Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvadore Cammarano wrote the Italian-language libretto loosely based upon Sir Walter Scott's historical novel The Bride of Lammermoor. Donizetti wrote Lucia di Lammermoor in 1835, a time when several factors led to the height of his reputation as a composer of opera. Gioachino Rossini had retired and Vincenzo Bellini had died shortly before the premiere of Lucia leaving Donizetti as "the sole reigning genius of Italian opera". Not only were conditions ripe for Donizetti's success as a composer, but there was a European interest in the history and culture of Scotland; the perceived romance of its violent wars and feuds, as well as its folklore and mythology, intrigued 19th century readers and audiences. Sir Walter Scott dramatized these elements in his novel The Bride of Lammermoor, which inspired several musical works including Lucia; the story concerns the fragile Lucy Ashton, caught in a feud between her own family and that of the Ravenswoods.
The setting is the Lammermuir Hills of Scotland in the 17th century. The opera premiered on 26 September 1835 at the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples. However, John Black notes that "the surprising feature of its subsequent performance history is that it established so in the Neapolitan repertoire", noting that while there were 18 performances in the rest of 1835, there were only four in 1836, 16 in 1837, two in 1838, continuing in this manner with only two in each of 1847 and 1848. London saw the opera on 5 April 1838 and, for Paris, Donizetti revised the score for a French version which debuted on 6 August 1839 at the Théâtre de la Renaissance in Paris, it reached the United States with a production in New Orleans on 28 December 1841. The opera was never absent from the repertory of the Metropolitan Opera for more than one season at a time from 1903 until 1972. After World War II, a number of sopranos were instrumental in giving new life to the opera, including Maria Callas and Dame Joan Sutherland.
It has remained a staple of the operatic repertoire. The instrumentation is: Woodwinds: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons Brass: 4 horns, 2 trumpets and 3 trombones Percussion: timpani, bass drum and campana Strings: harp, first violins, second violins, violas and double basses. Additionally an off-stage wind band is used; the glass harmonica is substituted for solo flute in Lucia's mad scene, per Donizetti's original score. Time: Early 18th century Place: Scotland Scene 1: The gardens of Lammermoor Castle Normanno, captain of the castle guard, other retainers are searching for an intruder, he tells Enrico that he believes that the man is Edgardo of Ravenswood, that he comes to the castle to meet Enrico's sister, Lucia. It is confirmed. Enrico reaffirms his determination to end the relationship. Scene 2: By a fountain at the entrance to the park, beside the castle Lucia waits for Edgardo. In her famous aria "Regnava nel silenzio", Lucia tells her maid Alisa that she has seen the ghost of a girl killed on the same spot by a jealous Ravenswood ancestor.
Alisa tells Lucia that she must give up her love for Edgardo. Edgardo enters, he hopes to marry Lucia. Lucia tells him this is impossible, instead they take a sworn vow of marriage and exchange rings. Edgardo leaves. Scene 1: Lord Ashton's apartments Preparations have been made for the imminent wedding of Lucia to Arturo. Enrico worries about whether Lucia will submit to the wedding, he shows his sister a forged letter proving that Edgardo has forgotten her and taken a new lover. Enrico leaves Lucia to further persuasion, this time by Raimondo, Lucia's chaplain and tutor, that she should renounce her vow to Edgardo, for the good of the family, marry Arturo. Scene 2: A hall in the castle Arturo arrives for the marriage. Lucia seems distressed. Arturo signs the marriage contract, followed reluctantly by Lucia. At that point Edgardo appears in the hall, which leads to the celebrated sextette Chi mi frena in tal momento. Raimondo prevents a fight. Edgardo curses her, he tramples his ring before being forced out of the castle.
Scene 1: Wolfcrag Enrico visits Edgardo to challenge him to a duel. He tells him that Lucia is enjoying her bridal bed. Edgardo agrees to fight him, they will meet by the graveyard of the Ravenswoods, near the Wolf's Crag. Scene 2: A Hall Raimondo interrupts the marriage celebrations to tell the guests that Lucia has gone mad and killed her bridegroom Arturo. Lucia enters. In the aria "Il dolce suono" she imagines being with Edgardo, soon to be married. Enrico enters and at first threatens Lucia but softens when he realizes her condition. Lucia collapses. Raimondo blames Normanno for precipitating the whole tragedy. Scene 3: The graveyard of the Ravenswood family Edgardo is resolved to kill himself on Enrico's sword, he learns that Lucia is dying and Raimondo comes to tell him that she has died. Edgardo stabs himself with a dagger; the cabaletta "Spargi d'amaro pianto" following the more lyrical "Il dolce suono" from the
The Dream Theater, located at 629 N. Main St. in Russell, Kansas, is an Art Deco-style theater, built in 1948. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006, it was built in c.1948-49 to replace the previous Dream Theater, built as the "Main Street Theater" in 1929, renamed in 1934. The previous theater was destroyed by fire on April 19, 1947; the new theater was designed to be "a modern, futurist, up-to-date, fireproof theater that would rival theaters in large cities."It was designed by architects Robert O. Boller and Dietz Lusk Jr. of Kansas City, is a late example of the Art Deco style. Media related to Dream Theater at Wikimedia Commons
Gubavčevo Polje is a village in Croatia. According to the 2011 census, Gubavčevo Polje had 3 inhabitants. Napomena: Till 1948 it was part of the settlement. In census period 1857–1880 data is include in the settlement of Kijani. According to the 1991 census, settlement of Gubavčevo Polje had 59 inhabitants, which were ethnically declared as this: According to the 1910 census, settlement of Gubavčevo Polje had 426 inhabitants in 3 hamlets, which were linguistically and religiously declared as this: Savezni zavod za statistiku i evidenciju FNRJ i SFRJ, popis stanovništva 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981. I 1991. Godine. Knjiga: "Narodnosni i vjerski sastav stanovništva Hrvatske, 1880–1991: po naseljima, author: Jakov Gelo, izdavač: Državni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske, 1998. ISBN 953-6667-07-X, ISBN 978-953-6667-07-9