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Lucid dream

A lucid dream is a dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming. During a lucid dream, the dreamer may gain some amount of control over the dream characters and environment. Lucid dreaming has been reported for many years. Prominent figures from ancient to modern times have been fascinated by lucid dreams and have sought ways to better understand their causes and purpose. Many different theories have emerged as a result of scientific research on the subject and have been shown in pop culture. Further developments in psychological research have pointed to ways in which this form of dreaming may be utilized as a form of sleep therapy; the term'lucid dream' was coined by Dutch author and psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden in his 1913 article A Study of Dreams, though descriptions of dreamers being aware that they are dreaming predates the actual term. Eeden studied his personal dreams since 1896, he wrote down the dreams that seemed most important to him, out of all these dreams, 352 were what is now known as “lucid dreams”.

He created different names for the different types of dreams he experienced. He named seven different types of dreams: initial dreams, ordinary dreaming, vivid dreaming, general dream-sensations, lucid dreaming. Frederick Van Eeden said the seventh type of dreaming, lucid dreaming, was the most interesting and worthy of the most careful observation of studies. Eeden studied lucid dreaming between January 20, 1898, December 26, 1912. While describing this state of dreaming, Eeden said,'you are aware of your surroundings and are able to direct your actions yet the sleep is stimulating and uninterrupted.' Early references to the phenomenon are found in ancient Greek writing. For example, the philosopher Aristotle wrote:'often when one is asleep, there is something in consciousness which declares that what presents itself is but a dream'. Meanwhile, the physician Galen of Pergamon used lucid dreams as a form of therapy. In addition, a letter written by Saint Augustine of Hippo in 415 AD tells the story of a dreamer, Doctor Gennadius, refers to lucid dreaming.

In Eastern thought, cultivating the dreamer's ability to be aware that he or she is dreaming is central to both the Tibetan Buddhist practice of dream Yoga, the ancient Indian Hindu practice of Yoga nidra. The cultivation of such awareness was common practice among early Buddhists. Philosopher and physician Sir Thomas Browne was fascinated by dreams and described his own ability to lucid dream in his Religio Medici, stating:'...yet in one dream I can compose a whole Comedy, behold the action, apprehend the jests and laugh my self awake at the conceits thereof'. Samuel Pepys in his diary entry for 15 August 1665 records a dream, stating: "I had my Lady Castlemayne in my arms and was admitted to use all the dalliance I desired with her, dreamt that this could not be awake, but that it was only a dream". In 1867, the French sinologist Marie-Jean-Léon, Marquis d'Hervey de Saint Denys anonymously published Les Rêves et Les Moyens de Les Diriger. In 1913, Dutch psychiatrist and writer Frederik van Eeden coined the term'lucid dream' in an article entitled "A Study of Dreams".

Some have suggested that the term is a misnomer because van Eeden was referring to a phenomenon more specific than a lucid dream. Van Eeden intended the term lucid to denote "having insight", as in the phrase a lucid interval applied to someone in temporary remission from a psychosis, rather than as a reference to the perceptual quality of the experience, which may or may not be clear and vivid. In 1968, Celia Green analyzed the main characteristics of such dreams, reviewing published literature on the subject and incorporating new data from participants of her own, she concluded that lucid dreams were a category of experience quite distinct from ordinary dreams and said they were associated with rapid eye movement sleep. Green was the first to link lucid dreams to the phenomenon of false awakenings. Lucid dreaming was subsequently researched by asking dreamers to perform pre-determined physical responses while experiencing a dream, including eye movement signals. In 1980, Stephen LaBerge at Stanford University developed such techniques as part of his doctoral dissertation.

In 1985, LaBerge performed a pilot study that showed that time perception while counting during a lucid dream is about the same as during waking life. Lucid dreamers counted out ten seconds while dreaming, signaling the start and the end of the count with a pre-arranged eye signal measured with electrooculogram recording. LaBerge's results were confirmed by German researchers D. Erlacher and M. Schredl in 2004. In a further study by Stephen LaBerge, four subjects were compared either singing while dreaming or counting while dreaming. LaBerge found that the right hemisphere was more active during singing and the left hemisphere was more active during counting. Neuroscientist J. Allan Hobson has hypothesized; the first step to lucid dreaming is recognizing. This recognition might occur in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, one of the few areas deactivated during REM sleep and where working memory occurs. Once this area is activated and the recognition of dreaming occurs, the dreamer must be cautious to let the dream continue but be conscious enough to remember that it is a dream

Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile

The Bureau of Enquiry and Analysis for Civil Aviation Safety is an agency of the French government, responsible for investigating aviation accidents and incidents and making safety recommendations based on what is learned from those investigations. Its headquarters are near Paris; the BEA has 120 employees, including 12 investigative assistants. It is under the authority of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing; the BEA was created in 1946. It operates under L711-1 et seq. of the French civil aviation code. Following international rules, French authorities are responsible for investigating all aircraft accidents occurring in French territory or airspace, as well as accidents involving French aircraft occurring in international airspace or in other countries if the local authorities do not open a technical enquiry, they may assist foreign investigation authorities at their request. Since 17 December 2001, the head of the BEA has been Paul-Louis Arslanian, engineer general of the Roads and Bridges.

It is headquartered in Building 153 on the grounds of Paris - Le Bourget Airport in Le Bourget, near Paris. The BEA building is located in front of the French Air and Space Museum and houses offices and laboratories; the BEA building at Le Bourget has over 5,000 square metres of space. The building had 1,000 square metres of space. In addition the BEA has facilities at Melun Aerodrome, they protected areas with a combined total of 6,000 square metres of space. The BEA has hangars and protected areas in Bonneuil-sur-Marne; the BEA has satellite offices in Aix-en-Provence, Bordeaux and Toulouse. At one time the head office of the Bureau Enquêtes-Accidents was in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. Aviation safety Bureau d'Enquêtes sur les Événements de Mer – French maritime transport investigation agency French Land Transport Accident Investigation Bureau – French ground transport investigation agency BEA website BEA website BEA website at the Wayback Machine BEA website at the Wayback Machine

Shoulder Arms

Shoulder Arms is Charlie Chaplin's second film for First National Pictures. Released in 1918, it is a silent comedy set in France during World War I; the main part of the film occurs in a dream. It co-starred Sydney Chaplin, Chaplin's elder brother, it is Chaplin's shortest feature film as well as the first feature film. Charlie is in boot camp in the "awkward squad." Once in France he gets no letters from home. He gets a package containing limburger cheese which requires a gas mask and which he throws over into the German trench, he goes "over the top" and captures thirteen Germans volunteers to wander through the German lines disguised as a tree trunk. With the help of a French girl he captures the Kaiser and the Crown Prince and is given a statue and victory parade in New York and then... fellow soldiers wake him from his dream. Charles Chaplin... Charlie, the Doughboy Edna Purviance... French girl Sydney Chaplin... The sergeant, Charlie's Comrade/The Kaiser Jack Wilson... German Crown Prince Henry Bergman...

Fat German sergeant/Field Marshal von Hindenburg/Bartender Albert Austin... American Officer/Clean Shaven German Soldier/Bearded German Soldier Tom Wilson... Dumb German Wood-Cutter John Rand... U. S. soldier J. Parks Jones... U. S. soldier Loyal Underwood... Small German officer W. J. Allen... Motorcyclist L. A. Blaisdell... Motorcyclist Wellington Cross... Motorcyclist C. L. Dice... Motorcyclist G. A. Godfrey... Motorcyclist W. Herron... Motorcyclist Shoulder Arms proved to be Chaplin's most popular film and commercially, up to that point. A review in the October 21, 1918 New York Times was typical: "'The fool's funny,' was the chuckling observation of one of those who saw Charlie Chaplin's new film. Shoulder Arms, at the Strand yesterday—and that's the way everybody felt. There have been learned discussions as to whether Chaplin's comedy is low or high, artistic or crude, but no one can deny that when he impersonates a screen fool he is funny. Most of those who go to find fault with him remain to laugh, they may still find fault, but they will keep on laughing."

List of World War I films Shoulder Arms on IMDb

Cairns (disambiguation)

Cairns may refer to: Cairns, a town in Queensland, Australia Cairns Region, the current local government area City of Cairns, the former local government area Cairns City, the central suburb Electoral district of Cairns, a district in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland Cairns, California, a ghost town in Placer County, California in the United States The Cairns, a mixed-use district under development in Sandy, Utah, U. S. Cairns, on Mars Cairns, an area of Halfway, South Lanarkshire, Scotland Cairns of Coll, a region of rocky outcrops in shallow waters extending from the north end of the island of Coll in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland HMAS Cairns, a ship, a shore establishment, of the Royal Australian Navy Aiden Cairns, Australian Rugby League player Alan Cairns, Canadian retired political science professor Alun Cairns, Welsh politician Andy Cairns, Northern Irish musician Buster Cairns, Canadian footballer Chris Cairns, New Zealand cricketer David Cairns, English musician David Cairns, 5th Earl Cairns David Cairns, Scottish politician David Cairns, British writer and music critic Don Cairns, ice hockey player Eric Cairns, ice hockey player Fred Cairns, British entertainer George Albert Cairns, British recipient of the Victoria Cross Graeme Cairns, New Zealand musician Holly Cairns, Irish Social Democrat politician Hugh Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns Hugh Cairns, British surgeon Hugh Cairns, Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross Ian Cairns, former World Champion surfer Imogen Cairns, British gymnast Jim Cairns, Australian politician John Cairns, British biochemist John B.

Cairns, former Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland John Cairns, 19th century Scottish divine and writer Kevin Cairns Kevin Cairns, English footballer Lance Cairns, cricketer Leah Cairns, Canadian actress Matt Cairns, English rugby union player Mark Cairns, English squash player Mark Cairns, Scottish football goalkeeper Rachel Cairns, British actress Ronnie Cairns, English footballer Ryan Cairns, Zimbabwean golfer Sally Cairns, American film actress Scott Cairns, American poet Stephen D. Cairns, U. S. zoologist Tommy Cairns, Scottish footballer Warwick Cairns, British author Wilfred Cairns, 4th Earl Cairns William Cairns, British colonial administrator Cairns, a 2008 work by Christine Bourdette in Portland, Oregon, US Clan Cairns, a Scottish clan Cairns Group, an interest group of 19 nations Cairn McCairns


Hunan is a landlocked province in Central China. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west, Chongqing to the northwest, its capital and largest city is Changsha, which abuts the Xiang River. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of 210,000 km2, it is China's 7th most populous province by population and the 10th most extensive province by area; the name Hunan means "south of the lake". The lake, referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province; the area of Hunan first came under Chinese rule around 350 BC, when the province became part of the State of Chu. Hunan was the birthplace of Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China. Hunan today is home to some ethnic minorities, including the Tujia and Miao, along with the Han Chinese, who make up a majority of the population.

Varieties of Chinese spoken include Xiang and Southwestern Mandarin. Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River; the site of Wulingyuan was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. Changsha, the capital, is located in the eastern part of the province. Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia and Yao peoples; the province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, the Changsha Kingdom during the Han dynasty. At this time, for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains; the agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods.

To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu. Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723. Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River, it was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China; the land produced grain so abundantly. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings; some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions.

The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850. The rebellion spread into Hunan and further eastward along the Yangzi River valley, it was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864. Hunan was quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927, it was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war, they defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou. Hunan was unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945.

In 1949, the Communists returned once more. As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976. In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji. Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres, making it the 10th largest provincial-level division; the east and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountai

Saúl Castañeda Ochoa

Saúl Castañeda Ochoa is a Mexican footballer who plays for Mazeres/ US Luzenac on France as a midfielder. Castañeda started his career at club Universidad Cuauhtemoc of Tercera División de México been a key player on his first season as a professional, reaching playoffs with the team. After his first season he was transfer to Chapala FC in Tercera Division. Having an outstanding season and a great playoffs, he got offers from a club from Argentina, C. D. Guadalajara and from Academia REDH in Spain, he fly to Spain to continue with his career. Under the management of Guillermo Ángel Hoyos he reached a good form, he spend 2 years there where he was one of the best players of the Academy along Lucas Trejo, Roberto Fabian Sanchez Doldan, Derlis David Meza Colli Ángel Guillermo Hoyos Jr. They won the promotion to División de Honor Juvenil, he played the prestigious tournament MIC Cup on 2006 and 2007. He could not sign for better clubs because his foreign status. After played for Academia REDH he spend the season 2008-2009 playing for two teams in Spain.

Vilajuiga and Fundacio Calella 6 months at each team where he reach with his teams the 3rd place on Catalunya region. Saul spent some months playing in Italy for Enzo Grasso on Serie D before he made his return to México. After a lot of years in Europe Saul Castañeda went back to his country to find a chance to show his skills and experience. Búhos de Hermosillo was the club go sign and he played or this team on Segunda División de México, he was there from 2009 to 2011 and reach two final phases to fight for the promotion but they were eliminated, he was a key member of the team been a starter. After his Mexican adventure he missed Europe, he trial for Mazares and the coach decided to sign him. While he was there he was and injury. In December 2012, Saul Castañeda wanted to trial a different football experience and go on trial to Thailand, he trial for Singhtarua F. C. and the club show interest on sign him, but the agent, helping him told him that he got everything set to sign him for Samut Songkhram F.

C. He was training with them and the coach told him that he want to see him in a friendly match and after that sign him; the match day the agent told him to go on a taxi cab because he was busy so he write down the address and Saul took a taxi but they never get there, he did not speak Thai so they got lost and he never made it to the match. After this experience Samut Songkhram F. C. coach told him that he doesn´t have interest no more because he didn´t made it to the matches though it was not his fault. Due to the bad experience in Thailand he decided to go back to France to his former club Mazeres; because his great performance and the agreement that Mazares has with US Luzenac of Championnat National Saul Castañeda Ochoa ended up the season training and playing friendly matches with Luzenac. He has been part of the under-18 team he was scout by coach César Vega on MIC Cup tournament in Spain