World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Jean Renoir was a French film director, actor and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s, his films La Grande Illusion and The Rules of the Game are cited by critics as among the greatest films made. He was ranked by the BFI's Sight & Sound poll of critics in 2002 as the fourth greatest director of all time. Among numerous honors accrued during his lifetime, he received a Lifetime Achievement Academy Award in 1975 for his contribution to the motion picture industry. Renoir was the son of the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, he was one of the first filmmakers to be known as an auteur. Renoir was born in the Montmartre district of France, he was Pierre-Auguste Renoir, the renowned painter. His elder brother was Pierre Renoir, a French stage and film actor, his younger brother Claude Renoir had a brief minor career in the film industry assisting on a few of Jean's films. Renoir was the uncle of Claude Renoir, the son of Pierre, a cinematographer who worked with Jean Renoir on several of his films.
Renoir was raised by Gabrielle Renard, his nanny and his mother's cousin, with whom he developed a strong bond. Shortly before his birth, she had come to live with the Renoir family, she introduced the young boy to the Guignol puppet shows in Montmartre, which influenced his film career. He wrote in his 1974 memoirs My Life and My Films, "She taught me to see the face behind the mask and the fraud behind the flourishes, she taught me to detest the cliché." Gabrielle was fascinated by the new motion-picture invention, when Renoir was only a few years old she took him to see his first film. As a child, Renoir moved to the south of France with his family, he and the rest of the Renoir family were the subjects of many of his father's paintings. His father's financial success ensured that the young Renoir was educated at fashionable boarding schools, from which, as he wrote, he ran away. At the outbreak of World War I, Renoir was serving in the French cavalry. After receiving a bullet in his leg, he served as a reconnaissance pilot.
His leg injury left him with a permanent limp, but allowed him to discover the cinema, since he recuperated by watching films with his leg elevated, including the works of Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith and others. After the war, Renoir followed his father's suggestion and tried his hand at making ceramics, but he soon set that aside to make films, he was inspired by Erich von Stroheim's work. In 1924, Renoir directed Une Vie Sans Joie or Catherine, the first of his nine silent films, most of which starred his first wife, Catherine Hessling, she was his father's last model. At this stage, his films did not produce a return. Renoir sold paintings inherited from his father to finance them. During the 1930s Renoir enjoyed great success as a filmmaker. In 1931 he directed his first sound films, On La Chienne; the following year he made Boudu Saved From Drowning, a farcical sendup of the pretensions of a middle-class bookseller and his family, who meet with comic, disastrous, results when they attempt to reform a vagrant played by Michel Simon.
By the middle of the decade, Renoir was associated with the Popular Front. Several of his films, such as The Crime of Monsieur Lange, Life Belongs to Us and La Marseillaise, reflect the movement's politics. In 1937 he made what became one of his best-known films, La Grande Illusion, starring Erich von Stroheim and Jean Gabin. A film on the theme of brotherhood, relating a series of escape attempts by French POWs during World War I, it was enormously successful, it was banned in Germany, in Italy, after having won the "Best Artistic Ensemble" award at the Venice Film Festival. It was the first foreign language film to receive a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture, he followed it with The Human Beast, a film noir tragedy based on the novel by Émile Zola and starring Simone Simon and Jean Gabin. This film was a cinematic success. In 1939, able to co-finance his own films, Renoir made The Rules of the Game, a satire on contemporary French society with an ensemble cast. Renoir played the character Octave.
The film was his greatest commercial failure, met with derision by Parisian audiences at its premiere. He extensively without success. A few weeks after the outbreak of World War II, the film was banned by the government. Renoir was a known pacifist and supporter of the French Communist Party, which made him suspect in the tense weeks before the war began; the ban was lifted in 1940, but after the fall of France that June, it was banned again. Subsequently, the original negative of the film was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid, it was not until the 1950s that French film enthusiasts Jean Gaborit and Jacques Durand, with Renoir's cooperation, reconstructed a near-complete print of the film. Since screenings and reappraisals since the 1960s, The Rules of the Game has appeared near the top of critics' polls of the best films made. A week after the disastrous premiere of The Rules of the Game in July 1939, Renoir went to Rome with Karl Koch and Dido Freire, subsequently his second wife, to work on the script for a film version of Tosca.
At the age of 45, he became a lieutenant in the French Army Film Service. He was sent back to Italy, to teach film at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia in Rom
Visconti of Milan
Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. The Visconti of Milan rose to power in their city, where they ruled from 1277 to 1447 as Lords as Dukes and where several collateral branches still exist; the effective founder of the Visconti lordship of Milan was Ottone, who wrested control of the city from the rival Della Torre family in 1277. In the second half of the 11th century, Ariprando Visconti and his son Ottone were the first family members to obtain the title of viscount, which became hereditary throughout the male descent; the primary sources show the first evidence of "Ariprandus et Otto Vicecomes" in 1075. In the following years, Ottone is shown in the proximity of the sovereigns of the Salian dynasty, Henry IV and his son Conrad; this relationship is confirmed by the circumstances of his death, which occurred in Rome in 1111, when he was slaughtered after an attempt to defend Henry V from an assault. In the first documents where they appear and his offspring declared that they abided by the Lombard law and acted in connection with other Milanese families of the noble upper class.
A relationship with the Litta, a Milanese vavasour family subordinate to the Visconti in the feudal hierarchy, is documented. These circumstances make evident their participation to the Milanese society in the years before 1075 and their Lombard origin. In 1134, Guido Visconti, son of Ottone, received from the abbot of St. Gallen the investiture of the court of Massino, a strategic location on the hills above Lake Maggiore, near Arona, where another family member was present in the second half of the 12th century as a guardian of the local archiepiscopal fortress. In 1142, the investiture was confirmed by the King Conrad III, in a diploma released to Guido in Ulm. Another royal diploma, issued by Conrad III in 1142 as well, attests the entitlement of the Visconti to the fodrum in Albusciago and Besnate. On the basis of a document from the year 1157, the Visconti were considered holders of the captaincy of Marliano since the time of the archbishop Landulf. A second Ottone, son of Guido, is attested in the documentary sources between the years 1134 and 1192.
The primary role of Ottone in the political life of the Milanese commune emerges in the period of the confrontation with Frederick Barbarossa: his name is the first to be cited, March 1, 1162, in the group of Milanese leaders surrendering to the emperor after the capitulation of the city that took place in the previous weeks. A member of the following generation, Ariprando was bishop of Vercelli between 1208 and 1213, when he played the role of Papal legate for Innocent III. An attempt to have him elected archbishop of Milan failed in 1212 amidst growing tensions between opposite factions inside the city, his death, in 1213, was caused by poisoning. The family dispersed into several branches, some of which were entrusted fiefs far off from the Lombard metropolis; the members of the other branches added to their surname the name of the place where they chose to live and where a castle was available for their residence. The first of such cases were the Visconti of Massino, the Visconti of Invorio and the Visconti of Oleggio Castello.
In these localities the castle, its remains or a reconstruction of the initial building are still today visible. The Visconti ruled Milan until the early Renaissance, first as Lords from 1395, with the mighty Gian Galeazzo who endeavored to unify Northern Italy and Tuscany, as Dukes. Visconti rule in Milan ended with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447, he was succeeded by a short-lived republic and by his son-in-law Francesco I Sforza, who established the reign of the House of Sforza. With the death of Frederick II in 1250 and the ceasing of the war of the Lombard League against him, which itself was a reason for the Milanese commune to be united in its defence, a period of conflicts between rivaling factions began inside the city; the Della Torre family progressively acquired power in Milan after 1240, when Pagano Della Torre assumed the leadership of the Credenza di Sant'Ambrogio, a political party with a popular base. This allowed them to have a role in the tax collection of the commune, essential to finance the war against Frederick II while affecting the great landowners.
In 1247 Pagano was succeeded by his nephew Martino Della Torre. To underline the preeminence of his position, the new role of Senior of the Credenza was created. In this position the Della Torre began to be confronted with the Milanese noble families organized in their own political party, the Societas Capitaneorum et Valvassorum, having the Visconti among the most prominent figures. After a period of unrest between the opposite parties, in 1258 the so called Sant'Ambrogio Peace was signed among the parties, strengthening the position of La Credenza and La Motta; the peace was undermined by new events in favour of the Della Torre. At the end of 1259, Oberto Pallavicino, a former partisan of Frederick II who got closer to the Guelph positions of the Della Torre, was appointed by the Milanese commune for five years in the role of General Captain of the People. Pallavicino's position in Milan was enhanced by the victory he obtained in the Battle of Cassano on 16 September 1259, against Ezzelino da Romano his ally on the Ghibelline side in the war against Milan, the Lombard League and the Papacy.
In Ezzelino the noble expelled from Milan during
Helmut Berger is an Austrian film and television actor. He is most famous for his work with Luchino Visconti in his performance as King Ludwig II of Bavaria in Ludwig, for which he received a special David di Donatello award, his performance in The Damned for which he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award, he appears in European cinema, but has acted in American productions such as The Godfather Part III as well as a guest appearance on the soap opera, Dynasty. Berger was born in Bad Ischl, into a family of hoteliers. After receiving his Abitur, Berger trained and worked in this field though he had no interest in gastronomy or the hospitality industry. At age eighteen, he moved to London, where he did odd jobs while taking acting classes. After studying languages at University of Perugia in Italy, Berger moved to Italy, he first met the film director Luchino Visconti in 1964. Visconti gave him his first acting role in the film Le streghe, but he gained international prominence as the amoral Martin von Essenbeck in Visconti's The Damned.
In that film, in what is his best-known scene, he pretends to be Marlene Dietrich in the film The Blue Angel. It was followed by the title role in the Oscar Wilde adaption Dorian Gray and a leading role in the Oscar-winning Italian drama film The Garden of the Finzi-Continis. In Visconti's Ludwig, Berger portrays Ludwig II of Bavaria from his blooming youth to his dissolute final years. Romy Schneider starred alongside him in the film; this performance got him a David di Donatello award and is his most famous role. In 1974, Berger starred with Burt Lancaster in Visconti's Conversation Piece; the story of Conversation Piece is considered as an allegory of the personal relationship between Berger and Visconti. On several occasions Berger mentioned this film as his favorite. In the following he played leading roles in international productions such as Ash Wednesday alongside Elizabeth Taylor and Henry Fonda. Another film was The Romantic Englishwoman alongside Glenda Jackson, he appeared in Tinto Brass's controversial film, Salon Kitty with Ingrid Thulin in 1976.
Well-known photographers including Helmut Newton, Mary Ellen Mark and David Bailey published series of pictures of him. Andy Warhol produced serigraphs. Berger was in 1970, alongside his then-girlfriend Marisa Berenson, the first man on the cover of Vogue; the death of his partner Luchino Visconti in 1976 plunged him into a personal crisis. One year after Visconti died, Berger tried to commit suicide but was found in time to be saved. In the following time the abuse of drugs and alcohol shadowed his acting career. In 1980 Berger was cast by Claude Chabrol as Fantômas before he went to America to work in television in the role of Peter De Vilbis in nine episodes of the American prime time soap opera Dynasty, which he said he did only for money, he would say he was "crying on the way to the set but laughing on the way to the bank". This was his last appearance in a television series, he continued working in the US on various projects, most notably starring in Code Name: Emerald in 1985. In Europe, he acted the TV-miniseries The Betrothed in 1989.
In 1990, Berger appeared in The Godfather Part III. He appeared in the music video to Madonna's song "Erotica" in 1992, appeared in Madonna's book Sex. In 1993, Berger reprised his role as King Ludwig II. in the critically acclaimed film Ludwig 1881. Throughout the second half of the 1990s, he concentrated on European productions, acting in films directed by Christoph Schlingensief, Yves Boisset and many others. In 1997, Quentin Tarantino included some archive footage of the film Beast with a Gun in his film Jackie Brown and thanked Berger in the closing credits for his powerful performance. From the early 2000s to 2009, Berger withdrew from the acting world, moving to Salzburg to his mother, in need of care, she died in 2009. Since he has acted in bigger film productions again. 2012, Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf Verlag published Helmut Berger – A Life in Pictures, a coffee table book about his life, featuring many unreleased photographs of his life and films plus essays in German, English and French.
The book was well received by the press. In the thriller film Iron Cross Berger played Shrager, an aging character believed to be an old SS commander responsible for murdering Jews during World War II. In recent years, Berger has starred in two films directed by Peter Kern – Blutsfreundschaft, Mörderschwestern. In 2014, Berger appeared in Saint Laurent as old Yves Saint Laurent for which he was "celebrated" at Cannes Film Festival; the short film Art!, in which Berger had a starring role, had its world premiere at Paris Independent Film Festival 2015. Most he stars in the role of "Professor Martin" in the film Timeless by Alexander Tuschinski, due to be released in 2016. In 2015 Austrian filmmaker Andreas Horvath released a feature-length documentary about Helmut Berger called Helmut Berger, Actor; the film premiered at the Venice Film Festival. In the magazine Artforum American film director John Waters chose Helmut Berger, Actor as the Best Motion Picture of the year 2015. On February 22, 2018, the premiere of Albert Serra's play, Liberté, starring Helmut Berger and Ingrid Caven was performed at the Volksbühne theater in Berlin.
The play is scheduled to be performed throughout 2018. In 1969, Berger was nominated for a Golden Globe Award
Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang was an Austrian-German-American filmmaker and occasional film producer and actor. One of the best-known émigrés from Germany's school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the "Master of Darkness" by the British Film Institute. Lang's most famous films include the groundbreaking futuristic Metropolis and the influential M, a film noir precursor that he made before he moved to the United States. Lang was born in Vienna as the second son of Anton Lang, an architect and construction company manager, his wife Pauline "Paula" Lang née Schlesinger, he was baptized on December 1890, at the Schottenkirche in Vienna. Lang's parents were of Moravian descent, his parents took their religion and were dedicated to raising Fritz as a Catholic. Lang had Catholic-influenced themes in his films. Late in life, he described himself as "born Catholic". After finishing school, Lang attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering and switched to art. In 1910 he left Vienna to see the world, traveling throughout Europe and Africa and Asia and the Pacific area.
In 1913, he studied painting in France. At the outbreak of World War I, Lang returned to Vienna and volunteered for military service in the Austrian army and fought in Russia and Romania, where he was wounded three times. While recovering from his injuries and shell shock in 1916, he wrote some scenarios and ideas for films, he was discharged from the army with the rank of lieutenant in 1918 and did some acting in the Viennese theater circuit for a short time before being hired as a writer at Decla, Erich Pommer's Berlin-based production company. Lang was an atheist. Lang's writing stint was brief, as he soon started to work as a director at the German film studio UFA, Nero-Film, just as the Expressionist movement was building. In this first phase of his career, Lang alternated between films such as Der Müde Tod and popular thrillers such as Die Spinnen, combining popular genres with Expressionist techniques to create an unprecedented synthesis of popular entertainment with art cinema. In 1920, Lang met the writer Thea von Harbou.
She and Lang co-wrote all of his movies from 1921 through 1933, including Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler, which ran for over four hours in two parts in the original version and was the first in the Dr. Mabuse trilogy, the five-hour Die Nibelungen, the famous 1927 film Metropolis, the science fiction film Woman in the Moon. Metropolis went far over budget and nearly destroyed the Ufa, bought by right-wing businessman and politician Alfred Hugenberg, it was a financial flop as well as his last silent films Spies and Woman in the Moon produced by Lang's own company. In 1931 independent producer Seymour Nebenzahl hired Lang to direct M for Nero-Film, his first "talking" picture, considered by many film scholars to be a masterpiece of the early sound era, M is a disturbing story of a child murderer, hunted down and brought to rough justice by Berlin's criminal underworld. M remains a powerful work. During the climactic final scene in M, Lang threw Peter Lorre down a flight of stairs in order to give more authenticity to Lorre's battered look.
Lang, known for being hard to work with, epitomized the stereotype of the tyrannical German film director, a type embodied by Erich von Stroheim and Otto Preminger. His wearing a monocle added to the stereotype. In the films of his German period, Lang produced a coherent oeuvre that established the characteristics attributed to film noir, with its recurring themes of psychological conflict, paranoia and moral ambiguity. At the end of 1932, Lang started filming The Testament of Dr. Mabuse. Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, by March 30, the new regime banned it as an incitement to public disorder. Testament is sometimes deemed an anti-Nazi film as Lang had put phrases used by the Nazis into the mouth of the title character. Lang was worried about the advent of the Nazi regime because of his Jewish heritage, whereas his wife and screenwriter Thea von Harbou had started to sympathize with the Nazis in the early 1930s and joined the NSDAP in 1940, they soon divorced. Lang's fears would be realized following his departure from Austria, as under the Nuremberg Laws he would be identified as a Jew though his mother was a converted Roman Catholic, he was raised as such.
According to Lang, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels called Lang to his offices to inform him that The Testament of Dr Mabuse was being banned but that he was so impressed by Lang's abilities as a filmmaker, he was offering Lang a position as the head of German film studio UFA. Lang had stated that it was during this meeting that he had decided to leave for Paris – but that the banks had closed by the time the meeting was over. Lang has stated that he fled that evening; this statement has been found wrong after his passport of the time showed that he travelled a few times during 1933 to and from Germany, where he got his divorce from Thea von Harbou, who stayed behind, late in 1933. Lang left Berlin on 31 July 1933, four months after his meeting with Goebbels and supposed dramatic escape, he moved to Paris. In Paris, Lang filmed a version of Ferenc Molnár's Liliom; this was Lang's only film in Fren
Camillo Boito was an Italian architect and engineer, a noted art critic, art historian and novelist. Boito was born in the son of an Italian painter of miniatures, his mother was of Polish ancestry. He studied in Padua and architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia in Venice. During his time there, he was influenced by Selvatico Estense, an architect who championed the study of medieval art in Italy, he taught architecture at the Venice School of Fine Arts until 1856. His agitation against the Austrian domination of Venice pressured him to leave, despite his position as adjunct professor at the Academy. In Florence he begins to write for the journal lo Spettatore edited by Celestino Bianchi. In 1860, he was named professor of Superior Architecture at the Brera Academy in Milan. In Milan, he published for a number of journals, including Politecnico and Nuova Antologia. During his extensive work restoring ancient buildings, he tried to reconcile the conflicting views of his contemporaries on architectural restoration, notably those of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and John Ruskin.
This reconciliation of ideas was presented at the III Conference of Architects and Civil Engineers of Rome in 1883 in a document to be known as the "Prima Carta del Restauro" or the Charter of Restoration. This inaugural charter develops eight points to be taken into consideration in the restoration of historical monuments: The differentiation of style between new and old parts of a building; the differentiation in building materials between the new and the old. Suppression of moldings and decorative elements in new fabric placed in a historical building. Exhibition in a nearby place of any material parts of a historical building that were removed during the process of restoration. Inscription of the date on new fabric in a historical building. Descriptive epigraph of the restoration work done attached to the monument. Registration and description with photographs of the different phases of restoration; this register should remain in a nearby public place. This requirement may be substituted by publication of this material.
Visual notoriety of the restoration work done. The concern was for maintaining authenticity in terms of the identification of original materials. At the same time, the intention was to promote a "scientific" attitude toward restoration. Boito's principles were well accepted and inspired modern legislation on restoration of historical monuments in several countries. Boito is most famous for his restoration of the Church and Campanile of Santi Maria e Donato at Murano, inspired by the theories and techniques of Viollet-Le-Duc, he worked on the Porta Ticinese in Milan between 1856–1858 and famed Basilica of Saint Anthony in Padua in 1899. He designed the Cemetery of Gallarate. Other architectural designs include a school in Milan, his most famous building in Milan is the Casa di Riposo per Musicisti, built 1895 - 99. It was financed by the composer Giuseppe Verdi and serves as a rest home for retired musicians, as a memorial for the composer, buried in the crypt of the chapel there. In the early 1900s, Boito helped shape Italian laws protecting historical monuments.
Boito died in Milan in 1914. Boito wrote several collections of short stories, including a psychological horror short story titled "A Christmas Eve", a tale of incestuous obsession and necrophilia, which bears a striking similarity to Edgar Allan Poe's "Berenice." A short film adaptation was released in 2012. Around 1882 he wrote Senso, a disturbing tale of sexual decadence. In 1954, Senso was memorably adapted for the screen by Italian director Luchino Visconti and later, in 2002 into a more sexually disturbing adaptation by Tinto Brass. Another story, "Un Corpo", has been adapted into an opera by the Greek composer Kharálampos Goyós. Arrigo Boito, Camillo's younger brother, was a noted poet and the author of the libretti for Giuseppe Verdi's last two great operas and Falstaff. Scapigliatura Senso
Arturo Toscanini was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most acclaimed musicians of the late 19th and of the 20th century, renowned for his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and sonority, his eidetic memory, he was at various times the music director of La Scala in Milan, the Metropolitan Opera in New York, the New York Philharmonic. In his career he was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra, this led to his becoming a household name through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire. Toscanini was born in Parma, Emilia-Romagna, won a scholarship to the local music conservatory, where he studied the cello. Living conditions at the conservatory were harsh. For example, his diet consisted completely of fish; when he became successful, he never ate anything. He joined the orchestra of an opera company, with which he toured South America in 1886. While presenting Aida in Rio de Janeiro on June 25, Leopoldo Miguez, the locally hired conductor, reached the summit of a two-month escalating conflict with the performers due to his rather poor command of the work, to the point that the singers went on strike and forced the company's general manager to seek a substitute conductor.
Carlo Superti and Aristide Venturi tried unsuccessfully to finish the work. In desperation, the singers suggested the name of their assistant Chorus Master, who knew the whole opera from memory. Although he had no conducting experience, Toscanini was persuaded by the musicians to take up the baton at 9:15 pm, led a performance of the two-and-a-half hour opera from memory; the public was taken by surprise, at first by the youth and sheer aplomb of this unknown conductor by his solid mastery. The result was astounding acclaim. For the rest of that season, Toscanini conducted all with absolute success, thus began his career as a conductor, at age 19. Upon returning to Italy, Toscanini set out on a dual path, he continued to conduct, his first appearance in Italy being at the Teatro Carignano in Turin, on November 4, 1886, in the world premiere of the revised version of Alfredo Catalani's Edmea. This was championing of Catalani, he returned to his chair in the cello section, participated as cellist in the world premiere of Verdi's Otello under the composer's supervision.
Verdi, who habitually complained that conductors never seemed interested in directing his scores the way he had written them, was impressed by reports from Arrigo Boito about Toscanini's ability to interpret his scores. The composer was impressed when Toscanini consulted him about Verdi's Te Deum, suggesting an allargando where it was not set out in the score. Verdi said that he had left it out for fear that "certain interpreters would have exaggerated the marking". Toscanini's reputation as an operatic conductor of unusual authority and skill supplanted his cello career. In the following decade, he consolidated his career in Italy, entrusted with the world premieres of Puccini's La bohème and Leoncavallo's Pagliacci. In 1896, Toscanini conducted his first symphonic concert, he exhibited a considerable capacity for hard work, conducting 43 concerts in Turin in 1898. By 1898, Toscanini was Principal Conductor at La Scala, where he remained until 1908, returning as Music Director, from 1921–1929.
During this time he collaborated with Alfredo Antonini – a young pianist and organist in La Scala Orchestra. He brought the La Scala Orchestra to the United States on a concert tour in 1920/21, during which he made his first recordings. Outside Europe, Toscanini conducted at the Metropolitan Opera in New York as well as the New York Philharmonic. At the end of his season with the Metropolitan Opera in May 1915 Toscanini was set to return to Europe aboard the doomed RMS Lusitania, but instead cut his concert schedule short and left a week early aboard the Italian liner Duca degli Abruzzi, he toured Europe with the New York Philharmonic in 1930. At each performance, he and the orchestra were acclaimed by audiences. Toscanini was the first non-German conductor to appear at Bayreuth, the New York Philharmonic was the first non-German orchestra to play there. In the 1930s, he conducted at the Salzburg Festival, as well as the 1936 inaugural concert of the Palestine Orchestra in Tel Aviv conducting them in Jerusalem, Haifa and Alexandria.
During his engagement with the New York Philharmonic, Hans Lange, the son of the last Master of the Sultan's Music in Istanbul, who became conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the founder of the New Mexico Symphony Orchestra as a professional ensemble, was his concert master. During his career, Toscanini collaborated with such artists as Enrico Caruso, Feodor Chaliapin, Ezio Pinza, Jussi Björling, Geraldine Farrar and Lauritz Melchior. In 1919, Toscanini unsuccessfully ran as a Fascist parliamentary candidate in Milan, he had been called "the greatest conductor in the world" by Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. Toscanini had become disillusioned with fascism before the October 1922 March on Rome and defied the Italian dictator, he refused to display Musso