The Campo Santo known as Camposanto Monumentale or Camposanto Vecchio, is a historical edifice at the northern edge of the Cathedral Square in Pisa, Italy. "Campo Santo" can be translated as "holy field", because it is said to have been built around a shipload of sacred soil from Golgotha, brought back to Pisa from the Third Crusade by Ubaldo Lanfranchi, archbishop of Pisa in the 12th century. A legend claims; the burial ground lies over the ruins of the old baptistery of the church of Santa Reparata, the church that once stood where the cathedral now stands. The term "monumental" serves to differentiate it from the later-established urban cemetery in Pisa; the building was the last one to be raised in the Cathedral Square. It dates from a century after the bringing of the soil from Golgotha, was erected over the earlier burial ground; the construction of this huge, oblong Gothic cloister was begun in 1278 by the architect Giovanni di Simone. He died in 1284; the cemetery was only completed in 1464.
It seems that the building was not meant to be a real cemetery, but a church called Santissima Trinità, but the project changed during the construction. However we know that the original part was the western one, all the eastern part was the last to be built closing the structure; the outer wall is composed of 43 blind arches. There are two doorways; the one on the right is crowned by a gracious Gothic tabernacle. It contains the Virgin Mary with Child, surrounded by four saints, it is the work from the second half of the 14th century by a follower of Giovanni Pisano. This was the original entrance door. Most of the tombs are under the arcades; the inner court is surrounded by elaborate round arches with slender mullions and plurilobed tracery. The cemetery has three chapels; the oldest ones are the chapel Ammannati and takes its name from the tomb of Ligo Ammannati, a teacher in the University of Pisa. In the Aulla chapel we can see the original incense lamp that Galileo Galilei used for calculation of pendular movements.
This lamp is the one Galileo saw inside the cathedral, now replaced by a larger more elaborate one. The last chapel was Dal Pozzo, commissioned by archbishop of Pisa Carlo Antonio Dal Pozzo in 1594. In this chapel in 2009 were translated the relics of the Cathedral: the relics include among the others eleven of the twelve Apostles, two fragments of the True Cross, a thorn from the Crown of Thorns of Christ and a small piece of the dress of the Virgin Mary. In the Dal Pozzo chapel sometimes a Mass is celebrated; the Campo Santo contained a huge collection of Roman sarcophagi, but there are only 84 left together with a collection of Roman and Etruscan sculptures and urns, now in the Museum of the vestry board. The sarcophagi were all around the cathedral attached to the building itself; that until the cemetery was built they were collected in the middle all over the meadow. Carlo Lasinio, in the years he was the curator of the Campo Santo, collected many other ancient relics that were spread in Pisa to make a sort of archeological museum inside the cemetery.
Nowadays the sarcophagi are near the walls. The walls were once covered in frescoes; the first was the Crucifixion by Francesco Traini, in the south western side. Continuing to right, in the southern side, the Last Judgement, The Hell, The Triumph of Death and the Anacoreti nella Tebaide attributed to Buonamico Buffalmacco; the cycle of frescoes continues with the Stories of the Old Testament by Benozzo Gozzoli that were situated in the north gallery, while in the south arcade were the Stories of Pisan Saints, by Andrea Bonaiuti, Antonio Veneziano and Spinello Aretino, the Stories of Job, by Taddeo Gaddi. In the same time, in the north gallery were the Stories of the Genesis by Piero di Puccio. On 27 July 1944, a bomb fragment from an Allied raid started a fire. Due to all the water tanks being controlled, the fire could not be put out in time, it burnt the wooden rafters and melted the lead of the roof; the destruction of the roof damaged everything inside the cemetery, destroying most of the sculptures and sarcophagi and compromising all the frescoes.
An initial effort to rescue the frescoes was organized by Deane Keller of the U. S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts, Archives program. Pieces of the frescoes were salvaged and a temporary roof was erected to prevent further damage. After World War II, restoration work began; the roof was restored as as possible to its pre-war appearance and the frescoes were separated from the walls to be restored and displayed elsewhere. Once the frescoes had been removed, the preliminary drawings, called sinopie were removed; these under-drawings were separated using the same technique used on the frescoes and now they are in the Museum of the Sinopie, on the opposite side of the Square. The restored frescoes that still exist are being transferred to their original locations in the cemetery, to restore the Campo Santo's pre-war appearance. Tobino, Mario. Pisa la Piazza dei Miracoli. De Agostini
Piazza dei Miracoli
The Piazza dei Miracoli, formally known as Piazza del Duomo, is a walled 8.87-hectare area located in Pisa, Italy, recognized as an important centre of European medieval art and one of the finest architectural complexes in the world. Considered sacred by the Catholic Church, its owner, the square is dominated by four great religious edifices: the Pisa Cathedral, the Pisa Baptistry, the Campanile, the Camposanto Monumentale. Paved and grassed, the Piazza dei Miracoli is the site of the Ospedale Nuovo di Santo Spirito, which houses the Sinopias Museum and the Cathedral Museum; the name Piazza dei Miracoli was coined by the Italian writer and poet Gabriele d'Annunzio who, in his novel Forse che sì forse che no, described the square as the "prato dei Miracoli," or "meadow of miracles". The square is sometimes called the Campo dei Miracoli. In 1987, the whole square was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the heart of the Piazza del Duomo is the Duomo, the medieval cathedral of the Archdiocese of Pisa, dedicated to Santa Maria Assunta.
The cathedral has two aisles on either side of the nave. The transept consists of three aisles; the church is known as the Primatial, the archbishop of Pisa being a Primate since 1092. Its construction began in 1064 by the architect Buscheto, it set the model for the distinctive Pisan Romanesque style of architecture. The mosaics of the interior, as well as the pointed arches, show a strong Byzantine influence; the façade, of grey marble and white stone set with discs of coloured marble, was built by a master named Rainaldo, as indicated by an inscription above the middle door: Rainaldus prudens operator. The massive bronze main doors were made in the workshops of Giambologna, replacing the original doors destroyed in a fire in 1595; the original central door was of bronze, made around 1180 by Bonanno Pisano, while the other two were of wood. However, worshippers have never used the façade doors to enter, instead entering by way of the Porta di San Ranieri, in front of the Leaning Tower, built around 1180 by Bonanno Pisano.
Above the doors are four rows of open galleries with, on top, statues of Madonna with Child and, on the corners, the Four evangelists. In the façade is found the tomb of Buscheto and an inscription about the foundation of the Cathedral and the victorious battle against the Saracens. At the east end of the exterior, high on a column rising from the gable, is a modern replica of the Pisa Griffin, the largest Islamic metal sculpture known, the original of, placed there in the 11th or 12th century, is now in the Cathedral Museum; the interior has a gilded ceiling and a frescoed dome. It was redecorated after a fire in 1595, which destroyed most of the Renaissance art works; the impressive mosaic of Christ in Majesty, in the apse, flanked by the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelist, survived the fire, it evokes the mosaics in the church of Sicily. Although it is said that the mosaic was done by Cimabue, only the head of St. John was done by the artist in 1302, his last work, since he died in Pisa the same year.
The cupola, at the intersection of the nave and transept, was decorated by Riminaldi showing the assumption of the Blessed Virgin. Galileo is believed to have formulated his theory about the movement of a pendulum by watching the swinging of the incense lamp hanging from the ceiling of the nave; that lamp and simpler than the present one, is now kept in the Camposanto, in the Aulla chapel. The granite Corinthian columns between the nave and the aisle came from the mosque of Palermo, captured by the Pisans in 1063; the coffer ceiling of the nave was replaced after the fire of 1595. The present gold-decorated ceiling carries the coat of arms of the Medici; the elaborately carved pulpit, which survived the fire, was made by Giovanni Pisano, a masterwork of medieval sculpture. Having been packed away during the redecoration, it was not rediscovered and restored until 1926; the pulpit is supported by plain columns on one side and by caryatids and a telamon on the other: the latter represent St. Michael, the Evangelists, the four cardinal virtues flanking the Church, a bold, naturalistic depiction of a naked Hercules.
A central plinth with the liberal arts supports the four theological virtues. The present-day pulpit is a reconstruction of the original, it does not lie in its original position, nearer the main altar, the columns and panels are not original. The original stairs were lost; the upper part has nine narrative panels showing scenes from the New Testament, carved in white marble with a chiaroscuro effect and separated by figures of prophets: the Annunciation, the Massacre of the Innocents, the Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, the Flight into Egypt, the Crucifixion, two panels of the Last Judgement. The church contains the bones of St. Ranieri, Pisa's patron saint, the tomb of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, carved by Tino da Camaino in 1315; that tomb in the apse just behind the main altar, was disassembled and moved many times over the centuries for political reasons. While the sarcophagus is still in the Cathedral, some of the statues were put in the Camposanto or in the top of the church's façade.
The original statues are now in the Museum of the Opera del Duomo. Pope Gregory VIII was buried in the cathedral; the fire of 1595 destroyed his tomb. Th
Martin of Tours
Saint Martin of Tours was the third bishop of Tours. He has become one of the most recognizable Christian saints in Western tradition. A native of Pannonia, he converted to Christianity at a young age, he served in the Roman cavalry in Gaul, but left military service at some point prior to 361, when he embraced Trinitarianism and became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, establishing the monastery at Ligugé. He was consecrated as Bishop of Caesarodunum in 371; as bishop, he was active in the suppression of the remnants of Gallo-Roman religion, but he opposed the violent persecution of the Priscillianist sect of ascetics. His life was recorded by Sulpicius Severus; some of the accounts of his travels may have been interpolated into his vita to validate early sites of his cult. He is best known for the account of his using his military sword to cut his cloak in two, to give half to a beggar clad only in rags in the depth of winter, his shrine in Tours became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
His cult was revived in French nationalism during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1, as a consequence he was seen as a patron saint of France during the French Third Republic. Martin was born in AD 336 in Savaria in the Diocese of Pannonia, his father was a senior officer in the Imperial Horse Guard, a unit of the Roman army stationed at Ticinum, in northern Italy, where Martin grew up. At the age of ten he attended the Christian church against the wishes of his parents and became a catechumen. Christianity had been made a legal religion in the Roman Empire, it had many more adherents in the Eastern Empire, whence it had sprung, was concentrated in cities, brought along the trade routes by converted Jews and Greeks. Christianity was far from accepted amongst the higher echelons of society. Although the conversion of the Emperor Constantine and the subsequent programme of church-building gave a greater impetus to the spread of the religion, it was still a minority faith; as the son of a veteran officer, Martin at fifteen was required to join a cavalry ala.
At the age of 18 around 334 or 354, he was stationed at Samarobriva in Gaul. It is that he joined the Equites catafractarii Ambianenses, a heavy cavalry unit listed in the Notitia Dignitatum; as the unit was stationed at Milan and is recorded at Trier, it is to have been part of the elite cavalry bodyguard of the Emperor, which accompanied him on his travels around the Empire. According to his biographer, Sulpicius Severus, he served in the military for only another two years, though it has been argued that these two years, "are in fact not nearly enough to bring the account to the time when he would leave, that is, during his encounter with Caesar Julian Martin would have been 45 years old when Julian acceded to the throne, at the usual end of a military contract. Jacques Fontaine thinks that the biographer was somewhat embarrassed about referring to long stint in the army." Such scholars as would present Martin Conscripted as the prototype of conscientious objectors hold that Martin would have remained in the army for the entirety of his prescribed twenty-five year term, that, in their opinion, such service need not have obliged him to violate his Christian conscience by shedding blood on the battlefield.
Regardless of whether or not he remained in the army, Sulpicius Severus reports that just before a battle in the Gallic provinces at Borbetomagus, Martin determined that his switch of allegiance to a new commanding officer, along with reticence to receive Julian's pay just as Martin was retiring, prohibited his taking the money and continuing to submit to the authority of the former now, telling him, "I am the soldier of Christ: it is not lawful for me to fight." He was charged with cowardice and jailed, but in response to the charge, he volunteered to go unarmed to the front of the troops. His superiors planned to take him up on the offer, but before they could, the invaders sued for peace, the battle never occurred, Martin was released from military service. Martin declared his vocation, made his way to the city of Caesarodunum, where he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, a chief proponent of Trinitarian Christianity, he opposed the Arianism of the Imperial Court. When Hilary was forced into exile from Pictavium, Martin returned to Italy.
According to Sulpicius Severus, he converted an Alpine brigand on the way, confronted the Devil himself. Having heard in a dream a summons to revisit his home, Martin crossed the Alps, from Milan went over to Pannonia. There he converted some other persons. While in Illyricum he took sides against the Arians with so much zeal that he was publicly scourged and forced to leave. Returning from Illyria, he was confronted by the Arian archbishop of Milan Auxentius, who expelled him from the city. According to the early sources, Martin decided to seek shelter on the island called Gallinaria, now Isola d'Albenga, in the Ligurian Sea, where he lived the solitary life of a hermit. With the return of Hilary to his see in 361, Martin joined him and established a hermitage nearby, which soon attracted converts and followers; the crypt under the parish chur
Pienza, a town and comune in the province of Siena, in the Val d'Orcia in Tuscany, between the towns of Montepulciano and Montalcino, is the "touchstone of Renaissance urbanism."In 1996, UNESCO declared the town a World Heritage Site, in 2004 the entire valley, the Val d'Orcia, was included on the list of UNESCO's World Cultural Landscapes. Before the village was renamed to Pienza its name was Corsignano, it is first mentioned in documents from the 9th century. Around 1300 parts of the village became property of the Piccolomini family. After Enghelberto d'Ugo Piccolomini had been enfeoffed with the fief of Montertari in Val d'Orcia by the emperor Frederick II in 1220. In the 13th century Franciscans settled down in Corsignano. In 1405 Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini was born in Corsignano, a Renaissance humanist born into an exiled Sienese family, who became Pope Pius II. Once he became Pope, Piccolomini had the entire village rebuilt as an ideal Renaissance town and renamed it after himself to Pienza which mean "city of Pius".
Intended as a retreat from Rome, it represents the first application of humanist urban planning concepts, creating an impetus for planning, adopted in other Italian towns and cities and spread to other European centers. The rebuilding was done by Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli who may have worked with the humanist and architect Leon Battista Alberti, though there are no documents to prove it for sure. Alberti served as an advisor to Pius. Construction started about 1459. Pope Pius II consecrated the Duomo on August 1462, during his long summer visit, he included a detailed description of the structures in his Commentaries, written during the last two years of his life. The trapezoidal piazza is defined by four buildings; the principal residence, Palazzo Piccolomini, is on the west side. It has three stories, articulated by pilasters and entablature courses, with a twin-lighted cross window set within each bay; this structure is similar to Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai in Florence and other palaces.
Noteworthy is the internal court of the palazzo. The back of the palace, to the south, is defined by loggia on all three floors that overlook an enclosed Italian Renaissance garden with Giardino all'italiana era modifications, views into the distant landscape of the Val d'Orcia and Pope Pius's beloved Mount Amiata beyond. Below this garden is a vaulted stable; the Duomo, which dominates the center of the piazza, has a facade, one of the earliest designed in the Renaissance manner. Though the tripartite division is conventional, the use of pilasters and of columns, standing on high dados and linked by arches, was novel for the time; the bell tower, has a Germanic flavor as is the layout of the Hallenkirche plan, a "triple-nave" plan where the side aisles are as tall as the nave. Works of art in the duomo include five altar paintings from the Sienese School, by Sano di Pietro, Matteo di Giovanni and Giovanni di Paolo; the Baptistry, dedicated as usual to San Giovanni, is located next to the apse of the church.
Pius encouraged cardinals to build palazzi to complete the city. Palazzo Vescovile, on the third side of the piazza, was built to house the bishops who would travel to Pienza to attend the pope, its construction was financed by Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia. It may represent a remodeling of the old town hall of Corsignano, it is now home to the Diocesan Museum, the Museo della Cattedrale. The collection includes local textile work as well as religious artifacts. Paintings include a 12th-century painted crucifix from the Abbey of San Pietro in Vollore, 14th century works by Pietro Lorenzetti and Bartolo di Fredi. There are important works from the 14th and 15th centuries, including a Madonna attributed to Luca Signorelli. Across from the church is Palazzo Comunale; when Corsigniano was given the status of an official city, a Palazzo was required that would be in keeping with the "city's" new urban position, though it was more for show than anything else. It has a three-arched loggia on the ground floor facing the Cathedral and above it is the council chamber.
It has a brick bell tower, shorter than its counterpart at the cathedral, to symbolize the superior power of the church. The set-back addition to the tower dates from 1599, it is that Bernardo Rossellino designed the Palazzo Comunale to be a free standing civic mediator between the religious space before the cathedral and secular market square to its rear. The travertine well in the Piazza carries the Piccolomini family crest, was copied in Tuscany during the following century; the well-head resembles shallow Etruscan Bowl. The flanking Corinthian support a classical entablature columns whose decorations are based upon actual source materials. Other buildings in Pienza dating from the era of Pius II include the Ammannati Palace, named for Cardinal Jacopo Piccolomini-Ammannati, a "curial row" of three palaces arranged along the street behind the Bishops Palace. In the northeastern corner of Pienza is a series of twelve row houses constructed at the orders of the pope by
Nicodemus was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin mentioned in three places in the Gospel of John: He first visits Jesus one night to discuss Jesus' teachings. The second time Nicodemus is mentioned, he reminds his colleagues in the Sanhedrin that the law requires that a person be heard before being judged. Nicodemus appears after the Crucifixion of Jesus to provide the customary embalming spices, assists Joseph of Arimathea in preparing the body of Jesus for burial. An apocryphal work under his name—the Gospel of Nicodemus—was produced in the mid-4th century, is a reworking of the earlier Acts of Pilate, which recounts the harrowing of Hell. Although there is no clear source of information about Nicodemus outside the Gospel of John, the Jewish Encyclopedia and some historians have speculated that he could be identical to Nicodemus ben Gurion, mentioned in the Talmud as a wealthy and popular holy man reputed to have had miraculous powers. Others point out that the biblical Nicodemus is an older man at the time of his conversation with Jesus, while Nicodemus ben Gurion was on the scene 40 years at the time of the Jewish War.
As is the case with Lazarus, Nicodemus does not belong to the tradition of the Synoptic Gospels and is only mentioned by John, who devotes more than half of Chapter 3 of his gospel, a few verses of Chapter 7 and lastly mentions him in Chapter 19. The first time Nicodemus is mentioned, he is identified as a Pharisee who comes to see Jesus "at night". John places this meeting shortly after the Cleansing of the Temple and links it to the signs which Jesus performed in Jerusalem during the Passover feast. "Rabbi, we know. For no one could perform the signs you are doing if God were not with him". Follows a conversation with Nicodemus about the meaning of being "born again" or "born from above", mention of seeing the "kingdom of God". Nicodemus explores the notion of being born again from one's mother's womb, but most theologians recognise that Nicodemus knew Jesus was not speaking of literal rebirth. Theologian Charles Ellicott wrote that "after the method of Rabbinic dialogue, presses the impossible meaning of the words in order to exclude it, to draw forth the true meaning.'You cannot mean that a man is to enter the second time into his mother’s womb, be born.
What is it that you do mean?'"Jesus expresses surprise ironically, that "a teacher of Israel" does not understand the concept of spiritual rebirth. James F. Driscoll describes Nicodemus as a learned and intelligent believer, but somewhat timid and not initiated into the mysteries of the new faith. In Chapter 7, Nicodemus advises his colleagues among "the chief priests and the Pharisees", to hear and investigate before making a judgment concerning Jesus, their mocking response argues. Nonetheless, it is probable; when Jesus is buried, Nicodemus brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes—about 100 Roman pounds —for embalming Jesus' body according to Jewish custom. Nicodemus must have been a man of means; this is a royal burial." Nicodemus is venerated in the Roman Catholic Church. The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches commemorate Nicodemus on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, celebrated on the Third Sunday of Pascha as well as August 2, the date when tradition holds that his relics were found, along with those of Stephen the Protomartyr and Abibas.
The traditional Roman Catholic liturgical calendar lists the same feast of the finding of their relics on the following day, August 3. In the current Roman Martyrology of the Catholic Church, Nicodemus is commemorated along with Saint Joseph of Arimathea on August 31; the Franciscan Order erected a church under the patronage of Saints Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea in Ramla. Nicodemus figures prominently in medieval depictions of the Deposition in which he and Joseph of Arimathea are shown removing the dead Christ from the cross with the aid of a ladder. Like Joseph, Nicodemus became the object of various pious legends during the Middle Ages in connection with monumental crosses, he was reputed to have carved both the Holy Face of Lucca and the Batlló Crucifix, receiving angelic assistance with the face in particular and thus rendering the works instances of acheiropoieta. Both of these sculptures date from at least a millennium after Nicodemus' life, but the ascriptions attest to the contemporary interest in Nicodemus as a character in medieval Europe.
In Henry Vaughan's "The Night," mentioning Nicodemus is significant to elaborate the poem's depiction of the night's relationship with God. In the Lutheran prescribed readings of the 18th century, the gospel text of the meeting of Jesus and Nicodemus at night was assigned to Trinity Sunday. Johann Sebastian Bach composed several cantatas for the occasion, of which O heilges Geist- und Wasserbad, BWV 165, composed in 1715, stays close to the gospel based on a libretto by the court poet in Weimar, Salomo Franck. Ernst Pepping composed in 1937 an Evangelienmotette Jesus und Nikodemus. In popular music, Nicodemus' name was figuratively used in Henry Clay Work's 1864 American Civil War-era piece "Wake Nicodemus", which at that time was popular in minstrel shows. In 1978 Tim Curry covered the song on his debut album Read My Lips; the song "Help Yourself" by
Holy Face of Lucca
The Holy Face of Lucca is a venerated wooden corpus of a crucifix in Lucca, Italy. Medieval legends stated that it had been sculpted by that Nicodemus who assisted Joseph of Arimathea in depositing Christ in the tomb and dated its arrival in Lucca to AD 742; the present Holy Face itself is an early 13th-century copy of the original ascribed to the circle of Benedetto Antelami. It appears; the earliest copies date from the early twelfth century, which may suggest that the original in fact dates only from the 11th century. Its presence in Lucca cannot be securely documented until about 1100 although Abbot Leofstan of Bury St Edmunds Abbey, who died in 1065, recorded that the inspiration for a life-size crucifix he had made for Bury St Edmunds was one he saw at Lucca on his way to Rome; the Holy Face is located in the free-standing octagonal Carrara marble chapel, built in 1484 by Matteo Civitali, the sculptor-architect of Lucca, to contain it. The tempietto stands in the right-hand nave of the cathedral of San Martino in Italy.
Copies of a similar size from the 12th century are found spread across Europe. These include the Cross of Imervard in the Brunswick Cathedral at Braunschweig, the Holy Face of Sansepolcro at Sansepolcro and the Batlló Crucifix of Barcelona, Spain. In the traditional account, the year 742 marks the arrival of the Holy Face in the Basilica di San Frediano. Insistent details of the hagiographic legend suggest that the image had been at Luni in Liguria, the former see of a bishopric and the early commercial rival of Lucca. Luni was a Byzantine possession, sacked by Saracens, disputed between Byzantines and Lombards, reduced to a village by the eighth century; the sculpture bears no stylistic relationship to Lombard sculpture of the tenth or eleventh century, however. The iconography of a robed crucified Christ wearing a colobium— an ankle-length tunic— is more familiar in the East than in the West, although a near life-size Crucifixion, carved in the round, is contrary to Byzantine norms. Life-size crucified Christs were more common in Germany from the late eleventh century, following the Gero Cross of Cologne Cathedral of about 970, which seems to have been the prototype.
The long robe may be a Byzantine influence, although many Western examples exist, in Ottonian illuminated manuscripts and other media. The belt of the Holy Face is unprecedented in a Crucifixion from either West. In Lucca, an annual candlelit procession, the Luminara, is devoted to the Holy Face on 13 September, the eve of religious celebrations on the following day; the procession, which today no longer includes the sculpture as in the past, walks to the cathedral from the Basilica of San Frediano, where a fresco cycle commemorates the legend of Nicodemus' sculpting the image from cedar of Lebanon, during which, having completed all but the face, Nicodemus slept, awaking to find the Holy Face completed by an angel. In Eastern Christianity, similar legends accrue round icons said to be acheiropoieta, "not made by human hands". Discovered in a cave in the Holy Land by "Bishop Gualfredo", guided by a revelatory dream, the image was carried first to the Tuscan port of Luni in a boat without sails or crew.
But the men of Luni, when they tried to board the boat, found that it retreated miraculously from their grasp. Warned by an angel in a revelatory dream that the Holy Face had arrived in Luni, bishop of Lucca, with his clerics and a great crowd of Lucchesi, arrived at Luni, bid a stop to the attempts to retrieve the boat and, by calling upon God, found that the ship came miraculously to Johannes and opened to him its gangplank; when the people saw the Holy Face they wept tears of joy and cried Gloria in excelsis Once ashore, the legend brings the image to Lucca in a cart pulled by oxen with no driver, in a further miraculous demonstration of the "rightness" of its possession by the city of Lucca, having been deposited in the church of San Frediano, it is miraculously translated to the church of San Martino, interpreted as the rationale for choosing this church as the cathedral. Thus the possession of the image by Lucca rather than Luni, its location in its rightful church, were both justified by legend.
Its popularity was expressed in copies as well as legends, to satisfy the pilgrims who made the cathedral of Lucca the goal of their voyages from all parts of Europe. Like other famous relics or images, such as the Virgin's Belt of Prato to this day, it appears to have only been available to view on certain appointed days in the year, at least some of the time wore rich textile clothing as well as the wooden carved robe. "By the face of Lucca" was the'customary oath' of William II of England. The Holy Face appears on medieval Luccan coins. Dante mentions the Holy Face of Lucca in his Inferno, Canto XXI, where a demon cries: Qui non ha luogo il Volto Santo! qui si nuota altrimenti che nel Serchio. A legend of a fiddler devotee of the statue receiving a shoe in precious metal, with a number of variants in the story, is first recorded from the 12th century; the statue allows the shoe to drop, or kicks it over to the fiddler. The fiddler may be a poor pilgrim, or a devotee, rewarded for playing in front