Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan
Patrick Sarsfield, 1st Earl of Lucan, was an Irish Jacobite and soldier, belonging to an Irish Catholic family long settled in Ireland. Sarsfield gained his first military experience serving with an Anglo-Irish contingent of the French Army during the 1670s; when James II came to the throne he was commissioned in the English Army, served during the suppression of Monmouth's Rebellion in 1685. During the Glorious Revolution of 1688 he remained loyal to James and led an English cavalry detachment at the Wincanton Skirmish, the only military engagement of the campaign. In 1689 Sarsfield served in the Jacobite Irish Army. After an early setback at Sligo, he became one of the celebrated Jacobite leaders of the war, noted in particular for Sarsfield's Raid shortly before the Siege of Limerick in 1690. James rewarded him by making him an Earl in the Peerage of Ireland. After the war's end following a second siege of Limerick in 1691, he led the Flight of the Wild Geese which took thousands of Irish soldiers into exile in France where they continued to serve James.
After a planned invasion of England had to be abandoned following a French naval defeat in 1692, Lord Lucan served in Flanders and was killed at the Battle of Landen in 1693. Sarsfield was born in Lucan c. 1660. His family were a mix of Norman Irish and Irish Gaels, his father was Patrick Sarsfield and his mother was Anne O'More. Among his grandparents he counted Ruairí Ó Mórdha, Eibhlín Ní Dhíomasaigh from the Viscount Clanmalier family; the extended family of the powerful family of O'Mores, an estimated 120 people, had been wiped out by the English during the Massacre of Mullaghmast. His paternal family were Roman Catholics of Norman origin and possessed an estate with an income of £2,000 a year, his father had been implicated in the 1641 Rebellion, supported the Irish Confederacy during the subsequent war, assisted the Anglo-Irish Royalist forces against the English Republicans during the Siege of Dublin. Following the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland Patrick Sarsfield senior had his Leinster estates confiscated, was transplanted to Connacht where he was given a smaller estate.
Some sources suggest. Following the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the Sarsfields made attempts to recover their lost estates but the Court of Claims found them guilty of taking part in the initial rebellion; the family's fortunes were boosted by the marriage of Patrick's elder brother William Sarsfield to Mary Crofts, believed to be an illegitimate daughter of King Charles and Lucy Walter, the younger sister of James Scott, Duke of Monmouth. The King now intervened on behalf of the Sarsfields, agreed to a compromise: Lucan Manor would be restored to the Sarsfield family after the death of its current occupant, Colonel Theophilus Jones. Following the death of his nephew Charles Sarsfield, Patrick advanced his own claim to Lucan Manor with the legal assistance of his cousin Francis Sarsfield. Patrick, as a younger son, sought a career as a soldier, his first experience may have been some brief time spent with the Irish Guards in Dublin. Although Catholics were notionally forbidden from military service, the ranks of the Guards were an exception.
He entered Dongan's Regiment of Foot on 6 February 1678. In his early years he is known to have challenged Lord Grey for a supposed reflection on the veracity of the Irish people, in the December of that year he was run through the body in a duel in which he engaged as second. In 1682–83 while in London, Sarsfield took part in two abductions of heiresses. In May 1682 he helped his friend Captain Robert Clifford to abduct Ann Siderlin, a wealthy widow, was considered lucky not to be prosecuted, he abducted Elizabeth Herbert, the widowed daughter of Lord Chandos, on his own account. Elizabeth agreed not to prosecute him in exchange for her freedom. During the last years of the reign of Charles II he saw service in the English regiments that were attached to the army of Louis XIV of France; the accession of James II led to his return home. He took part in the suppression of the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685. After Monmouth had landed in the West Country and proclaimed himself King in defiance of James, Sarsfield was given permission to accompany the Royal Army as a gentleman volunteer.
He was wounded with a sword slash to the hand during a skirmish with the rebels at Keynsham. He was present again at the decisive victory at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685. During the fighting he was knocked off his horse, clubbed by muskets and left for dead by the rebel infantry. Wounded in several places, he nonetheless survived, the battle gained him recognition for his conduct, his actions were brought to the attention of the King. As a reward he was formally given a commission, appointed as a Captain in Richard Hamilton's regiment of the Irish Army; however before he could take up this position he was transferred to an English cavalry regiment and promoted to Major. In the following year, he was promoted to a Colonelcy. During the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Sarsfield remained loyal to James. While other officers defected to the invading Dutch Army, Sarsfield was active on the King's behalf, fought the Wincanton Skirmish against an enemy detachment. King James had remodelled the Irish army from a Protestant-led force to a Catholic-led one, Sarsfield, whose family was Roman Catholic, was selected to assist in this reorganisation.
He went to Ireland with Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, appointed commander-in-chief by the King. I
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War. Known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporters, known as the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute monarchy and the principle of the'divine right of kings'; the goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration of the country/kingdom. Most Roundheads sought constitutional monarchy in place of the absolutist monarchy sought by Charles. However, at the end of the English Civil War in 1649, public antipathy towards the king was high enough to allow republican leaders such as Oliver Cromwell to abolish the monarchy and establish the Commonwealth of England; the Roundhead commander-in-chief of the first Civil War, Thomas Fairfax, remained a supporter of constitutional monarchy, as did many other Roundhead leaders such as Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. England's many Puritans and Presbyterians were invariably Roundhead supporters, as were many smaller religious groups such as the Independents.
However many Roundheads were members of the Church of England. Roundhead political factions included the proto-anarchist Diggers, the diverse group known as the Levellers and the apocalyptic Christian movement of the Fifth Monarchists; some Puritans, but by no means all, wore their hair cropped round the head or flat and there was thus an obvious contrast between them and the men of courtly fashion, who wore long ringlets. During the war and for a time afterwards, Roundhead was a term of derision—in the New Model Army it was a punishable offence to call a fellow soldier a Roundhead; this contrasted with the term "Cavalier" to describe supporters of the Royalist cause. Cavalier started out as a pejorative term—the first proponents used it to compare members of the Royalist party with Spanish Caballeros who had abused Dutch Protestants during the reign of Elizabeth I—but unlike Roundhead, Cavalier was embraced by those who were the target of the epithet and used by them to describe themselves."Roundheads" appears to have been first used as a term of derision toward the end of 1641, when the debates in Parliament in the Clergy Act 1640 were causing riots at Westminster.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition quotes a contemporary authority's description of the crowd gathered there: "They had the hair of their heads few of them longer than their ears, whereupon it came to pass that those who with their cries attended at Westminster were by a nickname called Roundheads". The demonstrators included London apprentices and Roundhead was a term of derision for them because the regulations to which they had agreed included a provision for cropped hair. According to John Rushworth the word was first used on 27 December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide. During a riot, Hide is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops". However, Richard Baxter ascribes the origin of the term to a remark made by Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, at the trial of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, earlier that year. Referring to John Pym, she asked; the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, remarked on the matter, "and from those contestations the two terms of Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be received in discourse... they who were looked upon as servants to the king being called Cavaliers, the other of the rabble contemned and despised under the name of Roundheads."Ironically, after Anglican Archbishop William Laud made a statute in 1636 instructing all clergy to wear short hair, many Puritans rebelled to show their contempt for his authority and began to grow their hair longer though they continued to be known as Roundheads.
The longer hair was more common among the "Independent" and "high ranking" Puritans toward the end of the Protectorate, while the "Presbyterian" faction, the military rank-and-file, continued to abhor long hair. By the end of this period some Independent Puritans were again derisively using the term Roundhead to refer to the Presbyterian Puritans. Roundhead remained in use to describe those with republican tendencies up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681. During the Exclusion Bill crisis, the term Cavalier was replaced with "Tory", an Irish term introduced by their opponents, initially a pejorative term. Macaulay, Thomas Babington; the History of England from the Accession of James II. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. P. 105. ISBN 0-543-93129-3. Hanbury, Benjamin. Historical Memorials Relating to the Independents Or Congregationalists: From Their Rise to the Restoration of the Monarchy. 3. Pp. 118, 635. Hunt, John. Religious Thought from the Reformation to the End of Last Century. 2. General Books LLC. p. 5.
ISBN 1-150-98096-6. Roberts, Chris. Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme. Thorndike Press. ISBN 0-7862-8517-6. Worden, Blair; the English Civil Wars 1640–1660. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100694-3. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous. "Roundhead". In Chisholm
John Cosin was an English churchman. He was born at Norwich, was educated at Norwich School and at Caius College, where he was scholar and afterwards fellow. On taking orders he was appointed secretary to John Overall, Bishop of Lichfield, domestic chaplain to Richard Neile, Bishop of Durham. In December 1624 he was made a prebendary of Durham, on 9 September 1625 Archdeacon of the East Riding of Yorkshire. In 1630 he received his degree of Doctor of Divinity, he first became known as an author in 1627, when he published his Collection of Private Devotions, a manual stated to have been prepared by command of King Charles I, for the use of Queen Henrietta Maria's maids of honour. This book, together with his insistence on points of ritual in his cathedral church and his friendship with William Laud, exposed Cosin to the hostility of the Puritans. In 1628 Cosin took part in the prosecution of a brother prebendary, Peter Smart, for a sermon against high church practices. On 8 February 1635 Cosin was appointed master of Cambridge.
In October of this year he was promoted to the deanery of Peterborough. A few days before his installation the Long Parliament had met, his petition against the new dean was considered. Articles of impeachment were presented against him two months but he was dismissed on bail. For sending the university plate to the king, he was deprived of the mastership of Peterhouse, he went to France, preached at Paris, served as chaplain to some members of the household of the exiled royal family. At the Restoration he returned to England, was reinstated in the mastership, restored to all his benefices, in a few months raised to the see of Durham – he therefore resigned from the Mastership of Peterhouse on 18 October 1660, he was elected to that See on 5 November. Cosin was responsible for a style of church woodwork unique to County Durham, a sumptuous fusion of gothic and contemporary Jacobean forms; the font cover in Durham Cathedral is a splendid example of this, as are the displays in the churches at Sedgefield and elsewhere.
The Cosin woodwork at Brancepeth has sadly been destroyed by fire. At the convocation in 1661 Cosin played a prominent part in the revision of the prayer-book, endeavoured with some success to bring both prayers and rubrics into better agreement with ancient liturgies, he administered his diocese for eleven years. He died in London in 1672, he had married Frances, the daughter of Marmaduke Blakiston on 15 August 1626 at St Margaret's, Durham. Though a classical high churchman and a rigorous enforcer of outward conformity, Cosin was uncompromisingly hostile to Roman Catholicism, most of his writings illustrate this antagonism. In France he was on friendly terms with Huguenots, justifying himself on the ground that their non-episcopal ordination had not been of their own seeking, at the Savoy conference in 1661 he tried hard to effect a reconciliation with the Presbyterians, he differed from the majority of his colleagues in his strict attitude towards Sunday observance and in favouring, in the case of adultery, both divorce and the remarriage of the innocent party.
Among his writings are a Historia Transubstantiationis Papalis and Collections on the Book of Common Prayer and A Scholastical History of the Canon of Holy Scripture. A collected edition of his works, forming 5 vols of the Oxford Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, was published between 1843 and 1855. Among his notable work was the translation of "Veni Creator Spiritus" included in the 1662 revision of the Book of Common Prayer. 1594–1623: John Cosin Esq. 1623–1624: The Reverend John Cosin 1624–1625: The Reverend Prebendary John Cosin 1625–1630: The Venerable John Cosin 1630–1640: The Venerable Doctor John Cosin 1640–1660: The Very Reverend Doctor John Cosin 1660–1672: The Right Reverend Doctor John Cosin This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cosin, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 213–214. Project Canterbury: The Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology
Somerset House is a large Neoclassical building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The Georgian building, built on the site of a Tudor palace belonging to the Duke of Somerset, was designed by Sir William Chambers in 1776, it was further extended with Victorian wings to the east and west in 1856 respectively. The East Wing is now part of the adjacent Strand campus of King's College London. Somerset House stood directly on the River Thames until the Victoria Embankment was built in the late 1860s. In the 16th century, the Strand, the north bank of the Thames between the City of London and the Palace of Westminster, was a favoured site for the mansions of bishops and aristocrats, who could commute from their own landing stages upriver to the court or downriver to the City and beyond. In 1539, Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, obtained a grant of land at "Chester Place, outside Temple Bar, London" from his brother-in-law King Henry VIII.
When his nephew the young King Edward VI came to the throne in 1547, Seymour became Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector. In about 1549 he pulled down an old Inn of Chancery and other houses which stood on the site and began to build himself a palatial residence, making liberal use of other nearby buildings including some of the chantry chapels and cloisters at St Paul's Cathedral, which were demolished at his behest as part of the ongoing dissolution of the monasteries, it was a two-storey house built around a quadrangle, with a gateway rising to three storeys, was one of the earliest examples of Renaissance architecture in England. It is not known. Before it was finished, the Duke of Somerset was overthrown, attainted by Parliament and in 1552 was executed on Tower Hill. Somerset Place, as the building was referred to came into the possession of the Crown; the duke's royal nephew's half-sister, the future Queen Elizabeth I, lived there during the reign of her half-sister Queen Mary I. The process of completion and improvement was costly.
As late as 1598 John Stow refers to it as "yet unfinished". In the 17th century, the house was used as a residence by the queen's consort. During the reign of King James I, the building became the London residence of his wife, Anne of Denmark, was renamed Denmark House, she commissioned a number of some to designs by Inigo Jones. In particular, during the period between 1630 and 1635, he built a chapel where Henrietta Maria of France, wife of King Charles I, could exercise her Roman Catholic religion; this was on a site to the southwest of the Great Court. A small cemetery was attached and some of the tombstones are still to be seen built into one of the walls of a passage under the present quadrangle. Royal occupation of Somerset House was interrupted by the Civil War, in 1649 Parliament tried to sell it, they failed to find a buyer, although a sale of the contents realised the considerable sum of £118,000. Use was still found for it however. Part of it served with General Fairfax being given official quarters there.
It was in Somerset House that Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell's body lay in state after his death in 1658. Two years with the Restoration, Queen Henrietta Maria returned and in 1661 began a considerable programme of rebuilding, the main feature of, a magnificent new river front, again to the design of the late Inigo Jones, who had died at Somerset House in 1652; however she returned to France in 1665. It was used as an occasional residence by Catherine of Braganza, wife of King Charles II. During her time it received a certain notoriety as being, in the popular mind, a hot-bed of Catholic conspiracy. Titus Oates made full use of this prejudice in the fabricated details of the Popish Plot and it was alleged that Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, whose murder was one of the great mysteries of the age, had been killed in Somerset House before his body had been smuggled out and thrown into a ditch below Primrose Hill. Somerset House was refurbished by Sir Christopher Wren in 1685. After the Glorious Revolution in 1688, Somerset House entered on a long period of decline, being used for grace and favour residences.
In the conditions of the time this meant inevitably that little money could be found for its upkeep, a slow process of decay crept in. During the 18th century, the building ceased its royal associations. Though the view from its terraced riverfront garden, open to the public, was painted twice on his London visit by Canaletto, it was used for storage, as a residence for visiting overseas dignitaries and as a barracks for troops. Suffering from neglect, Old Somerset House began to be demolished in 1775. Since the middle of the 18th century there had been growing criticism that London had no great public buildings. Government departments and the learned societies were huddled away in small old buildings all over the city. Developing national pride found comparison with the capitals of continental Europe disquieting. Edmund Burke was the leading proponent of the scheme for a "national building", in 1775 Parliament passed an act for the purpose of, inter alia, "erecting and establishing Publick Offices in Somerset House, for embanking Parts of the River Thames lying within the bounds of the Manor of Savoy".
The list of public offices mentioned in the act comprised "The Salt Office, The Stamp Office, The Tax Office, The Navy Office, The Navy Victu
Escape of Charles II
The escape of Charles II from England in 1651 was a key episode in his life. The retreat started with the Royalist defeat at Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651 when Charles was forced to flee, he had many adventures, most famously hiding up an oak tree in Boscobel Wood, before setting sail at 2:00am on 15 October from Shoreham-by-Sea and arriving in France the following day. Although only taking six weeks, it had a major effect on his attitudes for the rest of his life. Charles had lost to Cromwell's New Model Army at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, was a wanted man. A reward of £1,000 was offered for the capture of the King, it is that the King and anyone helping him would have been executed for treason if caught. The King had a distinctive appearance: swarthy and 6' 2" tall. Furthermore, there were cavalry patrols. For Charles, his Catholic supporters had an organisation with 90 years of experience in keeping secrets and hiding people, he had supporters amongst the gentry. Late on 3 September 1651, Charles headed back to his lodgings and escaped by the back door as Parliamentary forces arrived.
He fled the city by St Martin's Gate, to the north, in the company of Lord Wilmot, Lord Derby, Charles Giffard, many others. Charles wanted to travel to London rather than Scotland, the preferred destination of the majority of the party, he told only Wilmot of his plan. At this point, night was falling, shelter was needed, he needed the support of the small band of his loyal officers; the royal party, in all about 60 mounted. The interpretation of what is recorded as to their route is controversial; the earliest written account is that of Blount, who mentions "Kinver Heath not far from Kidderminster" and Stourbridge. They may have been the party of fugitives observed by Richard Baxter passing through Kidderminster. One interpretation identifies Kinver Heath as the heath of which Kinver Edge is a remnant, in which case the party would have crossed Cookley bridge and passed through Blakeshall. However, they would be unlikely to have gone from there to Stourbridge, as this would have involved them turning east.
An alternative explanation is that heath in question was that in the eastern part of the parish of Kinver, east of Caunsall, Whittington and including Iverley. This extends beyond the boundary towards, Pedmore and Wollaston. Willis-Bund's interpretation was that they took the direct route to Stourbridge, though Hagley, but that would not have taken them through Kidderminster or over anything that could be called Kinver Heath. At Kinver Heath, the party conferred, he now suggested Boscobel House to Charles as a safe place of refuge. Shropshire remained a Catholic stronghold with many hiding places; the owner of Boscobel, Charles Giffard, agreed to the plan. Having agreed on this plan, the party diverted eastwards towards Stourbridge, garrisoned by Parliamentary troops, but Charles was able to pass without the alarm being sounded. Heading north again, the party stopped at Wordsley before arriving at White Ladies Priory on Giffard's estate at Boscobel in the early hours of 4 September; the houses on the Boscobel estate were looked after by five Catholic brothers called Pendrell.
At one of these houses, White Ladies, the King was met by George Pendrell who contacted his brother, who had a farm, Hobbal Grange, near Tong. They disguised the King as a farm labourer, "in leather doublet, a pair of green breeches and a jump-coat... of the same green... an old grey greasy hat without a lining a noggen shirt, of the coarsest linen," and Richard cut the King's hair, leaving it short on top but long at the sides. However, as Charles was an unusually tall man, the shoes provided for him were far too small and had to be slit all around to make them fit; the coarse leather made them bleed, causing the King excruciating pain. It was now felt that it would be safer for the King to travel alone and so all his followers, apart from Lord Wilmot, were persuaded to leave; those who struck out on their own attempted to reach Scotland, but the majority, including Lord Derby, were captured and executed. At sunrise and in pouring rain, Charles was moved out of White Ladies into the nearby Spring Coppice on the estate, hiding there with Richard Pendrell.
Shortly after the King had left the Priory, a company of local militia stopped at White Ladies and asked if the King had been seen. The soldiers were told. Charles recalled: "In this wood I stayed all day without meat or drink and by great fortune it rained all the time which hindered them, as I believe, from coming into the wood to search for men that might be fled there"; the Pendrells taught Charles how to speak with a local accent and how to walk like a labourer. They told Charles they knew no way to safely get him to London, but that they knew of a Francis Wolfe who lived near the River Severn, whose house, Madeley Court, had several hiding places. After dark, Richard Pendrell took Charles to Hobball Grange, where
Battle of Worcester
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester and was the final battle of the English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian New Model Army, 28,000 strong, defeated King Charles II's 16,000 Royalists, of whom the vast majority were Scottish; the King was aided by Scottish allies and was attempting to regain the throne, lost when his father Charles I was executed. The commander of the Scots, David Leslie, supported the plan of fighting in Scotland, where royal support was strongest. Charles, insisted on making war in England, he calculated that Cromwell's campaign north of the River Forth would allow the main Scottish Royalist army, south of the Forth to steal the march on the Roundhead New Model Army in a race to London. He hoped to rally not the old faithful Royalists, but the overwhelming numerical strength of the English Presbyterians to his standard, he calculated that his alliance with the Scottish Presbyterian Covenanters and his signing of the Solemn League and Covenant would encourage English Presbyterians to support him against the English Independent faction which had grown in power over the last few years.
The Royalist army was kept well in hand, no excesses were allowed, in a week the Royalists covered 150 miles in marked contrast to the Duke of Hamilton's ill-fated expedition of 1648. On 8 August the troops were given a well-earned rest between Kendal, but the Royalists were mistaken in supposing. Everything had been foreseen both by the Council of State in Westminster; the latter had called out the greater part of the militia on 7 August. Lieutenant-General Charles Fleetwood began to draw together the midland contingents at Banbury; the London trained-bands turned out for field service no fewer than 14,000 strong. Every suspected Royalist was watched, the magazines of arms in the country-houses of the gentry were for the most part removed into the strong places. On his part Cromwell had made his preparations. Perth passed into his hands on 2 August and he brought back his army to Leith by 5 August. Thence he dispatched Lieutenant-General John Lambert with a cavalry corps to harass the invaders.
Major-General Thomas Harrison was at Newcastle picking the best of the county mounted-troops to add to his own regulars. On 9 August, Charles was at Kendal, Lambert hovering in his rear, Harrison marching swiftly to bar his way at the Mersey. Thomas Fairfax emerged for a moment from his retirement to organize the Yorkshire levies, the best of these as well as of the Lancashire and Staffordshire militias were directed upon Warrington, which Harrison reached on 15 August, a few hours in front of Charles's advanced guard. Lambert too, slipping round the left flank of the enemy, joined Harrison, the English fell back and without letting themselves be drawn into a fight, along the London road. Cromwell meanwhile, leaving George Monck with the least efficient regiments to carry on the war in Scotland, had reached the river Tyne in seven days, thence, marching 20 miles a day in extreme heat with the country people carrying their arms and equipment, the regulars entered Ferrybridge on 19 August, at which date Lambert and the north-western militia were about Congleton.
It seemed probable that a great battle would take place between Lichfield and Coventry on or just after 25 August and that Cromwell, Harrison and Fleetwood would all take part in it. But the scene and the date of the denouement were changed by the enemy's movements. Shortly after leaving Warrington the young king had resolved to abandon the direct march on London and to make for the Severn valley, where his father had found the most constant and the most numerous adherents in the first war, and, the centre of gravity of the English Royalist movement of 1648. Sir Edward Massey the Parliamentary governor of Gloucester, was now with Charles, it was hoped that he would induce his fellow Presbyterians to take arms; the military quality of the Welsh border Royalists was well proved, that of the Gloucestershire Presbyterians not less so, and, in basing himself on Gloucester and Worcester as his father had done on Oxford, Charles II hoped to deal with the Independent faction minority of the English people more effectually than Charles I had earlier dealt with the majority of the people of England who had supported the Parliamentary cause.
But the pure Royalism which now ruled in the invading army could not alter the fact that it was a foreign, army, it was not an Independent faction but all England that united against it. Charles arrived at Worcester on 22 August and spent five days in resting the troops, preparing for further operations, gathering and arming the few recruits who came in; the delay was to prove fatal. Worcester itself had no particular claim to being loyal to the King. Throughout the First Civil War it had taken the pragmatic position of declaring loyalty to whichever side had been in occupation; the epithet'Faithful City' arose out of a cynical claim at the Restoration for compensation from the new king. Cromwell, the lord general, had during his march south thrown out successively two flying columns under Colonel Robert Lilburne to deal with the Lancashire Royalists under the Earl of Derby. Lilburne routed a Lancashire detachment of the enemy on their way to join the main Royalist army at the Battle of Wigan Lane on 25 August and as affair