Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. Ludhiana is Punjab's largest city and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310 sq. km and an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census. The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 kilometres south of its present course, it is an industrial center of northern India. Ludhiana was among the list of smart cities. Ludhiana is the easiest city in India to do business according to the World Bank, it is ranked first in paying taxes, second in resolving insolvency, fourth in contract enforcement, seventh in starting a business. Ludhiana is 107 kilometres west of the state capital, Chandigarh, on NH 95, is centrally located on National Highway 44, which runs from New Delhi to Amritsar, it is 142 km southeast of Amritsar. Ludhiana is located at 30.9°N 75.85°E / 30.9. It has an average elevation of 244 metres. Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the New City; the land dips steeply to the west where, before 1785, the river Sutlej ran.
The Old Fort was at the banks of the Sutlej. Legend has it that a tunnel connects it to the fort in Phillaur – although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the principalities occupied by enemy forces; the ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks and dips. The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica, but has been supplanted by the eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1950s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon. Gulmohars and jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva. Ludhiana features a humid subtropical climate under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons. Ludhiana on average sees 735 millimetres of precipitation annually.
Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard, making it the 13th most polluted city in the world. Industrial water pollution is of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya; as per provisional data of 2011 census Ludhiana had a population of 1,618,879. The literacy rate was 82.50 per cent. This population consists of 743,530 females. With around 66% adherents according to 2011 Indian Census, Hinduism is the predominant religion of Ludhiana, followed by Sikhism with 29% of the population. Islam is followed by around 3% and Christianity by less than 1%. Prior to India's partition, Ludhiana had a population of 111,639 with Muslims being the majority with 63%; the Hindus were 31% and Sikhs 5%. It changed post partition with a drastic reduction in Muslim percentage and simultaneous increase in Hindu and Sikh population, owing to migration of people between West and East Punjab.
The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009 and 2013. The riches are brought by small-scale industrial units, which produce industrial goods, machine parts, auto parts, household appliances, hosiery and garments. Ludhiana is Asia's largest hub for bicycle manufacturing and produces more than 50% of India's bicycle consumption of more than 10 million each year. Ludhiana produces a large portion of auto and two-wheeler parts. Many parts used in German cars Mercedes and BMW are produced in Ludhiana to satisfy the world requirement, it is one of the largest manufacturer of domestic sewing machines. Hand tools and industrial equipment are other specialties. Ludhiana contribute most to Punjab any other city; the apparel industry of Ludhiana, popularly known as Ludhiana Hosiery industry provides employment to millions of people and produces India's largest share of winter clothing. It is known for its woollen sweaters and cotton T-shirts with the majority of India's woollen clothing brands being based here.
Ludhiana is famous for its industry of shawls and stoles and satisfies the demand of major domestic and international brands. As a result of its dominance in the textile industry it is dubbed as the Manchester of India. Ludhiana has a growing IT sector with multiple software services and product companies having development centers in the city. Ludhiana is home to the Ludhiana Stock Exchange Association. LSC is situated on NH95 in Feroze Gandhi market near Mini Secretariat Ludhiana. Ludhiana has 363 senior secondary, 367 high, 324 middle, 1129 primary, pre-primary recognised Schools, with a total of 398,770 students. Most of these schools are either run by the Central Board of Secondary Education or by Punjab School Education Board. Ludhiana is home to the largest agricultural university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, Punjab Agricultural University; the College of Veterinary Sciences at PAU was upgraded to the Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. GADVASU was established at Ludhiana by an ac
Ano Pogoni is a former municipality in the Ioannina regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pogoni, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 137.084 km2. Population 1,490; the seat of the municipality was in Kefalovryso. The municipal unit Ano Pogoni is subdivided into the following communities: Agios Kosmas Kakolakkos Kato Meropi Kefalovryso Meropi Oraiokastro Palaiopyrgos Roupsia Vasiliko The name Ano Pogoni means "Upper Pogoni"; some Albanian toponyms exist for names of villages in the Pogoni area such as Roumpates meaning robe or garment. During the Balkan Wars a number of villages in the area were affected by raids of Muslim bands. At the end of the Balkan Wars most of the Pogoni area became part Greece, while six villages were ceded to the newly established Principality of Albania
The Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa is a commitment by ten African countries to a multiyear process in favour of sustainable development. In May 2012, the heads of state of Botswana, Ghana, Liberia, Namibia, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania gathered in Gaborone, the capital of Botswana, for a two-day Summit for Sustainability in Africa, in the company of several public and private partners. At the summit, they adopted the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa. By adopting the Gaborone Declaration for Sustainability in Africa, these ten countries have engaged in a multi-year process, they have recommitted to implementing all conventions and declarations promoting sustainable development and undertaken to: integrate the value of natural capital into national accounting and corporate planning and reporting processes and programmes. The overall objective of the Declaration was ‘to ensure that the contributions of natural capital to sustainable economic growth and improvement of social capital and human well-being are quantified and integrated into development and business practice.’ This statement was propelled by the signatories’ realization that GDP has its limitations as a measure of well-being and sustainable growth.
The interim secretariat of this initiative is being hosted by the Department of Environmental Affairs within the Botswanan Ministry of Environment Wildlife and Tourism, with technical support from Conservation International, a non-governmental organization. Conservation International has pledged funding for a situational analysis which will provide baseline information on where the ten countries stand with respect to the agreed actions outlined above and set priorities for moving forward. Since the 2012 summit, an implementation framework has been drafted to track progress. In 2012, Gabon adopted Emerging Gabon: Strategic Plan to 2025; the Strategic Plan identifies two parallel challenges: the need to diversify an economy dominated by oil exports and the imperative of reducing poverty and fostering equal opportunity. In conformity with the Gaborone Declaration, natural capital is to be integrated into the national accounting system; the plan foresees the adoption of a national climate plan to limit Gabon’s greenhouse gas emissions and forge an adaptation strategy, among other moves to foster sustainable development.
The National Climate Plan was presented to the president in November 2013 by the National Council on Climate Change, a body created by presidential decree in April 2010. The government has created a joint Centre for Environmental Research with the University of Oregon that will focus on the mitigation of, adaptation to, climate change and environmental governance, including the development of ecotourism; the share of hydropower in Gabon’s electricity matrix is to progress from 40% in 2010 to 80% by 2020. In parallel, inefficient thermal power stations are to be replaced with clean ones to bring the share of clean energy to 100%. By 2030, Gabon plans to export 3 000 MW of hydropower to its neighbours. Efforts will be made to improve energy efficiency and reduce pollution in such areas as construction and transportation; this new paradigm is to be ensconced in a law on sustainable development which will create a fund compensating the negative effects of development. This law was adopted in August 2014.
The law has raised some concerns in civil society as to whether it will protect the territorial rights of third parties those of local and indigenous communities. The three pillars of Emerging Gabon: Strategic Plan to 2025 are: Green Gabon: to develop the country’s natural resources in a sustainable manner, beginning with an inventory of 22 million ha of forest, 1 million ha of arable land, 13 national parks and 800 km of coastline. In order to adapt university curricula to market needs, existing universities will be modernized and a Cité verte de l’éducation et du savoir will be created in the heart of the country in Booué. Constructed using green materials and running on green energy, this complex will group a campus, research centres and modern housing. Foreign universities will be encouraged to set up campuses on site, it was Botswana which hosted the Summit for Sustainability in Africa in 2012. In 2013, Botswana initiated the development of a National Climate Change Action Plan. A climate change policy will be developed first, followed by the strategy.