World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. About two thirds of Bessarabia lies within modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the ensuing Peace of Bucharest, the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal, along with some areas under direct Ottoman rule, were ceded to Imperial Russia; the acquisition was among the Empire's last territorial acquisitions in Europe. The newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name used for the southern plains, between the Dniester and the Danube rivers. Following the Crimean War, in 1856, the southern areas of Bessarabia were returned to Moldavian rule. In 1917, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, the area constituted itself as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, an autonomous republic part of a proposed federative Russian state.
Bolshevik agitation in late 1917 and early 1918 resulted in the intervention of the Romanian Army, ostensibly to pacify the region. Soon after, the parliamentary assembly declared independence, union with the Kingdom of Romania; the legality of these acts was however disputed, most prominently by the Soviet Union, which regarded the area as a territory occupied by Romania. In 1940, after securing the assent of Nazi Germany through the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union pressured Romania, under threat of war, into withdrawing from Bessarabia, allowing the Red Army to annex the region; the area was formally integrated into the Soviet Union: the core joined parts of the Moldavian ASSR to form the Moldavian SSR, while territories inhabited by Slavic majorities in the north and the south of Bessarabia were transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Axis-aligned Romania recaptured the region in 1941 with the success of Operation München during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, but lost it in 1944 as the tide of war changed.
In 1947, the Soviet-Romanian border along the Prut was internationally recognised by the Paris Treaty that ended World War II. During the process of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Moldavian and Ukrainian SSRs proclaimed their independence in 1991, becoming the modern states of Moldova and Ukraine, while preserving the existing partition of Bessarabia. Following a short war in the early 1990s, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was proclaimed in the Transnistria, extending its authority over the municipality of Bender on the right bank of Dniester river. Part of the Gagauz-inhabited areas in the southern Bessarabia was organised in 1994 as an autonomous region within Moldova. According to the traditional explanation, the name Bessarabia derives from the Wallachian Basarab dynasty, who ruled over the southern part of the area in the 14th century; some scholars question this, claiming that: the name was an exonym applied by Western cartographers it was first used in local sources only in the late 17th century.
According to Dimitrie Cantemir, the name Bessarabia applied only to the part of the territory south of the Upper Trajanic Wall, i.e. an area only bigger than present-day Budjak. The region is bounded by the Dniester to the north and east, the Prut to the west and the lower River Danube and the Black Sea to the south, it has an area of 45,630 km2. The area is hilly plains with flat steppes, it is fertile, has lignite deposits and stone quarries. People living in the area grow sugar beet, wheat, tobacco, wine grapes and fruit, they raise sheep and cattle. The main industry in the region is agricultural processing; the region's main cities are Chișinău, Izmail and Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi called Cetatea Albă / Akkerman. Other towns of administrative or historical importance include: Khotyn and Kilia, Lipcani, Soroca, Bălți, Ungheni, Bender/Tighina and Cahul. In the late 14th century, the newly established Principality of Moldavia encompassed what became known as Bessarabia. Afterwards, this territory was directly or indirectly or wholly controlled by: the Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, the USSR.
Since 1991, most of the territory forms the core of Moldova, with smaller parts in Ukraine. The territory of Bessarabia has been inhabited by people for thousands of years. Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished between the 6th and 3rd millennium BC. In Antiquity the region was inhabited by Thracians, as well as for shorter periods by Cimmerians, Scythians and Celts by tribes such as the Costoboci, Britogali and Bastarnae. In the 6th century BC
The Polish–Ukrainian War of November 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces. The conflict had its roots in ethnic and political differences between the Polish and Ukrainian populations living in the region; the war started in Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and spilled over into Chełm Land and Volhynia regions belonging to the Russian Empire, which were both claimed by the Ukrainian State and the Ukrainian People's Republic. The origins of the conflict lie in the complex nationality situation in Galicia at the turn of the 20th century; as a result of the House of Habsburg's relative leniency toward national minorities, Austria-Hungary was the perfect ground for the development of both Polish and Ukrainian national movements. During the 1848 revolution, the Austrians, concerned by Polish demands for greater autonomy within the province, gave support to a small group of Ruthenians whose goal was to be recognized as a distinct nationality.
Subsequently, Ruthenian language schools were established, Ruthenian political parties formed, the Ruthenians began attempts to develop their national culture. This came as a surprise to some Poles, who until the revolution believed, along with most of the politically aware Ruthenians, that Ruthenians were part of the Polish nation. In the late 1890s and the first decades of the next century, the populist Ruthenian intelligentsia adopted the term Ukrainians to describe their nationality. Beginning with the 20th century, national consciousness reached a large number of Ruthenian peasants. Multiple incidents between the two nations occurred throughout the latter 19th century and early 20th century. For example, in 1897 the Polish administration opposed the Ukrainians in parliamentary elections. Another conflict developed in the years 1901–1908 around Lviv University, where Ukrainian students demanded a separate Ukrainian university, while Polish students and faculty attempted to suppress the movement.
In 1903 both Poles and Ukrainians held separate conferences in Lviv. Afterwards, the two national movements developed with contradictory goals, leading towards the clash; the ethnic composition of Galicia underlay the conflict between the Ukrainians there. The Austrian province of Galicia consisted of territory seized from Poland in 1772, during the first partition; this land, which included territory of historical importance to Poland, including the ancient capital of Kraków, had a majority Polish population, although the eastern part of Galicia included the heartland of the historic territory of Galicia-Volhynia and had a Ukrainian majority. In eastern Galicia, Ukrainians made up 65% of the population while Poles made up only 22% of the population. Of the 44 administrative divisions of Austrian eastern Galicia, the biggest and capital city of the province, was the only one in which Poles made up a majority of the population. In Lviv, the population in 1910 was 60% Polish and 17% Ukrainian; this city with its Polish inhabitants was considered by many Poles to have been one of Poland's cultural capitals.
For many Poles, including Lviv's Polish population, it was unthinkable that their city should not be under Polish control. The religious and ethnic divisions corresponded to social stratification. Galicia's leading social class were Polish nobles or descendants of Rus' gentry who had become polonized in the past, whereas, in the eastern part of the province Ruthenians constituted the majority of the peasant population. Poles and Jews were responsible for most of the commercial and industrial development in Galicia in the late 19th century. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries the local Ukrainians attempted to persuade the Austrians to divide Galicia into Western and Eastern provinces; these efforts were resisted and thwarted by those local Poles who feared losing control of Lviv and East Galicia. The Austrians agreed in principle to divide the province of Galicia. Due to the intervention of Archduke Wilhelm of Austria, who adopted a Ukrainian identity and considered himself a Ukrainian patriot, in October 1918 two regiments of Ukrainian troops were garrisoned in Lemberg.
As the Austro-Hungarian government collapsed, on October 18, 1918, the Ukrainian National Council, consisting of Ukrainian members of the Austrian parliament and regional Galician and Bukovynan diets as well as leaders of Ukrainian political parties, was formed. The Council announced the intention to unite the West Ukrainian lands into a single state; as the Poles were taking their own steps to take over Lviv and Eastern Galicia, Captain Dmytro Vitovsky of the Sich Riflemen led the group of young Ukrainian officers in a decisive action and during the night of October 31 – November 1, the Ukrainian military units took control over Lviv. The West Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed on November 1918 with Lviv as its capital; the timing of proclamation of the Republic caught the Polish ethnic population and administration by surprise. The new Ukrainian Republic claimed sovereignty over Eastern Galicia, including the Carpathians up to the city of Nowy Sącz in the West, as well as Volhynia, Carpathian Ruthenia and Bukovina (the last two territories were claimed by Hungary and Romania respe
Ashmyany is a town in Grodno Region, located at 50 km from Vilnius, capital of the Ashmyany raion. It lies in the basin of the Ashmyanka River, it is known as "Aschemynne" in the chronicles of the Teutonic Knights. It was the birthplace of a renowned Polish general and military commander; the town and region surrounding modern Ashmyany was once within the ethnic Lithuanian territory. During the 17th and 18th centuries, a lot of local Lithuanians died from war and famine, Slavic colonists grew in population. With time Lithuanians were outnumbered by Slavs. Presently, its Lithuanian past is sealed in the towns's name, of Lithuanian origin. Town's name derivative from river name Ašmena, originated from appellative Lithuanian word akmuo; the link between consonants š and k is old and echoed in Lithuanian words ašmuo and akmuo. The present name Ashmyany uses the plural form of the name and is a modern invention, as through the ancient town's history, its name was recorded in Lithuanian singular form.
The first reliable mentioning of Ashmyany tells that after the death of Gediminas in 1341 the town was inherited, among other places, by Jaunutis. In 1384, the Teutonic Knights attempted to attack Ashmyany as a beginning attempt to destroy the hereditary state of Jogaila; the Teutons managed to destroy the town, but it recovered. In 1402 another Teutonic attack on the city occurred, but was bloodily repelled and the Teutons were forced to withdraw to Medininkai. In 1413, the town became one of the most notable centres of trade and commerce within the Vilnius Voivodship; because of that, in 1432 it became a battlefield of an important battle between the royal forces of Jogaila under Žygimantas Kęstutaitis and the forces of Švitrigaila allied with the Teutonic Order. After the town was taken by the royalists, it became a private property of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and started to develop rapidly. However, less than a century the town was yet again destroyed and burnt to the ground, this time by the forces of Muscovy in 1519.
The recovery did not occur as as the previous time and in 1537 the town was granted with several royal privileges to facilitate the reconstruction. In 1566 the town received a city charter based on the Magdeburg Law, confirmed by king Jan III Sobieski in 1683. In the 16th century the town became one of the most notable centres of Calvinism in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, after Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł founded a collegiate and a church there. In 1792, King Stanisław August Poniatowski confirmed all the previous privileges and the fact, that the town of Oszmiany, as it was called, was a free city, subordinate only to the king and the local city council, it was then that the town received the first Coat of Arms in its history. Composed of three fields parted per pale, it featured a shield, a hand holding a weigh and the Ciołek coat of arms, a personal coat of arms of the monarch. In the effect of the Partitions of Poland of 1795, the town was annexed by Imperial Russia. During the November Uprising it was liberated by a local priest Jasiński and Colonel Count Karol Przeździecki with help of town population.
However, in April 1831 they were forced to withdraw to the Naliboki forest in the face of a Russian offensive. After a minor skirmish with Polish–Lithuanian rearguard under Stelnicki, the Russian punitive expeditionary force of some 1500 officers and soldiers entered the town and proceeded to burn the town and massacre the civilian population; some 500 people, women and elderly seeking refuge in the Dominican Catholic Church were massacred there. The local priest was murdered. Nothing is known about the fate of the Jewish citizens. After this destruction the town was somewhat repopulated and received a new coat of arms in 1845 in recognition of its rather smallish growth. Rebuilt, it never recovered from its earlier losses and by the end of the 19th century it became rather a provincial town, inhabited by Jewish immigrants from other parts of Russia'beyond the pale'. In 1912 the local Jewish community built a large synagogue. After the end of World War I on the German-Russo front in 1917 and withdrawal of the German army in 1919, Bolshevik activity threatened the town under Polish jurisdiction.
Polish armed forces defended the town against the invading Bolsheviks, there still exist graves of Polish soldiers who had died in that struggle. After the Polish–Bolshevik War ended, Ashmyany was restored to Poland by the Treaty of Riga, it was a county center first of Wilno Land of Wilno Voivodeship during Polish rule. Between the Polish Defensive War of 1939 and 1941 the town was seized by the USSR and until 1944 by Nazi Germany. During the end of the Soviet occupation, the NKVD on the night of June 22 and morning of June 23, 1941, murdered and buried in one mass grave 57 Polish prisoners from the local population. During the Nazi occupation, which began June 25, 1941, the Jews of Ashmyany were restricted to a ghetto, its governance under the Nazis was allotted to Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland. On July 7, 1944, it was taken by the Red Army during the Vilnius Offensive. In 1945 town was annexed by the USSR and included as a part of the Byelorussian SSR. Since 1991, it has been a part of Belarus.
It was a raion center in Vileyka Voblast between 1939 and 1941 and after 1944. Its raion was incorporated into Molodechno Vo
Imperial Russian Army
The Imperial Russian Army was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars; the last living veteran of the Russian Imperial Army was Ukrainian supercentenarian Mikhail Krichevsky, who died in 2008. Russian tsars before Peter the Great maintained professional hereditary musketeer corps known as streltsy; these were raised by Ivan the Terrible. In times of war the armed forces were augmented by peasants; the regiments of the new order, or regiments of the foreign order, was the Russian term, used to describe military units that were formed in the Tsardom of Russia in the 17th century according to the Western European military standards. There were different kinds of regiments, such as the regulars and reiters. In 1631, the Russians created two regular regiments in Moscow. During the Smolensk War of 1632–1634, six more regular regiments, one reiter regiment, a dragoon regiment were formed.
They recruited children of the landless boyars and streltsy, volunteers and others. Commanding officers comprised foreigners. After the war with Poland, all of the regiments were disbanded. During another Russo-Polish War, they were created again and became a principal force of the Russian army. Regular and dragoon regiments were manned with datochniye lyudi for lifelong military service. Reiters were manned with small or landless gentry and boyars' children and were paid with money for their service. More than a half of the commanding officers were representatives from the gentry. In times of peace, some of the regiments were disbanded. In 1681, there were 25 dragoon and reiter regiments. In the late 17th century, regiments of the new type represented more than a half of the Russian Army and in the beginning of the 18th century were used for creating a regular army. Conscription in Russia was introduced by Peter the Great in December 1699, though reports say Peter's father used it; the conscripts were called "recruits" Peter I formed a modern regular army built on the German model, but with a new aspect: officers not from nobility, as talented commoners were given promotions that included a noble title at the attainment of an officer's rank.
Conscription of peasants and townspeople was based on quota system, per settlement. It was based on the number of households it was based on the population numbers; the term of service in the 18th century was for life. In 1793 it was reduced to 25 years. In 1834, it was reduced to 20 years plus five years in the reserve, in 1855 to 12 years plus three years in the reserve; the history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Russian General Alexander Suvorov, considered one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. From 1777 to 1783 Suvorov served in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, becoming a lieutenant-general in 1780, general of infantry in 1783, on the conclusion of his work there. From 1787 to 1791 he again fought the Turks during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won many victories. Suvorov's leadership played a key role in a Russian victory over the Poles during the Kościuszko Uprising; as a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving Revolutionary France and the First French Empire, but as an adversary to Napoleon, the leadership of the new tsar, Alexander I of Russia, who came to the throne as the result of his father's murder became crucial.
The Russian army in 1805 had many characteristics of Ancien Régime organization: there was no permanent formation above the regimental level, senior officers were recruited from aristocratic circles, the Russian soldier, in line with 18th-century practice, was beaten and punished to instill discipline. Furthermore, many lower-level officers were poorly trained and had difficulty getting their men to perform the sometimes complex manoeuvres required in a battle; the Russians did have a fine artillery arm manned by soldiers trained in academies and who would fight hard to prevent their pieces from falling into enemy hands. Napoleon defeated the Russians and Austrians at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. On August 26, 1827, Nicholas I of Russia declared the "Statute on Conscription Duty"; this statute made it mandatory that all Russian males ages twelve to twenty-five were now required to serve in the Russian armed forces for 25 years. This was the first time that the massive Jewish population was required to serve in the Russian military.
The reasoning for Nicolas for mandatory conscription was because “in the military they would learn not only Russian but useful skills and crafts, they would become his loyal subjects."Many Jewish families began to emigrate out of the Russian Empire in order to escape the conscription obligations. Due to this, the government began to employ khappers who would kidnap Jewish children and turn them over to the government for conscription, it became known that "the khappers were not scrupulous about adhering to the minimum age of 12 and impressed children as young as 8."
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
4th Rifle Division (Poland)
This article is about the Polish 4th Rifle Division. See also: Polish 4th Infantry DivisionThe Polish 4th Rifle Division was a Polish military unit, together with the Polish 5th Rifle Division of the Blue Army, the only part of the Polish military which took part in the Russian Civil War. Under the command of General Lucjan Żeligowski, it operated as an ally of the White movement from autumn 1918 to August 1919 in southern Russia and Bessarabia; the 4th Rifle Division could trace its origins to the Polish 2nd Corps in Russia. The 2nd Corps was formed from various Polish units, but the 2nd Brigade of the Polish Legions in World War I, which rebelled against the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and decided to join the newly-forming Polish army and help secure the territories inhabited by the Poles in the Kresy region; the Polish 5th Rifle Division found itself fighting in the northern territories of the former Russian Empire. The ever-changing and chaotic currents of the Russian Civil War, coupled with the weak chain of command of the newly reborn Polish Army, meant that the local commanders had much autonomy.
Nonetheless this meant that the soldiers of the 2nd Corps were fighting the Bolsheviks and their Red Army before the Polish-Soviet War began in 1919. After the Battle of Kaniów on 11 May 1918, in which the forces of the 2nd Brigade broke through the front and created the 2nd Corps, the Polish commanders entered the alliance with one of the White generals, Mikhail Alekseev, his Volunteer Army in the northern Caucasus near the Kuban River. By September 1918 the Polish forces in the region, called the'Polish Unit of the Volunteer Army', numbered over 700 people under the command of Col. Franciszek Zieliński, were engaged in several battles with the Bolsheviks. In October 1918 General Lucjan Żeligowski assumed command of the Polish forces in the east from General Haller. At the same time, General Alekseev died, General Anton Ivanovich Denikin assumed the command of the White forces in the region; the local Polish forces were reorganized into the Polish 4th Rifle Division, subordinated to the 2nd Corps of the Blue Army of General Józef Haller.
By the end of January 1919 the division numbered over 2800 men, including many from the now-disbanded Polish 1st Corps in Russia. At that time Piłsudski ordered the Polish units in the far East to move close to the core Polish territory. Denikin, who received this order through French General Ferdinand Foch, ordered Żeligowski to move to Odessa, a major port west of Crimea. Żeligowski reorganized and strengthened the units in the area, in December 1918 he found himself facing the Ukrainian forces of Symon Petlura. Reinforced by French and Greek troops, it helped to secure Odessa as part of the Allied Southern Russia Intervention and took part in the fights near Tiraspol. In March 1919 the unit numbered including a sizeable cavalry contingent. By the end of March the division, the Allied forces, were no longer fighting the Ukrainians, but the Bolsheviks. Żeligowski was able to influence the placement of his unit, until May the division screened the retreat of Allied troops from Odessa towards the Romanian lines in Bessarabia.
Near the end of May the division was relieved and transported to Poland. It was the only major Polish military formation that took part in the Russian Civil War and managed to return to Poland as a functioning unit; the division took part in the last phase of the ongoing Polish-Ukrainian War, starting from the area near Chernivtsi and Stanyslaviv. This time it was not fighting Petliura, but one of the other Ukrainian factions, the West Ukrainian National Republic. From 11 to 13 July the division fought its first battle near a town with a sizeable Polish population in the area, Jazłowiec. On 19 July 1919 the division was reformed into the Polish 10th Infantry Division and took part in the major conflict of that time, the Polish-Soviet War. Nie tylko korpusy... Inne polskie formacje zbrojne w Rosji 1918-1920 Polskie formacje wojskowe podczas I wojny światowej 4th Infantry Division Polish Armed Forces in the East