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Ludwig Erhard

Ludwig Wilhelm Erhard was a German politician affiliated with the CDU, the second Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1963 until 1966. He is famed for leading the West German postwar economic reforms and economic recovery in his role as Minister of Economic Affairs under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer from 1949 to 1963. During that period he promoted the concept of the social market economy, on which Germany's economic policy in the 21st century continues to be based. In his tenure as Chancellor, Erhard lacked support from Adenauer, who remained chairman of the party until 1966, failed to win the public's confidence in his handling of a budget deficit and his direction of foreign policy, his popularity waned, he resigned his chancellorship on 30 November 1966. Ludwig Erhard was born in Fürth in the Kingdom of Bavaria on 4 February 1897, his father was Wilhelm Erhard, a Catholic middle class clothing store proprietor, while his mother Augusta was a Protestant. Ludwig had two brothers and a sister, all of whom were raised as Protestants.

Ludwig suffered from infantile paralysis in his third year, resulting in a deformed right foot and forcing him to wear orthopedic shoes for the remainder of his life. Erhard performed poorly. In 1907, he entered Fürth's Royal Bavarian Vocational High School, he received his secondary school certificate in 1913. He was a commercial apprentice at the Georg Eisenbach textile company in Nuremberg from 1913 to 1916. After his apprenticeship he worked as a retail salesman in his father's draper's shop. In 1916, during World War I, Erhard volunteered for the German military, he was trained as a gun aimer. He first served in the quiet Vosges sector on the Western Front; the regiment was deployed to Romania on the Eastern Front, where he saw little combat. Erhard was sent back to Germany, he returned to his unit. He was badly wounded on his left shoulder and leg by an Allied artillery shell on 28 September 1918 during the Fifth Battle of Ypres, he was committed to a military hospital in Recklinghausen, where he underwent seven operations until June 1919.

His left arm became permanently shorter than his right one. Because of his injury he could no longer work as a draper and started learning economics in late 1919 at a business college in Nuremberg, he passed the school's exit examination on 22 March 1922 and received a degree in business administration. During his time at school, he developed a friendship with the economist and professor Wilhelm Rieger, to whom Erhard owed much of his liberal convictions. Thanks to Rieger's intervention, Erhard was able to enroll at the University of Frankfurt in fall of 1922, he received his Ph. D. from the university on 12 December 1925, for a dissertation finished in the summer of 1924 under Franz Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer's liberal socialist ideology had a heavy influence on Erhard Oppenheimer's opposition to monopolies. During his time in Frankfurt he married Luise Schuster, a fellow economist, on 11 December 1923, they had known each other since childhood. After his graduation they moved to Fürth and he became an executive in his father's company in 1925.

Erhard spent the next three years as a unemployed academic. His father retired in 1928; the same year, thanks to the help of Rieger and Oppenheimer, Erhard became a part-time research assistant at the Institut für Wirtschaftsbeobachtung der deutschen Fertigware, a marketing research institute founded by Wilhelm Rudolf Mann and de:Wilhelm Vershofen. He became deputy director of the institute. During World War II he worked on concepts for a postwar peace; as a result, Erhard lost his job in 1942, but continued to work on the subject by order of the Reichsgruppe Industrie. He wrote War Finances and Debt Consolidation in 1944, he sent his thoughts to Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, a central figure in the German resistance to Nazism, who recommended Erhard to his comrades. Erhard discussed his concept with Otto Ohlendorf, deputy secretary of state in the Reichsministerium für Wirtschaft. Ohlendorf himself spoke out for "active and courageous entrepreneurship", intended to replace bureaucratic state planning of the economy after the war.

Erhard was an outsider who rejected Nazism, supported resistance, endorsed efforts to produce an economic revival during the postwar period. After the war Erhard became an economic consultant. Under the Bizone established by the American and British administration in 1947, he led the Sonderstelle Geld und Kredit, an expert commission preparing the currency reform in Germany's western zones of occupation; the commission began its deliberations in October 1947, the following April produced the so-called Homburg plan, elements of which were adopted by the Allies in the currency reform that set the stage for the recovery of the economy. In April 1948, Erhard was elected director of economics by the Bizonal Economic Council. On 20 June 1948, the Deutsche Mark was introduced. Erhard abolished the price-fixing and production controls, enacted by the military administration; this exceeded his authority, but he succeeded with this st

Churubusco, Indiana

Churubusco. The population was 1,796 at the 2010 census. According to the 2010 census, Churubusco has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,796 people, 706 households, 483 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,995.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 749 housing units at an average density of 832.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.8% White, 0.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 706 households of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.6% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.06.

The median age in the town was 33.9 years. 27.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.7 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,666 people, 650 households, 438 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,876.8 people per square mile. There were 692 housing units at an average density of 779.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.60% White, 0.06% African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 1.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.38% of the population. There were 650 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the town, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $39,583, the median income for a family was $49,279. Males had a median income of $34,844 versus $22,161 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,814. About 3.2% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Turtletown was the birthplace of Little Turtle or "Mihšihkinaahkwa" the great Indiana War Chief and Sagamore of the Miami people; the area of Churubusco was made up of two towns founded in the 19th century by European Americans: Union and Franklin that bordered each other across a railroad track. In the 1840s, the populations of both Franklin and Union grew large enough to qualify each for a post office.

Before that time, residents of both towns had to trek 11 miles by foot or horse and buggy to nearby Columbia City to get their mail. Since the towns were in the same location, the Postmaster General ordered the towns to apply for a joint post office; the Postmaster General denied the use of either "Union" and "Franklin" as the new post office name, since both were used by other Indiana towns. After a community meeting, the residents selected Churubusco for the new post office, named after the site of the 1847 Battle of Churubusco, in Mexico during the Mexican–American War. At the time, after the suggestion of local school teacher Eliza Rich, the townsfolk thought it was as patriotic a name as Union and Franklin, since the United States won a large victory there. More they were certain no other Indiana town would have chosen such a unique name; the Churubusco post office has been in operation since 1848. The name Churubusco is a Spanish corruption of an indigenous Nahuatl toponym referring to a temple area celebrating the Aztec god Huitzilopochtli.

It is bordered by the Rio Churubusco in Mexico City. The Spanish-Nahuatl word translates as "place of the hummingbirds. Churubusco has an elected town council-style government; the Churubusco Town Council is a three-member legislative group. The council elects one member from among its body to act a president of the council; that president sets agendas during council meetings. The current council members were elected on November 3, 2015 and November 6, 2018. Beginning January 1, 2016, the Council will begin serving staggered terms, with two members serving a one-time, three-year term, expiring December 31, 2018, one member and Clerk-Treasurer serving a four-year term, expiring December 31, 2019. Nathan Van Horn, Republican Bruce Johnson, Republican Mark Pepple, RepublicanDemocrat Madalyn Sade-Bartl is Churubusco's town clerk. Churubusco is home to the oldest continually held festival in Indiana. Turtle Days is rooted in the lore of Oscar the Turtle or the Beast of Busco, a giant snapping turt

Bula, Camarines Sur

Bula the Municipality of Bula, is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 69,430 people; the town of Bula is considered as one of the first four towns of Camarines Sur founded by the Spanish conquistadores when they set foot on the Bicol soil coming from the Visayas, 1576. The other premier towns were Naga and Nabua; the Spaniards who first came to this place asked the men who were splitting bamboos about the name of the place, since they did not understand the language, they thought that they were being asked about the name of the bamboo, so they got the answer "Bu-la". And so Bula became the name of the town. Bula is bounded on the north by the municipalities of Pili and Ocampo, on the east by the municipality of Baao, on the southeast by the Municipality of Nabua, on the south it is bounded by the Municipality of Balataan, on the southwest by Ragay Gulf, on the west by the Municipality of Minalabac, it is 25 kilometres southwest of Naga City.

Bula is politically subdivided into 33 barangays. In the 2015 census, the population of Bula, Camarines Sur, was 69,430 people, with a density of 410 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,100 inhabitants per square mile; the Municipality of Bula is one of the first four mission towns of Camarines Sur founded by Spanish conquistadores in 1576. Bula was established together with Quipayo and Nabua. However, it was only in 1578 when the natives where Christianized, so the National Historical Commission dates back our history to 1578. From this historical fact, whose chosen Saint is St. Mary Magdalene celebrates its fiesta every 22nd day of July, the birthdate of the Saint. Majority of the people speak the Bula-Pili variant, a lowland dialect of Rinconada Bikol language known as Riŋkonāda; the population can understand and speak Tagalog or Filipino language and English. People of Bula are divided into different Christian sects. Most of the population are Roman Catholic and Iglesia ni Cristo members which are the biggest bulk of Bulaeños adhering to Christian faith.

The rest of population are followers of different Protestant denominations. The town of Bula is the home of the breath-taking views of Tan-Awan Park, Nalalata Falls, Burabod. Tan-Awan Park, located in Barangay Bagoladio atop a hill, attracts a number of tourists because of its captivating view overlooking the areas of its neighboring towns in Rinconada. Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Official Site of the Province of Camarines Sur