fellow of the Queens’ in 1820, served as its President from 1832 to his death – the first person not in holy orders to be so elected. In the University, he was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 1839, resigning because of ill-health in 1849 having given no lectures and published only one paper, his interests shifted from mathematics to law and politics, although he declined to stand as Tory candidate for Parliament for either the town or the University. He served on many committees, was Vice-Chancellor in 1833/34, he died on 1 September 1857 aged 59, was buried in the antechapel of the College.
"Joshua King came to Cambridge from Hawkshead Grammar School. It was soon evident, he became Senior Wrangler, his reputation in Cambridge was immense. It was believed that nothing less, they expected his work as a mathematician to make an epoch in the science. At an early age he became president of Queens’, he published nothing. But as long as he kept his health, he was an active and prominent figure in Cambridge, he maintained his enormous reputation; when he died, it was felt that the memory of such an extraordinary man should not be permitted to die out, his papers should be published. So his papers were examined, nothing whatever worth publishing was found."