Lucifer is a Latin name for the planet Venus in its morning appearances and is used for mythological and religious figures associated with the planet. Due to the unique movements and discontinuous appearances of Venus in the sky, mythology surrounding these figures involved a fall from the heavens to earth or the underworld. Interpretations of a similar term in the Hebrew Bible, translated in the King James Version as "Lucifer", led to a Christian tradition of applying the name Lucifer, its associated stories of a fall from heaven, to Satan. Most modern scholarship regards these interpretations as questionable and translates the term in the relevant Bible passage as "morning star" or "shining one" rather than as a proper name "Lucifer"; as a name for the Devil, the more common meaning in English, "Lucifer" is the rendering of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל in Isaiah given in the King James Version of the Bible. The translators of this version took the word from the Latin Vulgate, which translated הֵילֵל by the Latin word lucifer, meaning "the morning star, the planet Venus", or, as an adjective, "light-bringing".
As a name for the planet in its morning aspect, "Lucifer" is a proper name and is capitalized in English. In Greco-Roman civilization, it was personified and considered a god and in some versions considered a son of Aurora. A similar name used by the Roman poet Catullus for the planet in its evening aspect is "Noctifer"; the motif of a heavenly being striving for the highest seat of heaven only to be cast down to the underworld has its origins in the motions of the planet Venus, known as the morning star. The Sumerian goddess Inanna is associated with the planet Venus, Inanna's actions in several of her myths, including Inanna and Shukaletuda and Inanna's Descent into the Underworld appear to parallel the motion of Venus as it progresses through its synodic cycle. A similar theme is present in the Babylonian myth of Etana; the Jewish Encyclopedia comments: "The brilliancy of the morning star, which eclipses all other stars, but is not seen during the night, may have given rise to a myth such as was told of Ethana and Zu: he was led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods... but was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Babylonian Olympus."The fall from heaven motif has a parallel in Canaanite mythology.
In ancient Canaanite religion, the morning star is personified as the god Attar, who attempted to occupy the throne of Ba'al and, finding he was unable to do so, descended and ruled the underworld. The original myth may have been about a lesser god Helel trying to dethrone the Canaanite high god El who lived on a mountain to the north. Hermann Gunkel's reconstruction of the myth told of a mighty warrior called Hêlal, whose ambition was to ascend higher than all the other stellar divinities, but who had to descend to the depths. However, the Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible argues that no evidence has been found of any Canaanite myth or imagery of a god being forcibly thrown from heaven, as in the Book of Isaiah, it argues that the closest parallels with Isaiah's description of the king of Babylon as a fallen morning star cast down from heaven are to be found not in Canaanite myths but in traditional ideas of the Jewish people, echoed in the Biblical account of the fall of Adam and Eve, cast out of God's presence for wishing to be as God, the picture in Psalm 82 of the "gods" and "sons of the Most High" destined to die and fall.
This Jewish tradition has echoes in Jewish pseudepigrapha such as 2 Enoch and the Life of Adam and Eve. The Life of Adam and Eve, in turn, shaped the idea of Iblis in the Quran; the Greek myth of Phaethon, a personification of the planet Jupiter, follows a similar pattern. In classical mythology, Lucifer was the name of the planet Venus, though it was personified as a male figure bearing a torch; the Greek name for this planet was variously Heosphoros. Lucifer was said to be "the fabled son of Aurora and Cephalus, father of Ceyx", he was presented in poetry as heralding the dawn. The Latin word corresponding to Greek "Phosphoros" is "Lucifer", it is used in its astronomical sense both in poetry. Poets sometimes personify the star. Lucifer's mother Aurora is cognate to the Vedic goddess Ushas, Lithuanian goddess Aušrinė, Greek Eos, all three of whom are goddesses of the dawn. All four are considered derivatives of the Proto-Indo-European stem *h₂ewsṓs, "dawn", a stem that gave rise to Proto-Germanic *Austrō, Old Germanic *Ōstara and Old English Ēostre / Ēastre.
This agreement leads to the reconstruction of a Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess. The second-century Roman mythographer Pseudo-Hyginus said of the planet: "The fourth star is that of Venus, Luciferus by name; some say. In many tales it is recorded, too, it seems to be the largest of all stars. Some have said it represents the son of Aurora and Cephalus, who surpassed many in beauty, so that he vied with Venus, and, as Eratosthenes says, for this reason it is called the star of Venus, it is visible both at dawn and sunset, so properly has been called both Luciferus and Hesperus."Ovid, in his first-century epic Metamorphoses, de
The Workers' Defense League is an American socialist organization devoted to promoting labor rights. The group was founded on August 29, 1936 with the endorsement of Norman Thomas, six-time presidential candidate of the Socialist Party of America; the WDL described itself as a "militant, politically nonpartisan organization which would devote itself to the protection of workers' rights". Its officers included Thomas, David Clendenin, George S. Counts, Pauli Murray. Philosopher Richard Rorty's parents were active with the WDL when he was a child, he acted as an errand boy for the group. Harry Fleischman acted as the group's chairman for twenty-five years. During World War II, the WDL supported war resisters, fought for desegregation of the armed forces, opposed Japanese American internment; the group took on the case of Odell Waller, a Virginia sharecropper sentenced to death in 1940 for killing his white landlord. Arguing that the landlord had cheated Waller and that he had in any case acted in self-defense, the WDL raised money for Waller's defense, lobbied for the commutation of his sentence, mounted a nationwide publicity campaign on his behalf.
The effort was unsuccessful, Waller was executed on July 2, 1942. In the 1960s, the organization worked to integrate minorities and women into traditionally white male labor unions, though with little success; the Workers' Defense League Records are housed at the Walter P. Reuther Library; the collection spans from 1936-1965 and consists of correspondence, news clippings, trial briefs and transcripts, press releases, pamphlets and leaflets. The collection documents the Worker's Defense League's efforts to secure justice for labor organizers, victims of racial and economic discrimination, conscientious objectors, government critics through established, legal processes. Official website Sherman, Richard B.. The Case of Odell Waller. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 9780870497339
Camden Harbour was a short-lived settlement in the Kimberley region of Western Australia in 1864–1865, situated in the larger Camden Sound. The settlement was known as the Camden Harbour Expedition, as well as the Government Camp. Ships known to have transported people to the settlement included Calliance, wrecked on its shores. A number of families settled and explored from this location, however it did not continue after 1865; the Sholl family were one of such families. Camden Harbour was visited in June 1865 by the crew of the tiny Forlorn Hope, who were well received by Government Resident Robert J. Sholl and Government Surveyor James Cowle, but found them and other settlers, many from Victoria and weary; the ground was hard and stony and the grass of little value to the few remaining sheep, who were weak and dying. As the crew left they witnessed the burning by Victorian settlers of Calliance's hull, to recover her copper sheathing. Charles Smith Bompas was dismissed as Camden Harbour's doctor by Sholl around October 1865, having only been there about a month.
Thomas Huet was a Welsh clergyman and translator of the Bible. Huet, from Brecknockshire, Wales is recorded as being a member of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge in 1544, he was Master of the College of Pontefract when it was dissolved. Between 1559 and 1565, he was appointed to various church livings: he became rector of Cefnllys and Llanbadarn Fawr, both in Radnorshire, prebendary of Llanbadarn Trefeglwys and Ystrad, both in Ceredigion, he was precentor of St David's Cathedral from 1562 to 1588. Richard Davies, Bishop of St David's, recommended that Huet be appointed bishop of Bangor but this did not take place. Huet assisted Richard Davies and William Salesbury in the translation into Welsh of the New Testament in 1567 the Book of Revelation. In 1571, Huet was named in the charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I as one of the eight founding fellows of Jesus College, Oxford. Huet died in 1591 and was buried in the church at Llanafan Fawr church in Brecknockshire
Government departments responsible for health issues and health services in the United States exist at Federal and local levels. The first such departments were at city level and were founded in the late 18th century, there are now a variety of local health departments operating at city or county level. Health departments began to be set up in States in the mid-19th century and there is now one in every State; the Federal agency now known as United States Department of Health and Human Services originated in 1939. Local health departments in the United States were the first health departments in the United States. There is some dispute at the local level as to the claim of being the first to establish a local board or health department. At least three cities claim to be the first health department in the United States; the city of Petersburg, claims it established the first permanent board of health in 1780. The city of Baltimore, claims it established the first US health department in 1793, Pennsylvania, followed 1794, claiming its Board of Health as "one of the first".
And Boston, claims in 1799 it established the first board of health and the first health department, with Paul Revere named as the first health officer. Each state health agency followed local moves to create health departments in each state. Louisiana was the first state to create a state board of health in 1855, but it functioned to influence regulations in New Orleans. Massachusetts was the first to establish a state board that functioned throughout its state with statewide authority in 1869. At the national level, a simple National Board of Health functioned from 1879–1883. Not until 1939 was another federal agency established to manage public health on a national level, it went through several iterations a federal agency called the Federal Security Agency that had health functions such as the United States Public Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration. In 1953, that agency was reorganized and its health functions were elevated to a cabinet-level position to establish the United States Department of Health and Welfare, renamed in 1980 to become the current and modern United States Department of Health and Human Services.
HHS notes the regulations that it carries out on its website. Every state has a health department to which HHS has given a description and hyperlink for each state health department. Other levels of government within each state are varied. For example, the California Department of Public Health has within it a health department in each of its 58 subdivisions called counties, but only three cities. One is in San Francisco: the San Francisco Department of Public Health.
The Greenville and Columbia Railroad was a 5 ft gauge railroad that served South Carolina in the 19th century. The line traces its history back to 1845, when Greenville, South Carolina-area leaders Benjamin Perry, Waddy Thompson Jr. John T. Coleman and Joel Poinsett called a public meeting, this one presided over by Vardry McBee; the goal was to create enthusiasm and collect subscriptions for a rail line to the northern and southern parts of the state. With a committee of 30 potential subscribers, they agreed to seek a preliminary charter for a Greenville and Columbia Railroad, with the understanding that they raise at least $300,000 in subscriptions within a year. Unsuccessful, the group renewed their charter the following year; the plan was to build a 109-mile line up the east side of the Saluda River through Newberry, South Carolina, Laurens, South Carolina, to Greenville. The 30 commissioners sought subscribers from Columbia, South Carolina, all the surrounding counties, they were successful but when stockholders met in May 1847 in Columbia, those from the capital city and from the Abbeville and Anderson districts, urged by local property owner and famed politician John C.
Calhoun, who wanted a different route, voted to build a 147-mile line on the west side of the river with its terminus in Anderson. Greenville stockholders, McBee, the largest single subscriber, cried foul, they wanted their money back. So the Greenville contingent chartered the Greenville Railroad Co. and threatened to build a railroad from "Dr. Brown's place," near modern-day Belton, South Carolina, directly to Greenville, to shift freight and passengers away from Anderson. McBee put up $50,000 of his own money to make the subscription possible; the other stockholders reluctantly agreed. McBee's hand-picked candidate, John Belton O'Neall, was elected president of the line. McBee played an instrumental role in the development of the line, his son, Pinkney, a civil engineer, surveyed the line. His sawmill provided the timbers and he coaxed iron from distributors, he quarried stone from his quarry for the foundation of the Greenville freight terminal. By August 1852, the line had been completed to Greenwood.
Despite a flash flood that washed out bridges and tracks along the Broad River, the line went forward. By late November 1853 the tracks were laid to within three miles of Greenville; the coming of the Greenville and Columbia Railroad meant that a traveler could go from Greenville to Columbia in less than 11 hours and on to Charleston by the following day. It was a remarkable improvement considering the journey had taken two weeks; the railroad was Greenville's lifeline to the rest of the state during the Civil War, but when Sherman's troops invaded Columbia, federal troops burned the carrier's offices and depot there. In addition, 12 miles of track ripped up, five bridges vanished and several locomotives were destroyed. After January 1865, it did not operate. A year another flood wiped out 40 more miles of track; the Greenville and Columbia Railroad did not restart operations until September 1866. After the line began operations again, the federal government seized it without reimbursing stockholders.
Henry Hammett, one of the few solvent Greenvillians after the war, became president in 1868, but the Greenville and Columbia fell into the hands of the Railroad Ring, politically connected embezzlers who bilked the state out of its lien and mortgage on the rail line. While the carrier did manage to acquire the Union & Spartanburg Railroad around 1870, extending this line from Alston to Spartanburg, in 1872, the railroad declared bankruptcy. At one point in the 1870s, a quarter of the state's revenues were lost in a single fiscal year after a failed investment in the troubled railroad; as a result of the failed investment, the state adopted a constitutional ban on investing public money in stocks, a ban that stood for more than 120 years. The line was sold under foreclosure and reorganized under the Columbia and Greenville Railroad name in 1880. Beginning in 1886, it was leased to the Richmond and Danville Railroad and in 1894 it was incorporated into the Southern Railway