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Lucerne

Lucerne is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country. Lucerne is the capital of part of the district of the same name. With a population of about 81,057 people, Lucerne is the most populous town in Central Switzerland, a nexus of economics, transportation and media of this region; the city's urban area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three different cantons with an overall population of about 250,000 people. Owing to its location on the shores of Lake Lucerne and its outflow, the river Reuss, within sight of the mounts Pilatus and Rigi in the Swiss Alps, Lucerne has long been a destination for tourists. One of the city's famous landmarks is the Chapel Bridge, a wooden bridge first erected in the 14th century; the official language of Lucerne is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire beginning in the 6th century, Germanic Alemannic peoples increased their influence on this area of present-day Switzerland.

Around 750 the Benedictine Monastery of St. Leodegar was founded, acquired by Murbach Abbey in Alsace in the middle of the 9th century, by this time the area had become known as Luciaria; the origin of the name is uncertain, it is derived from the Latin name of the pike, thus designating a pike fishing spot in the river Reuss. Derivation from the theonym Lugus is phonetically implausible. In any case, the name was associated by popular etymology with Latin lucerna "lantern" from an early time. In 1178 Lucerne acquired its independence from the jurisdiction of Murbach Abbey, the founding of the city proper occurred that same year; the city gained importance as a strategically located gateway for the growing commerce from the Gotthard trade route. By 1290, Lucerne had become a self-sufficient city of reasonable size with about 3000 inhabitants. About this time King Rudolph I von Habsburg gained authority over the Monastery of St. Leodegar and its lands, including Lucerne; the populace was not content with the increasing Habsburg influence, Lucerne allied with neighboring towns to seek independence from their rule.

Along with Lucerne, the three other forest cantons of Uri and Unterwalden formed the "eternal" Swiss Confederacy, known as the Eidgenossenschaft, on November 7, 1332. The cities of Zürich and Bern joined the alliance. With the help of these additions, the rule of Austria over the area came to an end; the issue was settled by Lucerne’s victory over the Habsburgs in the Battle of Sempach in 1386. For Lucerne this victory ignited an era of expansion; the city shortly granted many rights to itself, rights, withheld by the Habsburgs until then. By this time the borders of Lucerne were those of today. In 1415 Lucerne gained Reichsfreiheit from Emperor Sigismund and became a strong member of the Swiss confederacy; the city developed its infrastructure, raised taxes, appointed its own local officials. The city’s population of 3000 dropped about 40% due to the Black Plague and several wars around 1350. In 1419 town records show the first witch trial against a male person. Among the growing towns of the confederacy, Lucerne was popular in attracting new residents.

Remaining predominantly Catholic, Lucerne hosted its own annual passion play from 1453 to 1616, a two-day-long play of 12 hours performance per day. As the confederacy broke up during the Reformation, after 1520, most nearby cities became Protestant, but Lucerne remained Catholic. After the victory of the Catholics over the Protestants in the Battle at Kappel in 1531, the Catholic towns dominated the confederacy, it was during this period that Jesuits first came to Lucerne in 1567, with their arrival given considerable backing by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan. The region, was destined to be dominated by Protestant cities such as Zürich and Basel, which defeated the Catholic forces in the 1712 Toggenburg War; the former prominent position of Lucerne in the confederacy was lost forever. In the 16th and 17th centuries and epidemics became less frequent and as a result the population of the country increased strongly. Lucerne was besieged by a peasant army and signed a peace treaty with the rebels in the Swiss peasant war of 1653.

In 1798, nine years after the beginning of the French Revolution, the French army marched into Switzerland. The old confederacy collapsed and the government became democratic; the industrial revolution hit Lucerne rather late, by 1860 only 1.7% of the population worked in industry, about a quarter of the national average at that time. Agriculture, which employed about 40% of the workers, was the main form of economic output in the canton. Industry was attracted to the city from areas around Lucerne. From 1850 to 1913, the population quadrupled and the flow of settlers increased. In 1856 trains first linked the city to Olten and Basel Zug and Zürich in 1864 and to the south in 1897; the 1804 play William Tell by Friedrich Schiller did much to establish the reputation of Lucerne and its environs. Schiller himself had not been to Lucerne, but was inspired to write the play by his wife Lotte and his friend Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who had both visited the city and its surrounding canton. Goethe had lodged in the Hirschenplatz on his route to Italy in 1779.

It was during the latter part of the 19th century that Lucerne became

Nina Barough

Nina Barough CBE is the Founder and Chief Executive of the grant-making breast cancer charity Walk the Walk. In 1996 Barough was working as a stylist when she had a dream that she was power walking the New York City Marathon in a bra to raise money for breast cancer causes. At the time she had never been involved in charity fundraising and had no connection to breast cancer and although she enjoyed walking she had never power walked before. However, she decided to act on the dream and, with a team of friends she walked the marathon that year raising £25,000 for Breakthrough Breast Cancer. Two months Barough found a lump in her breast while on a work trip to the United States and was diagnosed with cancer herself, she gave up her business in order to focus on treatment, undergoing a mastectomy, breast reconstruction and injections of Zoladex. With the blessing of her surgeon she delayed surgery to take part in the London Marathon, but the next year, 1998, when a larger group wanted to join her, there were not enough places available so she decided to organise her own event the night before the official London Marathon finishing in Trafalgar Square just before the official marathon started.

This evolved into The MoonWalk London, a mass fundraising event which takes place in London every spring. Since the first walk in 1996, over 370,000 women and children have taken part, raising over £131 million for research into breast cancer and to improve the lives of people living with cancer. MoonWalks take place in London and Iceland. MoonWalkers take part in city marathons including London, Berlin and New York and other fundraising events include an Arctic Challenge back country skiing challenge in Swedish Lapland. During this time Barough gained expertise in power walking which led to the publication of her book, Walking for Fitness, she makes regular appearances in the media offering fitness advice and championing walking as a low impact way of achieving fitness without risking injury. Barough continues as Chief Executive of Walk the Walk at its headquarters in Woking, Surrey and is Event Director for all The MoonWalks. 2004 – The Royal Marsden hospital opened the Nina Barough Pathology Laboratory2007 - Barough was awarded a CBE for Services to Healthcare.2007 - Penny Brohn UK named its new residential centre in Bristol after Nina2008 - Barough received a Pride of Britain award for Fundraiser of the Year, a Good Housekeeping Woman of the Year Outstanding Achievement Award2009 - Celebrity Cruises named Barough godmother of ship Equinox2016 - Received an honorary doctorate from Edinburgh Napier University2017 - The new Maggie’s Cancer Centre in Forth Valley, for which Walk the Walk is the Principal Funder, was named the Nina Barough Building Barough is married and the couple live in Berkshire with their young daughter

Peel River (Canada)

The Peel River is a tributary of the Mackenzie River in the Yukon and Northwest Territories in Canada. Its source is in the Ogilvie Mountains in the central Yukon at the confluence of the Ogilvie River and Blackstone River, its main tributaries are: Ogilvie River Blackstone River Hart River Wind River Bonnet Plume River Snake River The Peel River joins the Mackenzie in the Mackenzie Delta. However, a distributary of the Peel is the headwater for a channel that collects distributaries of the Mackenzie; this means that a channel can be followed for a longer distance downriver until it, disseminates into the shared delta. This arguably adds a greater length to the Peel River; the Dempster Highway crosses it at Fort McPherson, via a ferry during the summer months and an ice bridge during the winter. The Peel River is a wilderness river and Fort McPherson is the only community along its banks; the Yukon part of the Peel Watershed is undergoing land use planning. Steven Kokelj, a specialist in permafrost, has documented significant changes in the balance of dissolved ions in the river's water as the region's permafrost starts to melt.

Ions of elements like calcium and sulphur dissolve when the permafrost thaws. List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of the Northwest Territories List of rivers of Yukon