M-28 (Michigan highway)
M-28 is an east–west state trunkline highway that traverses nearly all of the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan, from Wakefield to near Sault Ste. Marie in Bruce Township. Along with US Highway 2, M-28 forms a pair of primary highways linking the Upper Peninsula from end to end, providing a major access route for traffic from Michigan and Canada along the southern shore of Lake Superior. M-28 is the longest state trunkline in Michigan numbered with the "M-" prefix at 290.373 miles. The entire highway is listed on the National Highway System, while three sections of M-28 are part of the Lake Superior Circle Tour. M-28 carries two memorial highway designations along its route. Throughout its course across the Upper Peninsula, M-28 passes through forested woodlands, bog swamps, urbanized areas, along the Lake Superior shoreline. Sections of roadway cross both units of the Hiawatha National Forest; some of the other landmarks accessible from M-28 include the Seney Stretch, Seney National Wildlife Refuge and several historic bridges.
M-28 is an original trunkline designation, dating to the 1919 formation of the state's trunkline system. The original highway was much shorter than the current version. M-28 was expanded eastward to the Sault Ste. Marie area in the late 1920s; the western end has been expanded twice to different locations on the Wisconsin state line. Other changes along the routing have led to the creation of three different business loops at various times, with one still extant. Future changes, proposed by Marquette County but not accepted by the Michigan Department of Transportation, could see M-28 rerouted over County Road 480. M-28 is Canadian traffic along the south shore of Lake Superior, it forms the northern half of a pair of primary trunklines linking the Upper Peninsula from end to end. The 290.373-mile highway comprises two lanes, undivided except for sections that are concurrent with US 41 near Marquette. The "Marquette Bypass" portion of US 41/M-28 is a four-lane expressway, segments of the highway in Marquette County have four lanes.
The entire route is part of the National Highway System, three sections of the trunkline are part of the Lake Superior Circle Tour. In the west, M-28 begins at a signalized intersection with US 2 in Wakefield. Heading north, the highway passes Sunday Lake heading out of town. After crossing into southwestern Ontonagon County and the Eastern Time Zone, the trunkline highway skirts the northern shore of Lake Gogebic, running concurrently with M-64; the first section of M-28 designated as a part of the Lake Superior Circle Tour is from the western terminus to the eastern junction with M-64 in Bergland, where the Circle Tour turns north along M-64, leaving M-28. Here, M-28 has its lowest traffic counts; the trunkline runs through forested areas of southern Houghton and Baraga counties. At the eastern junction with US 41 near Covington, M-28 receives the Circle Tour designation again and exits the Ottawa National Forest. In Baraga and Marquette counties, US 41/M-28 passes through hilly terrain before entering the urban areas of Ishpeming and Marquette.
13,000–17,000 vehicles use this section from Ishpeming eastward through Negaunee. West of the city of Marquette, US 41/M-28 had a peak 2013 AADT of 32,805 vehicles in Marquette Township along a retail and business corridor; this peak level is sustained until the start of the Marquette Bypass, where the traffic returns to the 16,500-vehicle and higher levels seen in Ishpeming and Negaunee. South of the city of Marquette, traffic counts once again climb to 19,620 vehicles. In Chocolay Township the AADT drops to 8,840 vehicles before tapering off to 3,065 vehicles by the county line. At the Ishpeming–Negaunee city line, M-28 changes memorial highway designations. From the western terminus to this point, M-28 is called the "Veterans Memorial Highway", but it becomes the "D. J. Jacobetti Memorial Highway" to honor the longest-serving member of the Michigan Legislature, Dominic J. Jacobetti; the Jacobetti Highway designation ends at the eastern M-123 junction in Chippewa County. Between Marquette and Munising, M-28 parallels the Lake Superior shoreline, providing scenic views of the lake and its "lonesome sandy beaches".
The Lakenenland Sculpture Park is located in Chocolay Township near Shot Point in eastern Marquette County. This roadside attraction is owned by Tom Lakenen and features fanciful works of art made of scrap iron. Near the community of Au Train, M-28 crosses into the western unit of the Hiawatha National Forest. West of Munising is a ferry dock offering transport to the Grand Island National Recreation Area, at Munising there is easy access to Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore; the roadway features variable-message signs to warn motorists of winter weather-related traffic closures along the lakeshore. Installed at the US 41 and M-94 junctions, the signs advise motorists which sections of roadway are closed. Per MDOT policy, only snowplows are allowed on these sections during a closure; the highway exits the Hiawatha National Forest at the Alger County–Schoolcraft County line along the Seney Stretch. The portion of M-28 between Seney and Shingleton, called the Seney Stretch, is 25 miles of "straight-as-an-arrow highway" across the Great Manistique Swamp, "though others claim it's 50 miles, only because it seems longer."
The Seney Stretch is the longest such section of highway in the state, "one of the longest stretches of curveless highway east o
Schoolcraft County, Michigan
Schoolcraft County is a county located in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 8,485; the county seat is Manistique. The county is named in honor of Henry Schoolcraft, who explored the area with the expedition of Lewis Cass; the county was founded in 1843 and organized in 1876. The county is rural and forested, with much of its western portion within Hiawatha National Forest. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,884 square miles, of which 1,171 square miles is land and 713 square miles is water. US 2 – runs east and NE across south edge of county. Passes Cooks, Parkington, Blaney Park. M-28 – runs east-west across upper middle part of county. Passes Seney. M-77 – enters county near NE corner. Runs south past Seney to intersection with US2 near Blaney Park. M-94 – enters county near NW corner. Runs SE to instersection with US2 near Manistique. M-149 – enters near SW corner of county. Runs east to intersection with US2 at Manistique.
H-13 / FFH 13 – runs north from Cooks through Hiawatha National Park. Schoolcraft County Airport - 3 miles NE of Manistique. County-owned public-use. Two paved runways. Luce County – northeast Mackinac County – southeast Delta County – southwest Alger County - northwest and north Hiawatha National Forest Seney National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census indicates Schoolcraft County had a population of 8,485; this decrease of 418 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a -4.7% change in population. In 2010 there were 3,759 households and 2,425 families in the county; the population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 6,313 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile. 87.6% of the population were White, 8.8% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.1% of some other race and 3.3% of two or more races. 0.8% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.2% were of German, 13.2% French, French Canadian or Cajun, 7.8% Swedish, 6.7% Irish, 5.3% Polish, 5.2% English and 5.1% American ancestry.
There were 3,759 households out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.72. The county population contained 19.9% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 19.6% from 25 to 44, 33.3% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.3 years. The population was 50.5 % female. The median income for a household in the county was $38,367, the median income for a family was $49,561; the per capita income for the county was $21,134. About 11.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. Schoolcraft County has been Republican-leaning from its start. Since 1876, the Republican Party nominee has carried the county vote in 69% of the elections.
Schoolcraft County operates the County jail, Schoolcraft County Public Transit, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Manistique The Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians occupies a small plot of land in southern Manistique Township; the National Register of Historic Places listings in Schoolcraft County, Michigan are: Ten Curves Road – Manistique River Bridge – Ten Curves Rd. over Manistique River in Gemfask Township Manistique East Breakwater Light – at offshore end of east breakwater, approx. 1,800 ft. from shore Manistique Pumping Station – on Deer St. Seul Choix Pointe Light Station – County Rd. 431 in Manistique Ekdahl-Goudreau Site – west of Seul Choix Point.
List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Schoolcraft County, Michigan Schoolcraft County website Schoolcraft County Profile, Sam M Cohodas Regional Economist "Bibliography on Schoolcraft County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University
French Americans are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French heritage, and/or ancestral ties. Sometimes referred to as Franco-Americans, members of this group are those who have declared allegiance either informally or formally to both France and the United States of America. People with dual citizenship of both France and the United States are referred to as French-Americans; as of January 2018, the largest population of French American people are in the state of Maine. The state is home to the largest French-speaking population in the country and the largest concentration of people of French extraction; the second largest state housing French Americans is Louisiana. The largest French-speaking population in the U. S. is found in St. Martin Parish. Country-wide, there are about 10.4 million U. S. residents that declare French ancestry or French Canadian descent, about 1.32 million speak French at home as of 2010 census. An additional 750,000 U.
S. residents speak a French-based creole language, according to the 2011 American Community Survey. While Americans of French descent make up a substantial percentage of the American population, French Americans are arguably less visible than other sized ethnic groups; this is due in part to tendency of French American groups to identify more with "New World" their regional identities such as Acadian, Cajun, or Louisiana Creole rather as a one coherent group. This has inhibited the development of a unified French American identity as is the case with other European American ethnic groups. Unlike other immigrants who came to the United States of America from other countries, some French Americans arrived prior to the founding of the United States. In many parts of the country, like the Midwest and Louisiana, they were the founders of some of these villages and first state inhabitants. While found throughout the country, French Americans are most numerous in New England, northern New York, the Midwest, Louisiana.
French is the fourth most-spoken language in the country, behind English and Chinese. French Americans are identified more as being of French Canadian, Cajun, or Louisiana Creole descent. An important part of French American history is the Quebec diaspora of the 1840s-1930s, in which one million French Canadians moved to the United States, principally to the New England states, Minnesota and Michigan; the French Canadians in Canada had among the highest birth rates in world history, why their population was large though immigration from France was low. They moved to different regions within Canada, namely Québec and Manitoba. Many of the early male migrants worked in the lumber industry in both regions, and, to a lesser degree, in the burgeoning mining industry in the upper Great Lakes. Louisiana Creole people refers to those who are descended from the colonial settlers in Louisiana those of French and Spanish descent; the term is now applied to individuals of mixed-race heritage. Both groups have common European heritage and share cultural ties, such as the traditional use of the French language and the continuing practice of Catholicism.
Those of mixed race sometimes have African and Native American ancestry. As a group, the mixed-race Creoles began to acquire education, skills and property, they were overwhelmingly Catholic, spoke Colonial French, kept up many French social customs, modified by other parts of their ancestry and Louisiana culture. The free people of color married among themselves to maintain their class and social culture; the French-speaking mixed-race population came to be called "Creoles of color". The Cajuns of Louisiana have a unique heritage, their ancestors settled Acadia, in what is now the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, part of Maine in the 17th and early 18th centuries. In 1755, after capturing Fort Beauséjour in the region, the British Army forced the Acadians to either swear an oath of loyalty to the British Crown or face expulsion. Thousands refused to take the oath, causing them to be sent, penniless, to the 13 colonies to the south in what has become known as the Great Upheaval.
Over the next generation, some four thousand managed to make the long trek to Louisiana, where they began a new life. The name Cajun is a corruption of the word Acadian. Many still live in what is known as the Cajun Country, where much of their colonial culture survives. French Louisiana, when it was sold by Napoleon in 1803, covered all or part of fifteen current U. S. states and contained French and Canadian colonists dispersed across it, though they were most numerous in its southernmost portion. During the War of 1812, Louisiana residents of French origin took part on the American side in the Battle of New Orleans. Jean Lafitte and his Baratarians were honored by US General Andrew Jackson for their contribution to the defense of New Orleans. In Louisiana today, more than 15 percent of the population of the Cajun Country reported in the 2000 United States Census that French was spoken at home. Another significant source of immigrants to Louisiana was Saint-Domingue, which gained its independence as the Republic of Haiti in 1804, following Haitian Revolution.
Biloxi in Mississippi, Mobile in Alabama
M-123 (Michigan highway)
M-123 is a state trunkline highway in the eastern Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. It form a U-shape. In fact, M-123 has three intersections with only two state trunklines. M-123 has a rare signed concurrency with a County-Designated Highway in Michigan. All of M-123 north of M-28 is a Scenic Heritage Route within the Michigan Heritage Route system; the highway was first designated before 1936 along a section of its current routing. Sections added since encompass segments belonging to US Highway 2 and M-48; the last changes came to the highway in 1962 and 1963, when the northern end was extended and the southern end was truncated slightly. M-123 serves a thinly-populated section of the state. Much of the highway passes through the eastern unit of the Hiawatha National Forest. No part of the highway is listed on the National Highway System, a system of strategically important highways; the section of highway north of the two M-28 junctions is both a Michigan Scenic Heritage Route and part of the Lake Superior Circle Tour.
The southern terminus of the highway is at exit 352 along Interstate 75 north of St. Ignace in Rogers Park; the roadway connects to County-Designated Highway H-63 at the interchange. From the interchange north, the highway runs northwest as Tahquamenon Trail to the community of Allenville near Brevort Lake in Brevort Township. Here it meets H-57. Just north of Allenville, the trunkline crosses through the adjacent community of Moran. Allenville was a stop on the Detroit and Marquette Railroad, Moran was named after William B. Moran, one of the early settlement's founders; the roadway runs parallel to a rail line north of Moran. Before crossing into Chippewa County, the highway passes through the community of Ozark, home of a rock quarry. North of the county line is the community of Trout Lake, where M-123 meets and merges with H-40 across railroad tracks and through town near Wegwaas and Carp lakes. Continuing to the north, the highway is renamed Deerfoot Road and serves the Three Lakes Campground, a unit of the Hiawatha National Forest, before meeting M-28 at Eckerman.
M-123 is designated as a Scenic Heritage Route north of M-28. Here it continues northwest to East–West Road and turns to run along the shores of Whitefish Bay and cross the Tahquamenon River near its mouth. Continuing along the bay as Whitefish Road, M-123 meets the community of Paradise, the northernmost point along the highway, it is here that M-123 intersects Whitefish Point Road, which continues north to Whitefish Point, home of the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum. In either direction, M-123 runs southbound from Paradise. Continuing east of Paradise, M-123 is the only paved road that serves the Tahquamenon Falls State Park and the Whitefish Point region; the Tahquamenon Falls State Park is a 46,179 acre state park in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the second largest of Michigan's state parks. Bordering on Lake Superior, most of the park is located within Chippewa County, with the western section of the park extending into Luce County; the park follows the Tahquamenon River as it passes over Tahquamenon Falls and drains into Whitefish Bay, Lake Superior.
The Tahquamenon Falls include a single 50-foot drop, the Upper Falls, plus the cascades and rapids collectively called the Lower Falls. During the late-spring runoff, the river drains as much as 50,000 gallons of water per second, making the upper falls the second most voluminous vertical waterfall east of the Mississippi River, after only Niagara Falls. East of Paradise, M-123 runs along the Tahquamenon River inside the state park boundaries. Past the park, the highway is known as Falls Road in Luce County; the trunkline turns southwest at the county line. It runs south and west across Murphy Creek and the Auger River before intersecting with H-37 at Four Mile Corner; the highway crosses a branch of the Tahquamenon River one last time before becoming Newberry Avenue in the city of Newberry. The highest annual average daily traffic, a measure of traffic volume, was recorded by the Michigan Department of Transportation for M-123 in 2007 along Newberry Avenue at 7,500 vehicles. South of downtown, M-123 meets M-28 a second time west of Twin Lake.
This intersection is the "northern" terminus of the 96.110-mile highway. The construction of M-123 started in the 1930s near Eckerman, the location of the current eastern M-28/M-123 junction. By 1936, M-123 was designated running north of M-28 on 10 miles of hard-surface pavement. At this time, US 2 is routed along Worth Road and uses roadway used by M-123 from Moran to Rogers Park, M-48 was routed north of Newberry to Four Mile Corner; the first extension of M-123 southward from Eckerman, through Trout Lake to Rogers Park north of St. Ignace, came in 1954. Part of this routing in Trout Lake uses M-48. An additional extension is shown north to the Tahquamenon River Bridge, lengthening the highway to the north on the April 15, 1954 official state map; the section north to the Tahquamenon River Bridge is remarked on the October 1, 1954 state map as a county road, however. In 1957, M-123 was permanently extended north to the bridge, in 1962 the final extension north to Paradise and south to Newberry was completed.
From Four Mile Corner south, M-123 replaced M-117 to a new terminus at M-28 south of Newberry. The southernmost section of roadway between the I-75/US 2 freeway and H-63 was transferred to Mackinac County for maintenance with the opening of the freeway in 1963. On November 9, 2007, MDOT expanded the Tahquamenon Scenic
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Mackinac County, Michigan
Mackinac County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,113; the county seat is St. Ignace. Known as Michilimackinac County, in 1818 it was one of the first counties of the Michigan Territory, as it had long been a center of French and British colonial fur trading, a Catholic church and Protestant mission, associated settlement; the county's name is believed to be shortened from "Michilimackinac", which referred to the Straits of Mackinac area as well as the French settlement at the tip of the lower peninsula. Michilimackinac County was created on October 26, 1818, by proclamation of territorial governor Lewis Cass; the county encompassed the Lower Peninsula of Michigan north of Macomb County and the entire present Upper Peninsula. As counties were settled and organized, they were divided from this territory. At the time of founding, the county seat was the community of Michilimackinac Island on Michilimackinac Island known as Mackinac Island, Michigan.
This has been an important center for fur trading before the 1830s. The county was organized in 1849 as Mackinac County. In 1882 the county seat was moved from Mackinac Island to St. Ignace, founded as a French Jesuit mission village during the colonial years. Mackinac County is home to the Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians, a Native American tribe located in St. Ignace. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,101 square miles, of which 1,022 square miles is land and 1,079 square miles is water. Mackinac County lies at the boundary of Lake Michigan. St. Ignace is the northern terminus of the Mackinac Bridge. Mackinac Island is within the county. Chippewa Presque Isle County Cheboygan County Emmet County Charlevoix County Schoolcraft County Luce County Hiawatha National Forest The Mackinac County Airport in St. Ignace and Mackinac Island Airport on Mackinac Island are located within Mackinac County; the nearest airports with scheduled commercial passenger service are Chippewa County International Airport in Sault Ste.
Marie and Pellston Regional Airport. M-185 does not allow motor vehicles with the exception of emergency vehicles. Numerous companies operate ferries to Bois Blanc Mackinac Island. Ferries to and from Mackinac Island sail from St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, while the Bois Blanc Island ferry sails from Cheboygan. Canadian National Railway The 2010 United States Census ireported that Mackinac County had a population of 11,113; this was a decrease of 830 from the 2000 United States Census. In 2010 there were 5,024 households and 3,219 families residing in the county; the population density was 11 per square mile. There were 11,010 housing units at an average density of 11/sq mi. 76.5% of the population were White, 17.3% Native American, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 5.3% of two or more races. 1.1% were Hispanic or Latino. 18.5% were of German, 8.8% English, 8.0% French, French Canadian or Cajun, 7.6% Irish and 5.1% Polish ancestry. There were 5,024 households of which 20.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families.
31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.7. 18.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 19.3% from 25 to 44, 34.0% from 45 to 64, 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years; the population was 50.5% male and 49.5% female. The median household income was $39,055 and the median family income was $50,984; the per capita income was $22,195. About 10.5% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. Mackinac County is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marquette; the county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Prosecuting Attorney: J. Stuart Spencer Sheriff: Scott Strait County Clerk: Mary Kay Tamlyn County Treasurer: Nora A. Massey Register of Deeds: Deborah Holle County Surveyor: Jeffrey M. Davis There are 34 official state historical markers in the County: Across the Peninsula American Fur Company Store Battlefield of 1814 Biddle House Bois Blanc Island British Cannon British Landing Early Missionary Bark Chapel Epoufette Fort de Buade Fort Holmes Grand Hotel Gros Cap Island & St. Helena Island Historic Fort Mackinac Indian Dormitory Island House Lake Michigan Lake View Hotel Little Stone Church Mackinac Conference Mackinac Island Mackinac Straits Market Street Mission Church Mission House Northernmost Point of Lake Michigan Old Agency House Round Island Lighthouse Sainte Anne Church St. Ignace St. Ignace Mission Skull Cave Trinity Church Wawashkamo Golf Club The Mackinac Island Town Crier is the weekly seasonal newspaper of Mackinac Island.