Lares, were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion. Their origin is uncertain. Lares were believed to observe and influence all that happened within the boundaries of their location or function; the statues of domestic Lares were placed at the table during family meals. Roman writers sometimes identify or conflate them with ancestor-deities, domestic Penates and the hearth; because of these associations, Lares are sometimes categorised as household gods but some had much broader domains. Roadways, agriculture, towns, the state and its military were all under the protection of their particular Lar or Lares; those who protected local neighbourhoods were housed in the crossroad shrines which served as a focus for the religious and political life of their local, overwhelmingly plebeian communities. Their cult officials included freedmen and slaves, otherwise excluded by status or property qualification from most administrative and religious offices. Compared to Rome's major deities Lares had limited scope and potency but archaeological and literary evidence attests to their central role in Roman identity and religious life.
By analogy, a homeward-bound Roman could be described as returning ad Larem. Despite official bans on non-Christian cults from the late 4th century AD onwards, unofficial cults to Lares persisted until at least the early 5th century AD. Archaic Rome's Etruscan neighbours practiced domestic, ancestral or family cults similar to those offered by Romans to their Lares; the word itself seems to derive from the Etruscan lar, lars, or larth, meaning "lord". Ancient Greek and Roman authors offer "heroes" and "daimones" as translations of "Lares". Weinstock proposes a more ancient equivalence of Lar and Greek hero, based on his gloss of a 4th-century BC Latin dedication to the Roman ancestor-hero Aeneas as Lare. No physical Lar images survive from before the Late Republican era, but literary references suggest that cult could be offered to a single Lar, sometimes many more: in the case of the obscure Lares Grundules thirty. By the early Imperial era, they had become paired divinities through the influences of Greek religion – in particular, the heroic twin Dioscuri – and the iconography of Rome's semi-divine founder-twins and Remus.
Lares are represented as two small, lively male figures clad in short, girdled tunics – made of dogskin, according to Plutarch. They take a dancer's attitude, tiptoed or balanced on one leg. One arm raises a drinking horn aloft as if to offer a libation. Compitalia shrines of the same period show Lares figures of the same type. Painted shrine-images of paired Lares show them in mirrored poses to the left and right of a central figure, understood to be an ancestral genius. Lares belonged within the "bounded physical domain" under their protection, seem to have been as innumerable as the places they protected; some appear to have had overlapping changes of name. Some have no particular or descriptive name: for example, those invoked along with Mars in the Carmen Arvale are Lases, whose divine functions must be inferred from the wording and context of the Carmen itself; those invoked along with other deities by the consul Publius Decius Mus as an act of devotio before his death in battle are "Lares".
The titles and domains given below can not therefore be taken as definitive. Lares Augusti: the Lares of Augustus, or "the august Lares", given public cult on the first of August, thereby identified with the inaugural day of Imperial Roman magistracies and with Augustus himself. Official Cult to the Lares Augusti continued from their institution through to the 4th century AD, they are identified with the Lares Lares Praestites of Augustan religious reform. Lares Compitalicii: the Lares of local communities or neighbourhoods, celebrated at the Compitalia festival, their shrines were positioned at main central crossroads of their vici, provided a focus for the religious and social life of their community for the plebeian and servile masses. The Lares Compitalicii are synonymous with the Lares Augusti of Augustan reform. Augustus' institution of cult to the Lares Praestites was held at the same Compitalia shrines, but on a different date. Lares Domestici: Lares of the house identical with Lares Familiares.
Lares Familiares: Lares of the family identical with the Lares Domestici. Lares Grundules: the thirty "grunting Lares" or Lares of the eaves given an altar and cult by Romulus or Aeneas when a sow produced a prodigious farrow of thirty piglets. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus the place where the sow bore the piglets and Aeneas made the sacrifice was sacred, forbidden to foreigners; the sow's body was said to be kept at Lavinium, preserved in salt brine as a sacred object. The thirty piglets would provide the theological justification for the thirty populi Albenses of the feriae Latinae, the thirty curiae of Rome. Lar Militaris: "military Lar", named by
Venus Genetrix (sculpture)
The sculptural type of Venus Genetrix shows the Roman goddess Venus in her aspect of Genetrix, as she was honoured by the Julio-Claudian dynasty of Rome, who followed the precedent of Julius Caesar in claiming her as their ancestor. Through this historical chance, a Roman designation is applied to an iconological type of Aphrodite that originated among the Greeks. On the night before the decisive battle of Pharsalus, Julius Caesar vowed to dedicate a temple at Rome to Venus, supposed ancestor of his gens. In fulfilment of his vow he erected a temple of Venus Genetrix in the new forum. Contemporary references identify the cult statue in the temple as by a certain Greek sculptor, Arkesilaos. Two types, represented in many Roman examples in marble and terra cotta, contend among scholars for identification as representing the type of this draped Venus Genetrix. Besides the type described further below, is another, in which Venus carries an infant Eros on her shoulder. In 420 - 410 BC, the Athenian sculptor Callimachus created a bronze sculpture of Aphrodite, according to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body.
Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies; the composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean canon. In 46 BC, the statue of Venus Genetrix made by a certain Arkesilaos was set up by Julius Caesar in his new forum in the cella of his temple of Venus Genetrix; this now-lost statue, or Sabina in the same pose, is represented on the reverse of a denarius above the legend VENERI GENETRICI, with Vibia Sabina on the obverse. The iconological type of the statue, of which there are numerous Roman marble copies and bronze reductions at every level of skill, was identified as Venus Genetrix by Ennio Quirino Visconti in his catalogue of the papal collections, Museo Pio-Clementina, by comparison with this denarius. "From the inscription on the coins, from the similarity between the figure on the coins and the statue in the Louvre, from the fact that Arkesilaos established the type of Venus Genetrix as patron goddess of Rome, ancestress of the Julian race, the identification was a natural one."
A Venus Genetrix in the Museo Pio-Clementina has been completed with a Roman portrait head of Sabina, on this basis. In establishing this new cult of Venus in fulfillment of a vow made on the eve of the battle of Pharsalus Caesar was affirming the claim of his own gens to descent from the goddess, through Iulus, the son of Aeneas, it was in part to flatter this connection. His public cult expressed the unique standing of Caesar at the end of the Roman Republic and in that sense of a personal association expressed as public cult was the innovation in Roman religion. A number of the Roman examples are in major collections, including the Centrale Montemartini, Detroit Institute of Arts, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Royal Ontario Museum, the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Louvre Museum, the Hermitage Museum. A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work.
The neck, the left hand, the fingers of the right hand, the plinth, many parts of the drape are modern restorations. It was present in the palace of the Tuileries in 1678, was transported from there to the park of Versailles about 1685, it was seized on the Revolution, has thus been in the Louvre since 1803, as Inventaire MR 367. The statue was restored in 1999 thanks to the patronage of FIMALAC. Another Roman copy of the statue, 2.14m high, was in the collection of Giampietro Campana, marchese di Cavelli, Villa Campana, from which it was acquired for the Hermitage in 1861, following Campana's disgrace. The head does not belong to this statue, which must have had a portrait head. In Rome, an ideal figure of a divinity might be adapted and given a separately made portrait head. Evidence that this was the case here can be seen in the locks of hair falling onto the shoulders; these are seen in posthumous portraits of Agrippina the Elder, which enables us to date this statue to the second quarter of the 1st century AD.
Charles Waldstein,'Pasiteles and Arkesilaos, the Venus Genetrix and the Venus of the Esquiline', The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Vol. 3, No. 1/2, pp. 1-13 Cornelia G. Harcum,'A Statue of the Type Called the Venus Genetrix in the Royal Ontario Museum', American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 141-152 List of copies, with images TheoiProject: Gallery TheoiProject: Gallery Venus of Fréjus Venus of Fréjus A terracotta reduction, from Myrina Theoi Hermitage site
The gens Julia or Iulia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Ancient Rome. Members of the gens attained the highest dignities of the state in the earliest times of the Republic; the first of the family to obtain the consulship was Gaius Julius Iulus in 489 BC. The gens is best known, for Gaius Julius Caesar, the dictator, grand uncle of the emperor Augustus, through whom the name was passed to the so-called Julio-Claudian dynasty of the 1st century AD; the nomen Julius became common in imperial times, as the descendants of persons enrolled as citizens under the early emperors began to make their mark in history. The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which Tullus Hostilius removed to Rome upon the destruction of Alba Longa; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. Their connection with Bovillae is implied by the sacrarium, or chapel, which the emperor Tiberius dedicated to the gens Julia in the town, in which he placed the statue of Augustus.
Some of the Julii may have settled at Bovillae after the fall of Alba Longa. As it became the fashion in the times of the Republic to claim a divine origin for the most distinguished of the Roman gentes, it was contended that Iulus, the mythical ancestor of the race, was the same as Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, founder of Alba Longa. Aeneas was, in turn, the son of Anchises. In order to prove the identity of Ascanius and Iulus, recourse was had to etymology, some specimens of which the reader curious in such matters will find in Servius. Other traditions held that Iulus was the son of Aeneas by his Trojan wife, while Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia, daughter of Latinus; the dictator Caesar alluded to the divine origin of his race, as, for instance, in the funeral oration which he pronounced when quaestor over his aunt Julia, in giving Venus Genetrix as the word to his soldiers at the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Though it would seem that the Julii first came to Rome in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, the name occurs in Roman legend as early as the time of Romulus.
It was Proculus Julius, said to have informed the sorrowing Roman people, after the strange departure of Romulus from the world, that their king had descended from heaven and appeared to him, bidding him tell the people to honor him in future as a god, under the name of Quirinus. Some modern critics have inferred from this, that a few of the Julii might have settled in Rome in the reign of the first king. In the Empire, the distinction between praenomen and cognomen was lost, Julius was treated much like a personal name, which it became; the Latin form is common in many languages, but other familiar forms exist, including Giulio, Jules, Júlio, Iuliu and Юлий. The Julii of the Republic used the praenomina Lucius and Sextus. There are instances of Vopiscus and Spurius in the early generations of the family; the earliest of the Julii appearing in legend bore the praenomen Proculus, it is possible that this name was used by some of the early Julii, although no examples are known. In the Republic and imperial times and Proculus were used as personal cognomina.
The gens was always said to have descended from and been named after a mythical personage named Iulus or Iullus before he was asserted to be the son of Aeneas. The name was revived as a praenomen by Marcus Antonius, the triumvir, who had a son and grandson named Iulus. Classical Latin did not distinguish between the letters "I" and "J", which were both written with "I", for this reason the name is sometimes written Julus, just as Julius is written Iulius; the many Julii of imperial times, who were not descended from the gens Julia, did not limit themselves to the praenomina of that family. The imperial family set the example by mingling the praenomina of the Julii with those of the gens Claudia, using titles and cognomina as praenomina, changing their praenomina to reflect the political winds of the empire; the family-names of the Julii in the time of the Republic are Caesar, Iulus and Libo, of which the first three are undoubtedly patrician. On coins the only names which we find are Caesar and Bursio, the latter of which does not occur in ancient writers.
Due to the activity of Julius Caesar in Gaul over many years, a number of natives of the Gallic provinces adopted Julius as their gentilicum, have no other connection to the Republican Julii. Examples of their descendants include Julius Florus, Gaius Julius Civilis. Other Julii are descended from the numerous freedmen, it may have been assumed by some out of vanity and ostentation. Iulus written as Iullus and Julus, was the surnam
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Early Christianity covers the period from its origins until the First Council of Nicaea. This period is divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period; the first Christians were Jewish Christians, either by conversion. Important practices were baptism, which made one a member of the Christian community, the communal meals, from which the Eucharist developed, the participation in Christ's death and resurrection; the inclusion of Gentile God-fearers lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. A variety of Christianities developed throughout the 2nd and 3rd century, alongside a developing proto-orthodoxy, which defined orthodoxy and heresy. Proto-orthodoxy developed in tandem with the growing number of Christians, which necessitated the devlopment of eccelsiastical structure. Early Christians used and revered the Hebrew Bible as religious text in the Greek or Aramaic translations, but developed their own Canon of the New Testament, which includes the canonical gospels, letters of the Apostles, Revelation, all written before 120.
Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. Christianity "emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine" in the syncretistic Hellenistic world of the first century CE, dominated by Roman law and Greek culture. During the early first century CE there were many competing Jewish sects in the Holy Land, those that became Rabbinic Judaism and Proto-orthodox Christianity were but two of these. There were Pharisees and Zealots, but other less influential sects, including the Essenes; the first century BCE and first century CE saw a growing number of charismatic religious leaders contributing to what would become the Mishnah of Rabbinic Judaism.
A central concern in 1st century Judaism was the covenant with God, the status of the Jews as the chosen people. Many Jews believed; the Law was given by God to guide them in their worship of the Lord and in their interctions with each other, "the greatest gift God had given his people."The Jewish messiah concept has its root in the apocalyptic literature of the 2nd century BC to 1st century BC, promising a future leader or king from the Davidic line, expected to be anointed with holy anointing oil and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age and world to come. The Messiah is referred to as "King Messiah" or malka meshiḥa in Aramaic. In the Synoptic Gospels Jewish eschatology stands central. After being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus teaches extensively for a year, or maybe just a few months, about the Kingdom of God, in aphorisms and parables, using similes and figurs of speech. In the Gospel of John, Jesus himself is the main subject; the Kingdom is described as eschatological, becoming reality in the near future.
Jesus talks as expecting the coming of the "Son of Man" from heaven, an apocalyptic figure who would initiate "the coming judgment and the redemption of Israel." According to Davies, the Sermon on the Mount presents Jesus as the new Moses who brings a New Law, the Messianic Torah. His ministry was ended by his execution by crucifixion, his early followers believed that three days after his death, Jesus rose bodily from the dead and was exalted to Divine status. Paul's letters and the Gospels document a number of post-resurrection appearances, the resurrection of Jesus "signalled for earliest believers that the days of eschatological fulfilment were at hand." The resurrection was seen as the exaltation of Jesus to the status of divine Son and Lord. His followers expected Him to return in the near future. Since the 18th century, three scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were developed during each specific phase.
Scholars involved in the third quest for the historical Jesus have constructed a variety of portraits and profiles for Jesus, most prominently that of Jesus as a Jewish apocalyptic prophet or eschatological teacher. The first part of the period, named after the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostles as narrated in the Acts of the Apostles, is called the Apostolic Age; the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. After the death of Jesus, "Christianity emerged as a sect of Judaism in Roman Palestine." The first Christians were all Jews, either by birth or conversion, who constituted a Second Temple Jewish sect with an apocalyptic eschatology. The New Testament's Acts of the Apostles and Epistle to the Galatians record the existence of a Christian community centered on Jerusalem, that its leaders included Peter, the "brother of Jesus", John the Apostle; the Jerusalem Church "held a central place among all the churches,".
Christian missionary activity spread Christianity
Saturnalia was an ancient Roman festival in honour of the god Saturn, held on 17 December of the Julian calendar and expanded with festivities through to 23 December. The holiday was celebrated with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn, in the Roman Forum, a public banquet, followed by private gift-giving, continual partying, a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms: gambling was permitted, masters provided table service for their slaves. A common custom was the election of a "King of the Saturnalia", who would give orders to people and preside over the merrymaking; the gifts exchanged were gag gifts or small figurines made of wax or pottery known as sigillaria. The poet Catullus called it "the best of days". Saturnalia was the Roman equivalent to the earlier Greek holiday of Kronia, celebrated during the Attic month of Hekatombaion in late midsummer, it held theological importance for some Romans, who saw it as a restoration of the ancient Golden Age, when the world was ruled by Saturn.
The Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry interpreted the freedom associated with Saturnalia as symbolizing the "freeing of souls into immortality". Saturnalia may have influenced some of the customs associated with celebrations in western Europe occurring in midwinter traditions associated with Christmas, the Feast of the Holy Innocents, Epiphany. In particular, the historical western European Christmas custom of electing a "Lord of Misrule" may have its roots in Saturnalia celebrations. In Roman mythology, Saturn was an agricultural deity, said to have reigned over the world in the Golden Age, when humans enjoyed the spontaneous bounty of the earth without labour in a state of innocence; the revelries of Saturnalia were supposed to reflect the conditions of the lost mythical age. The Greek equivalent was the Kronia, celebrated on the twelfth day of the month of Hekatombaion, which occurred from around mid-July to mid-August on the Attic calendar; the Greek writer Athenaeus cites numerous other examples of similar festivals celebrated throughout the Greco-Roman world, including the Cretan festival of Hermaia in honor of Hermes, an unnamed festival from Troezen in honor of Poseidon, the Thessalian festival of Peloria in honor of Zeus Pelorios, an unnamed festival from Babylon.
He mentions that the custom of masters dining with their slaves was associated with the Athenian festival of Anthesteria and the Spartan festival of Hyacinthia. The Argive festival of Hybristica, though not directly related to the Saturnalia, involved a similar reversal of roles in which women would dress as men and men would dress as women; the ancient Roman historian Justinus credits Saturn with being a historical king of the pre-Roman inhabitants of Italy: The first inhabitants of Italy were the Aborigines, whose king, Saturnus, is said to have been a man of such extraordinary justice, that no one was a slave in his reign, or had any private property, but all things were common to all, undivided, as one estate for the use of every one. Although the best-known Roman holiday, Saturnalia as a whole is not described from beginning to end in any single ancient source. Modern understanding of the festival is pieced together from several accounts dealing with various aspects; the Saturnalia was the dramatic setting of the multivolume work of that name by Macrobius, a Latin writer from late antiquity, the major source for information about the holiday.
In one of the interpretations in Macrobius's work, Saturnalia is a festival of light leading to the winter solstice, with the abundant presence of candles symbolizing the quest for knowledge and truth. The renewal of light and the coming of the new year was celebrated in the Roman Empire at the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquerable Sun", on 23 December; the popularity of Saturnalia continued into the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, as the Roman Empire came under Christian rule, many of its customs were recast into or at least influenced the seasonal celebrations surrounding Christmas and the New Year. Saturnalia underwent a major reform in 217 BC, after the Battle of Lake Trasimene, when the Romans suffered one of their most crushing defeats by Carthage during the Second Punic War; until that time, they had celebrated the holiday according to Roman custom. It was after a consultation of the Sibylline books that they adopted "Greek rite", introducing sacrifices carried out in the Greek manner, the public banquet, the continual shouts of io Saturnalia that became characteristic of the celebration.
Cato the Elder remembered a time before the so-called "Greek" elements had been added to the Roman Saturnalia. It was not unusual for the Romans to offer cult to the deities of other nations in the hope of redirecting their favor, the Second Punic War in particular created pressures on Roman society that led to a number of religious innovations and reforms. Robert Palmer has argued that the introduction of new rites at this time was in part an effort to appease Ba'al Hammon, the Carthaginian god, regarded as the counterpart of the Roman Saturn and Greek Cronus; the table service that masters offered their slaves thus would have extended to Carthaginian or African war captives. The statue of Saturn at his main temple had its feet bound in wool, removed for the holiday as an act of liberation; the official rituals were carried out according to "Greek rite". The sacrifice was officiated by a priest.
SPQR refers to the government of the ancient Roman Republic. It appears on Roman currency, at the end of documents made public by inscription in stone or metal, in dedications of monuments and public works; the phrase appears in the Roman political and historical literature, such as the speeches of Cicero and Ab Urbe Condita Libri of Livy. SPQR: Senātus Populusque Rōmānus. In Latin, Senātus is a nominative singular noun meaning "Senate". Populusque is compounded from the nominative noun Populus, "the People", -que, an enclitic particle meaning "and" which connects the two nominative nouns; the last word, Rōmānus is an adjective modifying the whole of Senātus Populusque: the "Roman Senate and People", taken as a whole. Thus, the phrase is translated as "The Roman Senate and People", or more as "The Senate and People of Rome"; the title's date of establishment is unknown, but it first appears in inscriptions of the Late Republic, from c. 80 BC onwards. The official name of the Roman state, as evidenced on coins, was ROMA.
The abbreviation last appears on coins of Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor to support Christianity. The two legal entities mentioned, Senātus and the Populus Rōmānus, are sovereign. However, where populus is sovereign alone, Senātus is not. Under the Roman Kingdom, neither entity was sovereign; the phrase, can be dated to no earlier than the foundation of the Republic. This signature continued in use under the Roman Empire; the emperors were considered the de jure representatives of the people though the senātūs consulta, or decrees of the Senate, were made at the de facto pleasure of the emperor. Populus Rōmānus in Roman literature is a phrase meaning the government of the People; when the Romans named governments of other countries, they used populus in the singular or plural, such as populī Prīscōrum Latīnōrum, "the governments of the Old Latins". Rōmānus is the established adjective used to distinguish the Romans, as in cīvis Rōmānus, "Roman citizen"; the Roman people appear often in law and history in such phrases as dignitās, maiestās, auctoritās, lībertās populī Rōmānī, the "dignity, authority, freedom of the Roman people".
They were a populus līber, "a free people". There was an exercitus, iudicia, honorēs, consulēs, voluntās of this same populus: "the army, judgments, offices and will of the Roman people", they appear in early Latin as Popolus and Poplus, so the habit of thinking of themselves as free and sovereign was quite ingrained. The Romans believed, it could be said that similar language seen in more modern political and social revolutions directly comes from this usage. People in this sense meant the whole government; the latter, was divided into the aristocratic Senate, whose will was executed by the consuls and praetors, the comitia centuriāta, "committee of the centuries", whose will came to be safeguarded by the Tribunes. One of the ways the emperor Commodus paid for his donatives and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, on many inscriptions, the traditional order is provocatively reversed. Beginning in 1184, the Commune of Rome struck coins in the name of the SENATVS P Q R. From 1414 until 1517, the Roman Senate struck coins with a shield inscribed SPQR.
During the regime of Benito Mussolini, SPQR was emblazoned on a number of public buildings and manhole covers in an attempt to promote his dictatorship as a "New Roman Empire". In contemporary usage, SPQR is still used as the municipal symbol of the city of Rome. SPQx is sometimes used as an assertion of civic rights; the Italian town of Reggio Emilia, for instance, has SPQR in its coat of arms, standing for "Senatus Populusque Regiensis". There have been confirmed reports of the deployment of the "SPQx" template in. Amsterdam, Netherlands, SPQA at one of the major theatres and some of the bridges Antwerp, Belgium, SPQA on the Antwerp City Hall Basel, Switzerland, SPQB on the Webern-Brunnen in Steinenvorstadt Benevento, Italy, SPQB on manhole covers Bremen, Germany, SPQB in the Bremen City Hall Bruges, Belgium, SPQB on its coat of arms Brussels, Belgium, SPQB found on the Palais de Justice, over the main stage of La Monnaie Capua, Italy, SPQC Catania, Italy, SPQC can be found on manhole covers Dublin, Ireland, SPQH on the City Hall, built in 1769 Florence, Italy, SPQF Franeker, Netherlands, SPQF, At the a gate on the Westerbolwerk and Academiestraat 16.
Freising, Germany, SPQF, above the door of the town hall. Ghent, Belgium, SPQG on the Opera and some other major buildings. In 1583, during the Dutch Revolt, Ghent struck coins with a shield inscribed SPQG; the Hague, Netherlands, SPQL above the stage in Koninklijke Schouwburg Hamburg, Germany, SPQH on a door in the Hamburg Rathaus Hanover, Germany Haarlem, the Netherlands, SPQH on the face of the town hall at the "Grote Markt" Hasselt, Belgium, SPQH Kortrijk, Belgium, SPQC, city hall Lazio, Italy, SPQS, coat of arms and flag Leeuwarden, Netherlands, SPQL on the mayor's chain of office Liverpool, England, SPQL on various gold doors in St George's Hall City of London, England, SPQL Lübeck, Germany, SPQL on the Holstentor Lucerne, Switzerland Milan, The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V struck coins at Milan with the inscription S P Q MEDIOL OPTIMO PRINCIPI. M