Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford University School of Medicine is the medical school of Stanford University and is located in Stanford, California. It is the successor to the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, founded in San Francisco in 1858; the school ceased operations in 1862, but was in 1870 refounded by Levi Cooper Lane and renamed Cooper Medical College. The medical school moved to the Stanford campus near Palo Alto, California in 1959; the School of Medicine, along with Stanford Health Care and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, is part of Stanford Medicine. It is a research-intensive institution that emphasizes medical innovation, novel methods and interventions in its integrated curriculum. Stanford Health Care was named the third best hospital in California, after the UCSF Medical Center and the UCLA Medical Center. In 1855, Illinois physician Elias Samuel Cooper moved to San Francisco in the wake of the California Gold Rush. In cooperation with the University of the Pacific, Cooper established the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific, the first medical school on the West Coast, in 1858, on Mission Street near 3rd Street in San Francisco.
However, in 1862 Cooper died, without his leadership, the Medical Department of the University of the Pacific ceased operation. In 1864, surgeon Hugh Toland founded a new medical school, Toland Medical College (today the University of California, San Francisco, the faculty of Cooper Medical College chose to suspend operations and join the new school. In 1870 Cooper's nephew, Levi Cooper Lane, established a new campus at the intersection of Webster and Sacramento Streets in 1882. Lane built a hospital and a nursing school and made provision for the creation of Lane Medical Library. In 1908, Cooper Medical College was deeded to Stanford University as a gift, it became Stanford's medical institution called the Stanford Medical Department and the Stanford University School of Medicine. In the 1950s, the Stanford Board of Trustees decided to move the school to the Stanford main campus near Palo Alto; the move was completed in 1959. In the 1980s the Medical Center launched a major expansion program.
A new hospital was added in 1989 with 20 new operating rooms, state of the art intensive care and inpatient units, other technological additions. The Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine opened in May 1989 as an interdisciplinary center focusing on the molecular and genetic basis of disease; the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital was completed in 1991, adding more diversity to Stanford Medicine. In the early years of the 21st century the School of Medicine underwent rapid construction to further expand teaching and clinical opportunities; the Li Ka Shing Center for Learning and Knowledge opened in 2010. The Lorry I. Lokey Stem Cell Research Building opened in 2010; the Stem Cell Research Building is the first of the planned Stanford Institutes of Medicine. In addition to research facilities it houses offices for faculty from the Stanford Cancer Center and "hotel space" offices for visiting researchers; the School of Medicine has reversed the traditional teaching method of classroom time being reserved for lectures and problem-solving exercises being completed outside of school as homework.
The School of Medicine has a long history of educating physician assistants. Stanford University partnered with Foothill College in 1971 to form the Primary Care Associate Program which graduated more than 1,500 PAs; the last PCAP class graduated in 2018. Today, the Stanford School of Medicine offers a Master of Science in PA Studies program that not only trains students to become qualified clinical PAs who can practice in any area of medicine, but seeks to train PAs who can be leaders in community health and medical education; the program offers a novel approach to curriculum delivery and expanded clinical opportunities as well as interprofessional education, with PA students taking courses side by side with Stanford MD students. The program accepts 27 students each year. Admission to the program is competitive: the acceptance rate is less than 2%. In the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, Stanford was ranked 3rd in the nation for research, behind Harvard Medical School and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Admission to Stanford is competitive. In 2016, 7,512 people applied, 516 were interviewed, 187 accepted for 93 spots. Stanford is one of several schools in the United States to use the multiple mini interview system, developed at McMaster University Medical School in Canada, to evaluate candidates; the MMI system exposes candidates to multiple interviewers in a short amount of time and has been shown to better predict medical school performance than traditional panel interviews. Along with the School of Humanities and Science, the Stanford School of Medicine runs the Biosciences Ph. D. Program, ranked 1st in 2014 among graduate programs in the biological sciences by the US News and World Report. In specialties, according to U. S. News for 2014, Stanford is #1 in genetics and bioinformatics.
Neal E. Miller
Neal Elgar Miller was an American experimental psychologist. Described as an energetic man with a variety of interests, including physics and writing, Miller entered the field of psychology to pursue these. With a background training in the sciences, he was inspired by professors and leading psychologists at the time to work on various areas in behavioral psychology and physiological psychology relating visceral responses to behavior. Miller's career in psychology started with research on "fear as a learned drive and its role in conflict". Work in behavioral medicine led him to his most notable work on biofeedback. Over his lifetime he lectured at Yale University, Rockefeller University, Cornell University Medical College and was one of the youngest members of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, his accomplishments led to the establishment of two awards: the New Investigator Award from the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research and an award for distinguished lectureship from the American Psychological Association.
A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Miller as the eighth most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Miller was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1909, he grew up in the Pacific Northwest. His father, Irving Miller, worked at Western Washington University as Chair of the Department of Education and Psychology, his father's position in Neal Miller's words, "may have had something to do with" his interest in psychology. Having a curiosity for science, Miller entered the University of Washington, where he studied biology and had an interest in writing, his senior year he decided that psychology would allow him to pursue his wide variety of interests. He graduated from the University of Washington with a B. S. and a piqued interest in behavioral psychology. Afterwards he studied at Stanford University where he received his M. S. and an interest in psychology of personality. At Stanford he accompanied his professor, Walter Miles, to the Institute of Human Relations at Yale University as a research assistant.
There he was encouraged by another professor to further study psychoanalysis. He received his Ph. D. degree in Psychology from Yale University in 1935, that same year he became a social science research fellow at the Institute of Psychoanalysis in Vienna for one year before returning to Yale as a faculty member in 1936. He spent a total of 30 years at Yale University, in 1950 he was appointed professor at Yale, a position he held until 1966. In 1966 he began teaching at Rockefeller University and afterwards spent the early 1970s teaching at Cornell University Medical College. In 1985 he returned to Yale as a research associate. Miller's early work focused on experimenting with Freudian ideas on behavior in real-life situations, his most notable topic was fear. Miller came to the conclusion. Miller decided to extend his research to other autonomic drives, such as hunger, to see if they worked in the same way, his unique ideas and experimental techniques to study these autonomic drives resulted in findings that changed ideas about motivations and behavior.
Miller was one of the founding fathers behind the idea of biofeedback. Today, many of his ideas have been expanded and added to, but Miller has been credited with coming up with most of the basic ideas behind biofeedback. Miller was doing experimentation on conditioning and rats. Neal Miller, along with John Dollard and O. Hobart Mowrer, helped to integrate behavioral and psychoanalytic concepts, they were able to translate psychological analytic concepts into behavioral terms that would be more understood. They focused on the stimulus-response theory; these three men recognized Sigmund Freud's understanding of anxiety as a "signal of danger" and that some things in Freud's work could be altered to fix this. Miller and Mowrer believed that a person, relieved of high anxiety levels would experience what is called "anxiety relief". Together with fellow psychologist O. Hobart Mowrer, Miller gives his name to the "Miller-Mowrer Shuttlebox" apparatus. Over the course of his career, Miller wrote 276 papers and articles.
Neal Miller worked with John Dollard and together they wrote the book Personality and Psychotherapy concerning neurosis and psychological learning concepts. Miller's regular use of laboratory animals, over many years, aroused criticism from animal rights groups, but he was a forthright defender of the practice, he once argued that if people had no right to use animals in research they had no right to kill them for food or clothing. So, Miller acknowledged that the issue was complex, saying: "There is sacredness of all life, but where do we draw the line? That's the problem. Cats kill mice. Dogs exploit other animals by eating them. Humans have to draw the line somewhere in animal rights, or we're dead." Miller served as President of the American Psychological Association from 1960–61, received the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1959 and the APA Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology in 1991. In 1964 he received the National Medal of Science from President Johnson, the first psychologist to receive this honor.
He was President of the Society for Neurosciences, the Biofeedback Society of America and the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research. Dollard, John. Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Published for the Institute of Human Relations by Yale University Press. OCLC 256003. Miller, Neal E. Social learning and imitation. New Haven
Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative, oligotrophic bacterium distributed in fresh water lakes and streams. Caulobacter is an important model organism for studying the regulation of the cell cycle, asymmetric cell division, cellular differentiation. Caulobacter daughter cells have two different forms. One daughter is a mobile "swarmer" cell that has a single flagellum at one cell pole that provides swimming motility for chemotaxis; the other daughter, called the "stalked" cell has a tubular stalk structure protruding from one pole that has an adhesive holdfast material on its end, with which the stalked cell can adhere to surfaces. Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of motility. Chromosome replication and cell division only occurs in the stalked cell stage, its name derives from its crescent shape caused by the protein crescentin, discovered by Christine Jacobs-Wagner's laboratory. Its use as a model originated with developmental biologist Lucy Shapiro. In the laboratory, researchers distinguish between C. crescentus strain CB15 and NA1000.
In strain NA1000, derived from CB15 in the 1970s, the stalked and predivisional cells can be physically separated in the laboratory from new swarmer cells, while cell types from strain CB15 cannot be physically separated. The isolated swarmer cells can be grown as a synchronized cell culture. Detailed study of the molecular development of these cells as they progress through the cell cycle has enabled researchers to understand Caulobacter cell cycle regulation in great detail. Due to this capacity to be physically synchronized, strain NA1000 has become the predominant experimental Caulobacter strain throughout the world. Additional phenotypic differences between the two strains have subsequently accumulated due to selective pressures on the NA1000 strain in the laboratory environment; the genetic basis of the phenotypic differences between the two strains results from coding and insertion/deletion polymorphisms at five chromosomal loci. C. crescentus is synonymous with Caulobacter vibrioides.
The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes. The genome contains multiple clusters of genes encoding proteins essential for survival in a nutrient poor habitat. Included are those involved in chemotaxis, outer membrane channel function, degradation of aromatic ring compounds, the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources, in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In 2010, the Caulobacter NA1000 strain was sequenced and all differences with the CB15 "wild type" strain were identified; the Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to surfaces to form biofilms and or to exploit nutrient sources. The bacterial species that divides fastest will be most effective at exploiting resources and occupying ecological niches. Yet, Caulobacter has the swarmer cell stage. What is the offsetting fitness advantage of this motile cell stage?
The swarmer cell is thought to provide cell dispersal, so that the organism seeks out new environments. This may be useful in nutrient-limited environments when the scant resources available can be depleted quickly. Many most, of the swarmer daughter cells will not find a productive environment, but the obligate dispersal stage must increase the reproductive fitness of the species as a whole; the Caulobacter cell cycle regulatory system controls many modular subsystems that organize the progression of cell growth and reproduction. A control system constructed using biochemical and genetic logic circuitry organizes the timing of initiation of each of these subsystems; the central feature of the cell cycle regulation is a cyclical genetic circuit—a cell cycle engine –-, centered around the successive interactions of five master regulatory proteins: DnaA, GcrA, CtrA, SciP, CcrM whose roles were worked out by Lucy Shapiro's laboratory. These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes.
The five master regulatory proteins are synthesized and eliminated from the cell one after the other over the course of the cell cycle. Several additional cell signaling pathways are essential to the proper functioning of this cell cycle engine; the principal role of these signaling pathways is to ensure reliable production and elimination of the CtrA protein from the cell at just the right times in the cell cycle. An essential feature of the Caulobacter cell cycle is that the chromosome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle; this is in contrast to the E. coli cell cycle where there can be overlapping rounds of chromosome replication underway. The opposing roles of the Caulobacter DnaA and CtrA proteins are essential to the tight control of Caulobacter chromosome replication; the DnaA protein acts at the origin of replication to initiate the replication of the chromosome. The CtrA protein, in contrast, acts to block initiation of replication, so it must be removed from the cell before chromosome replication can begin.
Multiple additional regulatory pathways integral to cell cycle regulation and involving both phospho signaling pathways and regulated control of protein proteolysis act to assure that DnaA and CtrA are present in the cell just when needed. Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions; the longest subsystem cascade is DNA replication. In Caulobacter cells, replication of the chromosome involves about 2 milli
Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School
Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts is a high school specializing in teaching visual arts and performing arts, situated near Lincoln Center in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the Upper West Side, New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located at 100 Amsterdam Avenue between West 64th and 65th Streets, the school is operated by the New York City Department of Education, resulted from the merger of the High School of Music & Art and the School of Performing Arts; the school has a dual mission of arts and academics, preparing students for a career in the arts or conservatory study as well as a pursuit of higher education. Informally known as LaGuardia Arts, LaG, or LaGuardia High School, the school is the only one among the nine specialized high schools in New York City that receives special funding from the New York State legislature through the Hecht Calandra Act, as well as the only specialized high school that does not use the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test as admissions criteria.
The school in 2013–2014 had 2,730 students and 163 staff members, with a teacher–student ratio of 1:20. The High School of Music & Art was founded by Fiorello H. LaGuardia in 1936; as the mayor of New York City he wanted to establish a public school in which students could hone their talents in music and the performing arts. In 1948, a similar institution – the School of Performing Arts – was created in an effort to harness students’ talents in dance; the schools were to be combined in one building. However, this took many years and it was not until 1984 that they moved to a new concrete building adjacent to Lincoln Center designed by Eduardo Catalano; the Board of Education honored Mayor LaGuardia posthumously by naming the new building after him. Prior to the building's completion in 1985, Music & Art – colloquially known as "The Castle on the Hill" – was located in Manhattan at Convent Avenue and 135th Street in what has since become part of City College of New York's South Campus. Philip Randolph Campus High School.
Performing Arts was located in Midtown Manhattan on 46th Street. Mayor La Guardia regarded Music & Art as the "most hopeful accomplishment" of his long administration as mayor; the 1980 dramatic film Fame was based on student life at the School of Performing Arts prior to its merger into LaGuardia High School. A television series based on the film, "Fame," was launched in 1982, a stage musical adaptation premiered in 1988. A loose remake of the film was released in 2009. Paul McCartney said he wanted a school like LaGuardia aka "the FAME School" in Liverpool, his hometown. With the school's principal, Mark Weatherstone-Witty he created the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts. Alumni from LaGuardia and its two legacy schools, High School of Music and Art and School of Performing Arts, are active in supporting the students and the school through scholarships and support for special programs, school events, reunions held at the school and throughout the world; the school's alumni organization has a full-time offices at the school.
It functions as an independent charitable organization organized under the laws of New York. Students at LaGuardia take a full academic course load while participating in conservatory-style arts concentration; each student majors in one studio, choosing from among Dance, Art, Vocal Music, Instrumental Music, Technical Theater. Many graduates from LaGuardia continue their studies in universities or conservatories after graduation. LaGuardia had offered an honors track to students known as the DaVinci Program. DaVinci Scholars took more difficult classes in math and science and participated in a supplementary after-school enrichment program; the program no longer exists and students can take honors classes by choice or programming. LaGuardia offers several Advanced Placement courses; the school presents an annual musical. The Musical Theater class, an elective school-wide course, is offered through the collaboration of faculty members from Music, Drama and the Tech Theater Studios, culminating in a major musical theater performance.
Recent productions have included "Gypsy", Les Misérables, West Side Story, Ragtime, Hairspray and Dolls, Sweet Charity, Grease, In the Heights and the Beast, The Sound of Music. For the first two years of education, the art department stresses traditional artistic skills and discipline. Students work on drawing from observation, learning color theory, the principles of design. Following this, students elect vocationally oriented courses in the fine arts such as Computer Graphics and Photography. In their senior year, art majors can submit portfolios to the department for consideration for a place in the senior galleries, which are a series of shows organized and constructed by the chosen students and a student curator; the music department features two symphony orchestras, five choirs, four string ensembles, two concert bands, two jazz bands, a chamber group, a gospel choir, a show choir, an opera company with a pit orchestra. Vocal and instrumental students study in a conservatory curriculum featuring three hours of music per day, including performing ensembles, music theory and history.
The department has done featured work with composers and organizations such as Eric Whitacre, Josh Groban, Arturo O'Farrill, Béla Fleck and NPR's Radiolab. Every student in the instrumental department must join a performing ensemble as well as a class specific to their instrument's musicological classification. After completing their first year with an
In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary awards or military glory. It is used for winners of the Nobel Prize, Gandhi Peace Award and the Student Peace Prize. In ancient Greece, the laurel was sacred to Apollo and as such sprigs of it were fashioned into a crown or wreath of honor for poets and heroes; this symbolism has been widespread since. "Laureate letters" in old times meant the dispatches announcing a victory. The name of "bacca-laureate" for a bachelor's degree shows a confusion with a supposed etymology from Latin bacca lauri, though incorrect, involves the same idea. From the more general use of the term "poet laureate" arose its restriction in England to the office of the poet attached to the royal household, first held by Ben Jonson, for whom the position was, in its essentials, created by Charles I of England in 1617. Jonson's appointment does not seem to have been formally made as poet laureate, but his position was equivalent to that.
The office was a development of the practice of earlier times, when minstrels and versifiers were part of the retinue of the King. Moreover, the crown had shown its patronage in various ways. Sir William Davenant succeeded Jonson in 1638, the title of poet laureate was conferred by letters patent on John Dryden in 1670 two years after Davenant's death, coupled with a pension of £300 and a butt of Canary Islands wine; the post became a regular institution, though the emoluments varied, Dryden's successors being T. Shadwell, who originated annual birthday and New Year odes; the office took on a new luster from the personal distinction of Southey and Tennyson. However, the undesirability of breaking with tradition for temporary reasons, thus severing the one official link between literature and the state, prevailed over the protests against following Tennyson by any one of inferior genius. Abolition was advocated when Thomas Warton and William Wordsworth died; the poet laureate, being a court official, was considered responsible for producing formal and appropriate verses on birthdays and state occasions.
Wordsworth stipulated, before accepting the honor, that no formal effusions from him should be considered a necessity. The emoluments of the post have varied. To Pye an allowance of £27 was made instead of the wine. Tennyson drew £72 a year from the Lord Chamberlain's department, £27 from the Lord Steward's in lieu of the "butt of sack." Glory
Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, maybe for millions of years. The climate system is comprised of five interacting parts, the atmosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere; the climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system gives off energy to outer space; the balance of incoming and outgoing energy, the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling; as this energy moves through Earth's climate system, it creates Earth's weather and long-term averages of weather are called "climate". Changes in the long term average are called "climate change"; such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter Earth's energy budget.
Examples include cyclical ocean patterns such as the well-known El Nino Southern Oscillation and less familiar Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate change can result from "external forcing", when events outside of the climate system's five parts nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar volcanism. Human activities can change earth's climate, are presently driving climate change through global warming. There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; the field of climatology incorporates many disparate fields of research. For ancient periods of climate change, researchers rely on evidence preserved in climate proxies, such as ice cores, ancient tree rings, geologic records of changes in sea level, glacial geology. Physical evidence of current climate change covers many independent lines of evidence, a few of which are temperature records, the disappearance of ice, extreme weather events.
The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Niño, do not represent climate change; the term "climate change" is used to refer to anthropogenic climate change. Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this sense in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warming. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas levels affect. A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the World Meteorological Organization in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause.
During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem. Prior to the 18th century, scientists had not suspected that prehistoric climates were different from the modern period. By the late 18th century, geologists found evidence of a succession of geological ages with changes in climate. In the years since, a great deal of scientific progress has been made understanding the workings of the climate system. On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the Sun and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth; this energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.
Factors that can shape climate are called climate forcings or "forcing mechanisms". These include processes such as variations in solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the albedo or reflectivity of the continents and oceans, mountain-building and continental drift and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. There are a variety of climate change feedbacks that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing; some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are key threshold factors which when exceeded can produce rapid change. Forcing mechanisms can be either "internal" or "external". Internal forcing mechanisms are natural processes within the climate system itself. External forcing mechanisms can be either natural. Whether the initial forcing mechanism is internal or external, the response of the climate system might be fast, slow (e.g. thermal exp
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti