Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 BC that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus. Ancient accounts of the regal period mingle legend. Tarquin was said to have been the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, to have gained the throne through the murders of both his wife and his elder brother, followed by the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius, his reign is described as a tyranny. Tarquin was said to be the son or grandson of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, Tanaquil. Tanaquil had engineered her husband's succession to the Roman kingdom on the death of Ancus Marcius; when the sons of Marcius subsequently arranged the elder Tarquin's assassination in 579 BC, Tanaquil placed Servius Tullius on the throne, in preference to her own sons. According to an Etruscan tradition, the hero Macstarna equated with Servius Tullius and killed a Roman named Gnaeus Tarquinius, rescued the brothers Caelius and Aulus Vibenna from captivity.

This may recollect an otherwise forgotten attempt by the sons of Tarquin the Elder to reclaim the throne. To forestall further dynastic strife, Servius married his daughters, known to history as Tullia Major and Tullia Minor, to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the future king, his brother Arruns. One of Tarquin's sisters, married Marcus Junius Brutus, was the mother of Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the men who would lead the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom; the elder sister, Tullia Major, was of mild disposition, yet married the ambitious Tarquin. Her younger sister, Tullia Minor, was of fiercer temperament, she came to despise him, conspired with Tarquin to bring about the deaths of Tullia Major and Arruns. After the murder of their spouses and Tullia were married. Together, they had three sons: Titus and Sextus, a daughter, who married Octavius Mamilius, the prince of Tusculum. Tullia encouraged her husband to advance his own position persuading him to usurp Servius. Tarquin solicited the support of the patrician senators those from families who had received their senatorial rank under Tarquin the Elder.

He bestowed presents upon them, spread criticism of Servius the king. In time, Tarquin felt ready to seize the throne, he went to the senate-house with a group of armed men, sat himself on the throne, summoned the senators to attend upon King Tarquin. He spoke to the senators, denigrating Servius as a slave born of a slave; when word of this brazen deed reached Servius, he hurried to the curia to confront Tarquin, who leveled the same accusations against his father-in-law, in his youth and vigor carried the king outside and flung him down the steps of the senate-house and into the street. The king's retainers fled, as he made his way and unattended, toward the palace, the aged Servius was set upon and murdered by Tarquin's assassins on the advice of his own daughter. Tullia, drove in her chariot to the senate-house, where she was the first to hail her husband as king, but Tarquin bade her return home, concerned. As she drove toward the Urbian Hill, her driver stopped horrified at the sight of the king's body, lying in the street.

But in a frenzy, Tullia herself seized the reins, drove the wheels of her chariot over her father's corpse. The king's blood spattered against the chariot and stained Tullia's clothes, so that she brought a gruesome relic of the murder back to her house; the street where Tullia disgraced the dead king afterward became known as the Vicus Sceleratus, the Street of Crime. Tarquin commenced his reign by refusing to bury the dead Servius, putting to death a number of leading senators, whom he suspected of remaining loyal to Servius. By not replacing the slain senators, not consulting the senate on matters of government, he diminished both the size and the authority of the senate. In another break with tradition, Tarquin judged capital crimes without the advice of counselors, causing fear amongst those who might think to oppose him, he made a powerful ally when he betrothed his daughter to Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, among the most eminent of the Latin chiefs. Early in his reign, Tarquin called a meeting of the Latin leaders to discuss the bonds between Rome and the Latin towns.

The meeting was held at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina. At the meeting, Turnus Herdonius inveighed against Tarquin's arrogance, warned his countrymen against trusting the Roman king. Tarquin bribed Turnus' servant to store a large number of swords in his master's lodging. Tarquin called together the Latin leaders, accused Turnus of plotting his assassination; the Latin leaders accompanied Tarquin to Turnus' lodging and, the swords being discovered, the Latin's guilt was speedily inferred. Turnus was condemned to be thrown into a pool of water in the grove, with a wooden frame, or cratis, placed over his head, into which stones were thrown, drowning him; the meeting of the Latin chiefs conti


Histogenesis is the formation of different tissues from undifferentiated cells. These cells are constituents of three primary germ layers, the endoderm and ectoderm; the science of the microscopic structures of the tissues formed within histogenesis is termed histology. A germ layer is a collection of cells, formed during animal and mammalian embryogenesis. Germ layers are pronounced within vertebrate organisms. Animals with radial symmetry, such as cnidarians, produce two layers, called the ectoderm and endoderm. Therefore, they are diploblastic. Animals with bilateral symmetry produce a third layer in-between called mesoderm, making them triploblastic. Germ layers will give rise to all of an animal’s or mammal's tissues and organs through a process called organogenesis; the endoderm is one of the germ to penes layers formed during animal embryogenesis. Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm; the endoderm consists of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar.

The mesoderm germ layer forms in the embryos of animals and mammals more complex than cnidarians, making them triploblastic. During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward to form the endoderm form an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm. A theory suggests that this key innovation evolved hundreds of millions of years ago and led to the evolution of nearly all large, complex animals; the formation of a mesoderm led to the formation of a coelom. Organs formed inside a coelom can move and develop independently of the body wall while fluid cushions and protects them from shocks; the ectoderm is the start of a tissue. It forms from the outermost of the germ layers; the proceeding graph represents the products produced by the three germ layers. HistologyList of human cell types derived from the germ layers Derivatives of the Ectoderm Derivatives of the Endoderm and Mesoderm

Geography of Uganda

Uganda is located in eastern Africa, west of Kenya, south of South Sudan, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, north of Rwanda and Tanzania. It is in the heart of the Great Lakes region, is surrounded by three of them, Lake Edward, Lake Albert, Lake Victoria. While much of its border is lakeshore, Uganda is landlocked with no access to the sea; the country is plateau with a rim of mountains. The climate is tropical and rainy with two dry seasons, it is semiarid in the northeast. Area:total: 241,551 square kilometres land: 200,523 square kilometres water: 41,028 square kilometres Land boundaries:total: 2,729 kilometres border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 kilometres, Kenya 814 kilometres, South Sudan 475 kilometres, Tanzania 391 kilometres, Rwanda 172 kilometres Elevation extremes: lowest point: 614 metres Albert Nile at border with South Sudanhighest point: 5,111 metres Margherita Peak on Mount StanleyNatural resources: copper, hydropower, salt, arable land, goldLand use: arable land: 69,000 square kilometres 34.41% permanent crops: 22,500 square kilometres 11.22% forest cover: 28,100 square kilometres 14.01% other: 80,931 square kilometres 40.36% Irrigated land: 140 square kilometres Total renewable water resources: 66 cubic kilometres or 60 cubic kilometres Environment - current issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use, overgrazing, soil erosion, water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria, widespread poachingEnvironment - international agreements: party to: Convention on the International Maritime Organization Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Convention on Biological Diversity United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa International Plant Protection Convention Convention on Wetlands of International Importance as Waterfowl Habitatsigned, but not ratified: Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification TechniquesGeography - note: Uganda is one of six African states that lies on the equator.

Most of Uganda is north of the equator. Uganda's population density is 172.44 person/km2. Uganda's most populated cities are located in the Eastern regions of the country. Kampala is Uganda's most populated city its national and commercial capital, its population is around 1,353,189. Uganda Top 10 Cities Kampala Gulu Lira Mbarara Jinja Bwizibwera Mbale Mukono Kasese Masaka Uganda has a warm tropical climate with temperatures falling in the 25–29°C range on an average; the months from December to February are the hottest, but during this season the evenings can be chilly with temperatures in the 17–18°C range. Uganda receives an annual rainfall of 1,000mm to 1,500mm; the rainy seasons are from March from September to November. During these months, heavy rains can make terrains hard to traverse; the period from January to February and again from June to August are dry. List of Protected Areas in Uganda