He rode in a four-horse chariot through the streets of Rome in unarmed procession with his army and the spoils of his war. At Jupiters temple on the Capitoline Hill, he offered sacrifice, the triumph offered extraordinary opportunities for self-publicity, besides its religious and military dimensions. From the Principate onwards, the reflected the Imperial order. The triumph was consciously imitated by medieval and states in the royal entry, in Republican Rome, truly exceptional military achievement merited the highest possible honours, which connected the vir triumphalis to Romes mythical and semi-mythical past. In effect, the general was close to being king for a day and he was drawn in procession through the city in a four-horse chariot, under the gaze of his peers and an applauding crowd, to the temple of Capitoline Jupiter. The spoils and captives of his victory led the way, his armies followed behind, once at the Capitoline temple, he sacrificed two white oxen to Jupiter and laid tokens of his victory at Jupiters feet, dedicating his victory to the Roman Senate and gods.
Triumphs were tied to no particular day, season, or religious festival of the Roman calendar, most seem to have been celebrated at the earliest practicable opportunity, probably on days that were deemed auspicious for the occasion. Tradition required that, for the duration of a triumph, every temple was open, the ceremony was thus, in some sense, shared by the whole community of Roman gods, but overlaps were inevitable with specific festivals and anniversaries. Some may have been coincidental, others were designed, Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis. Religious dimensions aside, the focus of the triumph was the general himself, the ceremony promoted him – however temporarily – above every mortal Roman. This was an opportunity granted to very few, from the time of Scipio Africanus, the triumphal general was linked to Alexander and the demi-god Hercules, who had laboured selflessly for the benefit of all mankind.
His sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy, in some accounts, a companion or public slave would remind him from time to time of his own mortality. This is probably so for the earliest legendary and semi-legendary triumphs of Romes regal era, as Romes population, power and territory increased, so did the scale, length and extravagance of its triumphal processions. The procession mustered in the space of the Campus Martius probably well before first light. Triumphal processions were notoriously long and slow, the longest could last for two or three days, and possibly more, and some may have been of greater length than the route itself, some ancient and modern sources suggest a fairly standard processional order. First came the captive leaders and soldiers walking in chains. Next in line, all on foot, came Romes senators and magistrates, followed by the generals lictors in their red war-robes, their fasces wreathed in laurel, the general in his four-horse chariot. A companion, or a slave, might share the chariot with him or, in some cases
Philip V of Macedon
Philip V was King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC. Philips reign was marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. Philip was attractive and charismatic as a young man, the son of Demetrius II and Chryseis, Philip was nine years old at his fathers death in 229 BC. He had a paternal half sister called Apame. His cousin, Antigonus Doson, administered the kingdom as regent until his death in 221 BC when Philip was seventeen years old, on his ascent to the throne, Philip quickly showed that while he was young, this did not mean that Macedon was weak. In the first year of his rule, he pushed back the Dardani, in the Social War, the Hellenic League of Greek states was assembled at Philip V’s instigation in Corinth. He led the Hellenic League in battles against Aetolia, Sparta, in this way he was able to increase his own authority amongst his own ministers. His leadership during the Social War made him well-known and respected both within his own kingdom and abroad and he first tried to invade Illyria from the sea, but with limited success.
His first expedition in 216 BC had to be aborted, while he suffered the loss of his fleet in a second expedition in 214 BC. A expedition by land met with success when he captured Lissus in 212 BC. In 215 BC, he entered into a treaty with Hannibal and their treaty defined spheres of operation and interest, but achieved little of substance or value for either side. Philip became heavily involved in assisting and protecting his allies from attacks from the Spartans, romes alliance with the Aetolian League in 211 BC effectively neutralised Philips advantage on land. The intervention of Attalus I of Pergamum on the Roman side further exposed Philips position in Macedonia and his troops sacked Thermum, the religious and political centre of Aetolia. His troops destroyed 2,000 statues and hauled away vast sums of treasure which included some fifteen thousand shields and suits of arms the Aetolians had decorated their stoas with. These shields were the armor taken from the enemies of the Aetolians during their previous military victories, Philip V took immense sums of gold and treasures and burned down temples and public buildings of the Aetolians.
Philip was able to force the Aetolians to accept his terms in 206 BC, the following year he was able to conclude the Peace of Phoenice with Rome and its allies. This expansion of Macedonian influence created alarm in a number of neighbouring states, including Pergamum and their navies clashed with Philip’s off Chios and Lade in 201 BC. At around the time, the Romans were finally the victors over Carthage
Aemilia Tertia, known as Aemilia Paulla, was the wife of the Roman consul and censor Scipio Africanus. She was the daughter, possibly the third surviving daughter, of the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, the name Aemilia derives from her family name, the gens Aemilia being one of the five most important patrician families. Roman women of the Middle Republic customarily bore their fathers family name, as with men named Quintus or Sextus, a name such as Tertia may not always mean a woman had two older sisters. Valerius Maximus gives her name as Tertia Aemilia, the wife of Scipio Africanus, Aemilia is not known to have had sisters, but younger sisters are sometimes more notable for the historical record than elder. Aemilias daughters were Cornelia Africana Major and Cornelia Africana Minor, the younger being far more famous than her mother or elder sister, Aemilia Tertias marriage to Scipio Africanus took place no than 215 BC. They were very happily married, according to Livy and they had two sons and two daughters, the younger being the famous Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi.
While the number of maids and men-servants in attendance was correspondingly large and she is one of the few Roman women known to us from the Middle Republic. According to other sources, Aemilia was gentle, mild-mannered, valerius Maximus relates an incident where Scipio was unfaithful to her with one of their own maid-servants, but Aemilia chose not to make the matter public. Valerius Maximus and Plutarch would have considered such behavior as honorable for Scipio, marital sex was considered to be essentially procreative among Middle-Republic Romans. The year of this incident was around 191 BC or later, the fact that Aemilia chose not to expose her husbands infidelity could indicate either a desire to spare him embarrassment, or her own desire to avoid embarrassment for herself. A Roman wife could not expect her husband to be faithful, furthermore, by divorcing her husband, a woman lost custody of her children and usually had to return to her fathers or brothers house. The husband could retain most of her dowry, so Aemilia could get as little as one-fifth of her dowry back, aemilias sister-in-law Papiria Masonis was divorced c.183 BC by her husband, simply because he was tired of her.
She was entirely blameless, having provided him with two sons and two daughters, and her chastity was not in question, after her divorce, she lived in rather straitened circumstances, and without her children who remained with their father and paterfamilias. Sources such as Polybius emphasize her love of luxury and her extravagance, she drove a chariot at womens religious processions. One source claims that she enjoyed buying tasteful although extravagant works of art, Scipio died of a lingering illness in 183 BC after having retired to his country house at Liternum in 185 BC. During his last years, he wrote his memoirs in both Latin and Greek, but those have vanished, with even Plutarchs Life of him missing and he was survived by his widow and four children, his brother Scipio Asiaticus remained living, although in political disgrace. According to Polybius, Scipio made generous provisions for his widow to ensure that she would retain the same lifestyle she had grown accustomed to as his wife and he promised his daughters fifty talents of silver each, which was a very large dowry by that eras standards.
Aemilia Tertia long survived her husband and outlived both her sons and she had two daughters surviving upon her own death, which took place sometime around 163 BC and by 162 BC
A consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum. Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term, the consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consuls imperium extended over Rome and the provinces. Originally, consuls were called praetors, referring to their duties as the military commanders. By at least 300 BC the title of Consul was being used, in Greek, the title was originally rendered as στρατηγός ὕπατος, strategos hypatos, and simply as ὕπατος. The consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the establishment of the Republic in 509 BC. These remained in place until the office was abolished in 367/366 BC, consuls had extensive powers in peacetime, and in wartime often held the highest military command. Additional religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, consuls read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field.
Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with power over the others actions. It is thought that only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had a bias in its voting structure which only increased over the years from its foundation. If a consul died during his term or was removed from office, a consul elected to start the year - called a consul ordinarius - held more prestige than a suffect consul, partly because the year would be named for ordinary consuls. The first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was elected the following year and it is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family. Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, during times of war, the primary qualification for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged. With the passage of time, the became the normal endpoint of the cursus honorum.
When Lucius Cornelius Sulla regulated the cursus by law, the age of election to consul became. Beginning in the late Republic, after finishing a year, a former consul would usually serve a lucrative term as a proconsul. The most commonly chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul, throughout the early years of the Principate although the consuls were still formally elected by the Comitia Centuriata, they were in fact nominated by the princeps. It was a post that would be occupied by a man halfway through his career, in his early thirties for a patrician, emperors frequently appointed themselves, or their protégés or relatives, even without regard to the age requirements
Demetrius of Pharos
Demetrius of Pharos was a ruler of Pharos involved in the First Illyrian War, after which he ruled a portion of the Illyrian Adriatic coast on behalf of the Romans, as a client king. Demetrius was a regent ruler to Pinnes, the son of Agron who was too young to rule as king. When the Romans were occupied with their own problems, he had grown stronger as an ally of Macedonia and by conquering Dimallum of Dalmatia, on the shore facing Issa. He was expelled from Illyria by Rome after the Second Illyrian War and he became a strong political influence to Philip V and encouraged him to clash with Rome. Demetrius remained there until his death at Messene in 214 BC while attempting to take the city, described as Illyrian or Greek, was from the Greek colony on the island of Pharos, in the Adriatic Sea off the coast of Dalmatia. Under the Illyrian king Agron, he ruled Pharos, from his stronghold, after Agrons death in 230 BC, Demetrius continued as ruler of Pharos under the regency of Queen Teuta, Agrons second wife and stepmother of Agrons son Pinnes, who was too young to rule.
In 229 BC, continuing the expansion of Illyrian power that Agron had begun, Teuta systematically attacked Issa, Lissus and Corcyra Nigra were all threatened. In a naval battle off the island of Paxos the Illyrian fleet, arguably commanded by Demetrius, as a result, the Korkyreans were forced to accept an Illyrian garrison in their city which was put under the command of Demetrius. When the Romans were on their way to relieve Corcyra during the First Illyrian War, fearing her wrath, he betrayed her and gave up Corcyra to the Romans. Going over to the Roman side, he now acted as their guide for their campaign in Illyria. Rome was quickly victorious, while Teuta fled to Rhizon in Dalmatia, Demetrius was rewarded with the rule of his birthplace, the island of Pharos, and a part of the land next to it, but this was only temporary. The Romans annexed the southern conquests of Teuta and following the war, due to one of the conditions imposed by Rome, the decade after 229 BC witnessed a revival of Illyrian power under Demetrius who succeeded Teuta.
Following the war, Demetrius married Triteuta in or around 222 BC, Agrons first wife and his marriage to Triteuta mean that Demetrius formally took over the regency of the Ardiaean Kingdom. Demetrius own influence was greatly extended, and the fundamental weakness of the Ardiaean Kingdom after 229 BC. The king began to renew traditional Illyrian ties with Macedonia, in 222 BC an Illyrian corps of 1600 fought with distinction under the command of Demetrius at Sellasia, where the Macedonians won a conclusive victory over the Spartans. After Sellasia, Demetrius began attempting to extend his control over Illyria at the expense of Rome. Before then, when Rome was preoccupied with a war against the Celtic peoples of the Po valley in northern Italy from 225-222 BC, in addition, he sailed south of Lissus, Lezhë in present-day Albania, and engaged in piracy in contravention of the settlement in 228 BC. In 221 BC Demetrius created an alliance with the Illyrian Histri at the head of the Adriatic, a Roman fleet soon attacked the Histri
It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military.
Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers.
The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control
His main achievements were during the Second Punic War where he is best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle at Zama, one of the feats that earned him the agnomen Africanus. Although considered a hero by the general Roman populace, primarily for his contributions in the struggle against the Carthaginians, in his years, he was tried for bribery and treason, unfounded charges that were only meant to discredit him before the public. Disillusioned by the ingratitude of his peers, Scipio left Rome, Publius Cornelius Scipio was born by Caesarian section into the Scipio branch of the Cornelia gens. His birth year is calculated from statements made by ancient historians of how old he was when certain events in his life occurred, Scipios great-grandfather, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, and grandfather Lucius Cornelius Scipio, had both been consuls and censors. He was the eldest son of the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio by his wife Pomponi, Scipio joined the Roman struggle against Carthage in the first year of Second Punic War when his father was consul.
During the skirmish at Ticinus, he saved his fathers life by charging the encircling force alone with reckless daring and he survived the disaster at Cannae, where his would-be father-in-law, the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, was killed. After the battle, with the other consul surviving elsewhere and Appius Claudius Pulcher, as military tribunes, Scipio offered himself as a candidate for curule aedile in 213 BC, alongside his cousin Marcus Cornelius Cethegus. The Tribunes of the Plebs objected to his candidacy, saying that he could not be allowed to stand because he had not yet reached the legal age, already known for his bravery and patriotism, was elected unanimously and the Tribunes abandoned their opposition. His cousin won the election, in 211 BC, both Scipios father, Publius Scipio, and uncle, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, were killed in battle against Hannibals brother, Hasdrubal Barca. In spite of his youth, his demeanour and enthusiastic language had made so great an impression that he was unanimously elected.
In the year of Scipios arrival, all of Hispania south of the Ebro river was under Carthaginian control. Hannibals brothers Hasdrubal and Mago, and Hasdrubal Gisco were the generals of the Carthaginian forces in Hispania, the Carthaginians were preoccupied with revolts in Africa. Scipio landed at the mouth of the Ebro and was able to surprise and capture Carthago Nova and he obtained a rich cache of war stores and supplies, and an excellent harbour and base of operations. Scipios humanitarian conduct toward prisoners and hostages in Hispania helped in portraying the Romans as liberators as opposed to conquerors, Livy tells the story of his troops capturing a beautiful woman, whom they offered to Scipio as a prize of war. Scipio was astonished by her beauty, but discovered that the woman was betrothed to a Celtiberian chieftain named Allucius and he returned the woman to her fiancé, along with the money that had been offered by her parents to ransom her. This humanitarian act encouraged local chieftains to both supply and reinforce Scipios small army, the womans fiance, who soon married her, responded by bringing over his tribe to support the Roman armies.
In 209 BC, Scipio fought his first set piece battle, Scipio feared that the armies of Mago and Gisco would enter the field and surround his small army. Scipios objective was, therefore, to eliminate one of the armies to give him the luxury of dealing with the other two piecemeal
Battle of Cannae
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under Hannibal and decisively defeated an army of the Roman Republic under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded both as one of the greatest tactical feats in history and as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Having recovered from their losses at Trebia and Lake Trasimene, the Romans decided to engage Hannibal at Cannae, with roughly 86,000 Roman, the Romans massed their heavy infantry in a deeper formation than usual, while Hannibal utilized the double-envelopment tactic. This was so successful that the Roman army was destroyed as a fighting force. Following the defeat and several other Italian city-states defected from the Roman Republic to Carthage, shortly after the start of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed into Italy by traversing the Pyrenees and the Alps during the summer and early autumn.
He quickly won major victories over the Romans at Trebia and at Lake Trasimene, after these losses, the Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as dictator to deal with the threat. Fabius used attrition warfare against Hannibal, cutting off his supply lines, the majority of Romans were eager to see a quick conclusion to the war. It was feared that, if Hannibal continued plundering Italy unopposed, when Fabius came to the end of his term, the Senate did not renew his dictatorial powers and command was given to consuls Gnaeus Servilius Geminus and Marcus Atilius Regulus. But on this occasion, so great was the alarm and terror of what would happen, they resolved to bring not only four, Rome typically employed four legions each year, each consisting of four thousand foot soldiers and two hundred cavalry. Eight legions, some 40,000 Roman soldiers and an estimated 2,400 cavalry, some have suggested that the destruction of an army of 90,000 troops would be impossible. They argue that Rome probably had 48,000 troops and 6,000 cavalry against Hannibals 35,000 troops and 10,000 cavalry, Livy quotes one source stating the Romans added only 10,000 men to their usual army.
While no definitive number of Roman troops exists, all agree that the Carthaginians faced a considerably larger foe. Consuls were each assigned two of the four legions to command, rarely employing all four legions at once to the same assignment, the Senate feared a real threat and not only employed all four legions into the field, but all eight, including allies. Ordinarily, each of the two consuls would command his own portion of the army, but since the two armies were combined into one, Roman law required them to alternate their command on a daily basis. The traditional account puts Varro in command on the day of the battle, his low origins seem to be exaggerated in the sources, and Varro may have been made a scapegoat by the aristocratic establishment. In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large depot at Cannae, in the Apulian plain. Hannibal recently harvested his crops so he had an army ready for action in the city of Cannae
Second Punic War
The Second Punic War, referred to as The Hannibalic War and the War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. This was the major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. The two states three major wars with each other over the course of their existence. They are called the Punic Wars because Romes name for Carthaginians was Poeni, derived from Poenici, in the following year, Hannibals army defeated the Romans again, this time in southern Italy at Cannae. In consequence of these defeats, many Roman allies went over to Carthage, against Hannibals skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. A sideshow of this war was the indecisive First Macedonian War in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Second Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome and was ignited by the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome.
After great tension within the city government, culminating in the assassination of the supporters of Carthage, the city called for Roman aid, but the pleas fell on deaf ears. Following a prolonged siege and a struggle, in which Hannibal himself was wounded and the army practically destroyed. Many of the Saguntians chose to commit suicide rather than face subjugation by the Carthaginians, before the war and Hasdrubal the Fair had made a treaty. Livy reports that it was agreed that the Iber should be the boundary between the two empires and that the liberty of the Saguntines should be preserved, Hannibal departed with this army from New Carthage northwards along the coast in late spring of 218 BC. At the Ebro, he split the army into three columns and subdued the tribes there to the Pyrenees within weeks, but with severe losses. At the Pyrenees, he left a detachment of 11,000 Iberian troops, Hannibal reportedly entered Gaul with 50,000 infantry and 9,000 cavalry. He took his army by a route, avoiding the Roman allies along the coast.
In the meantime, a Roman fleet with a force was underway to northern Iberia. A scouting party of 300 cavalry was sent to discover the whereabouts of the enemy and these eventually defeated a Carthaginian scouting troop of 500 mounted Numidians and chased them back to their main camp. Thus, with knowledge of the location of the enemy, the Romans marched upstream, Hannibal evaded this force and by an unknown route reached the Isère or the Durance at the foot of the Alps in autumn. He received messengers from his Gallic allies in Italy that urged him to come to their aid, before setting out to cross the Alps, he was re-supplied by a native tribe, some of whose hereditary disputes he had helped solve. Their other commander, Publius Cornelius Scipio, returned to Rome, realizing the danger of an invasion of Italy where the tribes of the Boii, after 217 BC, he moved to Iberia
Publius Cornelius Scipio
Publius Cornelius Scipio was a general and statesman of the Roman Republic. A member of the Cornelia gens, Scipio served as consul in 218 BC and he sailed with his army from Pisa with the intention of confronting Hannibal in Hispania. Stopping at Massilia to replenish his supplies, he was shocked to discover that Hannibals army had moved from Hispania and was crossing the Rhône, Scipio disembarked his army and marched to confront Hannibal, who, by now, had moved on. Returning to the fleet, he entrusted the command of his army to his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, Scipio returned to Italy to take command of the troops fighting in Cisalpine Gaul. On his return to Italy, he advanced at once to meet Hannibal, in a sharp cavalry engagement near the Ticinus, a tributary of the Po river, he was defeated and severely wounded. He continued the Iberian campaigns until 211, when he was killed during the defeat of his army at the upper Baetis river by the Carthaginians and their Iberian allies under Indibilis and that same year and his army were destroyed at Ilorci near Carthago Nova.
The son of Lucius Cornelius Scipio, he was the father of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, a Publius Cornelius Scipio, son of Scipio Africanus the elder and Aemilia Paulla, and grandson of the consul of 218 BC, was the adoptive father of Scipio Aemilianus Africanus. This latter Scipio served as praetor in 174 BC, scipio-Paullus-Gracchus family tree This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Scipio