Ernst A. Lehmann
Captain Ernst August Lehmann was a German Zeppelin captain. He was one of the most famous and experienced figures in German airship travel, the Pittsburgh Press called Lehmann the best airship pilot in the world, although he was criticized by Hugo Eckener for often making dangerous maneuvers that compromised the ship. Ernst Lehmann was born in 1886 in Ludwigshafen am Rhein, at the age of 14, he decided that he wanted to build ships. He studied engineering at the Technische Hochschule Berlin and received his degree in 1912, by this time, he had already joined the navy and had attained the rank of naval reserve lieutenant. Upon graduation, he work at the Imperial Dockyards in Kiel. He did not find this work satisfying so, encouraged by Dr. Hugo Eckener and he commanded a total of 550 flights of this ship. After the war, Captain Lehmann continued his involvement with the airships and he made preparations to fly the naval airship L72 on the first transatlantic crossing of an airship in 1919. Permission was denied by the German government, in 1920, he spent six months in Sweden studying the economics of an airship line between Stockholm and the Mediterranean, with a stopover in Friedrichshafen.
With the founding of the Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation in 1923, Captain Lehmann served as Vice President in charge of engineering, in 1924, Captain Lehmann was second-in-command of LZ126 on the first nonstop transatlantic flight between the European and American mainlands. The purpose of the flight was to deliver the Zeppelin to its new owners, the United States Navy, by 1929, Lehmann had filed a declaration of intent to become a United States citizen, but changed his mind when he was given charge of the Hindenburg in 1936. In 1935, when Hermann Göring created the Deutsche Zeppelin Reederei to increase Nazi influence over zeppelin operations, Captain Lehmann served as commanding officer on more than 100 of the flights of the Graf Zeppelin between 1928 and 1936. In 1936, he commanded 10 round-trip flights to Lakehurst on the new Hindenburg, Captain Lehmann was a skilled accordion player, which he often used to entertain passengers on long flights with renditions of Wagner pieces or German folk songs.
Although Max Pruss was the officer of the last flight of the Hindenburg, Captain Lehmann was the most senior officer on board. He was fatally burned when the ship caught fire at Lakehurst on 6 May 1937, at his death, he apparently believed that the Hindenburg was sabotaged. He came out of the burning wreckage saying I dont understand it, during a deathbed conversation with Commander Charles Emery Rosendahl, he said it must have been an infernal machine. Lehmanns two-year-old son had died on Easter Sunday,28 March 1937, Lehmann accepted the assignment with the hope that by doing so he might have the opportunity to speak to U. S. authorities about the use of Helium gas in the German airships. Before and after his death, Lehmann often came into conflict with Hugo Eckener over the safety of his piloting techniques. Lehmann cancelled important flight tests for the Hindenburg, for a request by the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda for Hindenburg and Graf Zeppelin, despite unfavorable weather conditions Lehmann insisted on making the flight, the result was that Hindenburg’s lower fin was damaged, on the day of the takeoff
Ferdinand von Zeppelin
Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin was a German general and aircraft manufacturer, who founded the Zeppelin airship company. Ferdinand was the scion of a noble family, the familys eponymous hometown, is a small community outside the town of Bützow in Mecklenburg. Ferdinand was the son of Württemberg Minister and Hofmarschall Friedrich Jerôme Wilhelm Karl Graf von Zeppelin, Ferdinand spent his childhood with his sister and brother at their Girsberg manor near Constance, where he was educated by private tutors and lived there until his death. On 7 August 1869 Ferdinand married Isabella Freiin von Wolff in Berlin and she was from the house of Alt-Schwanenburg. They had a daughter, Helene von Zeppelin who in 1909 married Alexander Graf von Brandenstein-Zeppelin, by 1858, Zeppelin had been promoted to Lieutenant, and that year he was given leave to study science and chemistry at Tübingen. The Prussians mobilising for the Austro-Sardinian War interrupted this study in 1859 when he was called up to the Ingenieurkorps at Ulm, in 1863 Zeppelin took leave to act as an observer for the Unions Army of the Potomac in the American Civil War in Virginia.
Later, Zeppelin traveled to the Upper Midwest with a party that included two Russians. Led by Native American guides, they canoed and portaged from the end of Lake Superior up the St. Louis River and across to Crow Wing. Many years he attributed the beginning of his thinking about dirigible light-than-air craft to this experience, in 1865 Zeppelin was appointed adjutant of the King of Württemberg and as general staff officer participated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. He was awarded the Ritterkreuz of the Order of Distinguished Service of Württemberg, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871 a reconnaissance mission behind enemy lines, during which he narrowly avoided capture, made him famous among Germans. From 1882 until 1885 Zeppelin was commander of the 19th Uhlans in Ulm, in 1890 he gave up this post to return to army service, being given command of a Prussian cavalry brigade. His handling of this at the 1890 autumn manouevres was severely criticised and he was forced to retire from the Army, Ferdinand von Zeppelin served as an official observer with the Union Army during the American Civil War.
During the Peninsular Campaign, he visited the camp of Thaddeus S. C. Lowe shortly after Lowes services were terminated by the Army, von Zeppelin travelled to St. Paul, MN where the German-born former Army balloonist John Steiner offered tethered flights. His first ascent in a balloon, made at Saint Paul, zeppelins ideas for large dirigibles was first expressed in a diary entry dated 25 March 1874. After his resignation from the army in 1891 at age 52 and he hired the engineer Theodor Gross to make tests of possible materials and to assess available engines for both fuel efficiency and power-to-weight ratio. He had air propellers tested and strove to obtain higher purity hydrogen gas from suppliers, whereupon Zeppelin urged his supporter Max von Duttenhofer to press Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft for more efficient engines so as not to fall behind the French. Duttenhofer wrote to Gross threatening to withdraw support, and Zeppelin shortly afterwards sacked Gross, citing Gross lack of support, after publishing the idea in March 1892 he hired the engineer Theodor Kober who started work testing and further refining the design
Edwin Duncan Sandys, Baron Duncan-Sandys, CH, PC was a British politician and minister in successive Conservative governments in the 1950s and 1960s. He was the son-in-law of Sir Winston Churchill, Sandys was the son of George John Sandys, a Conservative member of parliament and was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford. He entered the service in 1930, serving at the Foreign Office in London as well as at the embassy in Berlin. He became Conservative Party Member of Parliament for Norwood in south London in a by-election in March 1935, after being opposed at Norwood by a candidate put up by Randolph Churchill. In May 1935, he was in effect saying that Germany should have a predominant place in central Europe, in 1937 Sandys was commissioned into the 51st Anti-Aircraft Brigade, Royal Artillery, of the Territorial Army. In 1938, he asked questions in the House of Commons on matters of security that reflected his TA experience. He was subsequently approached by two unidentified men, presumably representing the services, and threatened with prosecution under section 6 of the Official Secrets Act 1920.
Sandys reported the matter to the Committee of Privileges who held that the disclosures of Parliament were not subject to the legislation though an MP could be disciplined by the House, the Official Secrets Act 1939 was enacted in reaction to this incident. During World War II he fought with 51st HAA Regiment in the Norwegian campaign and was wounded in action and his father-in-law gave him his first ministerial post as Financial Secretary to the War Office from 1941 to 1944 during the wartime Coalition Government. From 1944 to 1945 he served as Minister of Works for the remainder of the coalition and in the Churchill Caretaker Ministry. While a Minister he was Chairman of a War Cabinet Committee for defence against German flying bombs and rockets, however, he lost his seat in the 1945 general election. He resigned his TA commission as a lieutenant-colonel in 1946, Sandys was responsible for establishing the European Movement in Britain in 1947 and served as a member of the European Consultative Assembly from 1950 until 1951.
He was elected to Parliament once again at the 1950 general election for Streatham and, for most of his time as Minister of Supply, his Private Secretary was Jack Charles. As Minister of Housing from 1954, he introduced the Clean Air Act, though Ministers reversed the policy, the lost orders and cuts in research were responsible for several British aircraft manufacturers going out of business. As Minister of Defence he saw the rationalisation of much of the British military aircraft, Sandys continued as a minister at the Commonwealth Relations Office, combining it with the Colonies Office, until the Conservative government lost power in 1964. He remained in the Shadow Cabinet until 1966 when he was sacked by Edward Heath and he had strongly supported Ian Smith in the dispute over Rhodesias Unilateral Declaration of Independence. The next year he was made a Companion of Honour, in 1974 he retired from Parliament and was awarded a life peerage. As the title of Baron Sandys was already held by family, he followed the example of George Brown
The Zeppelin-Staaken Riesenflugzeuge were a series of very large bomber aircraft - Riesenflugzeuge, usually powered by four or more engines and built in Germany from 1915 to 1919. The first Zeppelin-Staaken R-planes were designed by Ferdinand von Zeppelin, aided by Robert Bosch GmbH, I, was built at Gothaer Waggonfabrik due to lack of facilities at the Zeppelin works, hence the V. G. O. This large aircraft set the seal on what was to come, single engines in the nacelles, driving pusher propellers via extension shafts. Paired engines side by side in each nacelle, driving a single propeller via extension shafts. Tandem paired engines driving individual propellers via gearboxes and extension shafts, construction of the aircraft was almost entirely of wood or plywood with fabric covering, steel detail fittings and struts. The wings were three bay strutted and wire-braced assemblies supporting the engine nacelles, at around mid gap and the single axle main undercarriage units. The versions, especially the production R. VI version, aircraft using push-pull nacelles, i. e. individual propellers for each engine, had no provision for defensive armament, just a cockpit for the engineer amidships.
Zeppelin-Staaken V. G. O. I The first of the Zeppelin-Staaken R-planes was constructed at Gothaer Waggonfabrik A. G. Carrying the registration R. M. L.1 it was built for the Kaiserliche Marine, during flight testing, after the extra engines had been fitted, the V. G. O. I crashed in December 1915, killing two of its crew. Zeppelin-Staaken V. G. O. II Almost identical to the V. G. O. I, after delivery to the Luftstreitkräfte as R 10/15, the V. G. O. III was used at the eastern front by Rfa500. The sole R. IV serialled R 12/15 carried out operations on both the eastern and western fronts, one built, and the only nose-engined Zeppelin-Staaken R-plane to survive to the end of the war. A single Mb. IV straight-six engine replaced the units of the R. IV in the nose. Additional defensive firepower was fitted in the form of the Schwalbennest, serialled R 13/15 the R. V saw service on the western front. Zeppelin-Staaken R. VI The first true production Zeppelin-Staaken R-plane was the R. VI and this giant aircraft was powered either by four 245 hp Maybach Mb.
IV engines or four 260 hp Mercedes D. IVa engines. The fuselage was similar to the aircraft but the cockpit was extended forward. Eighteen R. VIs were built serialled R25 to R39 and R52 to R54, the IdFlieg-designated R. 30/16 example acted as a supercharged engine test-bed, and saw service in the Luftstreitkräfte with Rfa 500 and Rfa 501 on the western front, stationed in the Ghent area. Air raids on England by R. VIs began on 17 September 1917, st Pancras railway station was attacked the next night. During the campaign from 18 December 1917 to 20 May 1918 the R. VIs of Rfa501 made eleven raids dropping 27,190 kg of bombs
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
A Zeppelin was a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century. Zeppelins notions were first formulated in 1874 and developed in detail in 1893 and they were patented in Germany in 1895 and in the United States in 1899. After the outstanding success of the Zeppelin design, the word came to be commonly used to refer to all rigid airships. Zeppelins were first flown commercially in 1910 by Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-AG, the worlds first airline in revenue service, by mid-1914, DELAG had carried over 10,000 fare-paying passengers on over 1,500 flights. During World War I the German military made use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts. The defeat of Germany in 1918 temporarily slowed down the airship business, an exception was made allowing the construction of one airship for the US Navy, which saved the company from extinction. In 1926 the restrictions on airship construction were lifted and with the aid of donations from the public and this revived the companys fortunes, and during the 1930s the airships Graf Zeppelin and the larger LZ129 Hindenburg operated regular transatlantic flights from Germany to North America and Brazil.
The Hindenburg disaster in 1937, along political and economic issues. The principal feature of Zeppelins design was a rigid metal framework made up from transverse rings. The advantage of design was that the aircraft could be much larger than non-rigid airships. The framework of most Zeppelins was made of duralumin, early Zeppelins used rubberised cotton for the gasbags, but most craft used goldbeaters skin, made from the intestines of cattle. The first Zeppelins had long cylindrical hulls with tapered ends and complex multi-plane fins and they were propelled by several engines, mounted in gondolas or engine cars, which were attached to the outside of the structural framework. Some of these could provide reverse thrust for manoeuvring while mooring, early models had a comparatively small externally mounted gondola for passengers and crew which was attached to the bottom of the frame. This space was never heated so passengers during trips across the North Atlantic or Siberia were forced to bundle themselves in blankets, the flight ceiling was so low that no pressurization of the cabins was necessary, though the Hindenburg did maintain a pressurized air-locked smoking room.
Access to the Zeppelin was achieved in a number of ways, the Graf Zeppelins gondola was accessed while the vessel was on the ground, via gangways. This describes a large rigidly framed outer envelope containing several separate gasbags and he had previously encountered Union Army balloons in 1863 when he visited the United States as a military observer during the American Civil War. Count Zeppelin began to pursue his project after his early retirement from the military in 1890 at the age of 52. Convinced of the importance of aviation, he started working on various designs in 1891
DELAG, acronym for Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft, was the worlds first airline to use an aircraft in revenue service. It was founded on 16 November 1909 and operated Zeppelin rigid airships manufactured by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Corporation and its headquarters were located in Frankfurt, Germany. DELAG was founded at the suggestion of Alfred Colsman, the manager of Zeppelin Luftschiffbau. Count Zeppelin himself distanced himself from this commercialisation of his idea, as an aristocrat and ex-officer, much of the initial capital came from the cities of Frankfurt am Main and Düsseldorf, and a number of cities built airship sheds at their own expense. The first Zeppelin to be constructed for the company was LZ7, first flown on 19 June 1910, it had a useful lift of 5,000 kg and had accommodation for 24 passengers. Given this performance it was realised that scheduled inter-city services would not be feasible, the Deutschland was destroyed on 28 June 1910 while taking a consignment of journalists on a trip intended to generate publicity.
Fortunately there was one injury. Operating from Baden-Baden, successful flights were made almost daily between late August and mid-September, but on 14 September it was destroyed in a fire while in its hangar, fortunately it was insured, and DELAG could complete its next ship, LZ8 Deutschland II. For the new season flights lasting between 90 minutes and two hours were offered for a price of 200 Dm, the passengers had to be rescued using fire ladders. Hugo Eckener, the captain, blamed the accident on his decision to let the eagerness of the passengers to fly overcome his reluctance to take the ship out in the existing conditions. The companys luck changed with the ship, the LZ10 Schwaben. Completed on 26 June and delivered to DELAG on 15 July, initially based at Baden Baden, in addition to the pleasure cruises a number of long-distance flights were made, carrying passengers to Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and eventually to Berlin. LZ11 Viktora Luise, named after the Kaisers daughter, entered service on 4 March 1912 and these airships were used by the Imperial German Navy for crew training, with the Navy crews operating passenger flights.
In 1913 LZ17 Sachsen was added to the fleet. By July 1914, one month before the start of World War I, DELAGs Zeppelins had transported 34,028 passengers on 1,588 commercial flights, LZ11, LZ13, and LZ17 were pressed into service for the German Army. After the war, however, DELAGs LZ120 Bodensee and LZ121 Nordstern helped reconnect the cities of Europe, in 1931 the airship Graf Zeppelin began offering regular scheduled passenger service between Germany and South America which continued until 1937. During its career Graf Zeppelin crossed the South Atlantic 136 times, in 1936, the airship Hindenburg entered passenger service and successfully crossed the Atlantic 36 times before catching fire at Lakehurst, New Jersey on May 6,1937. The Graf Zeppelin was the final airship flown by DELAG, in 1935, the successor to DELAG, the state-sponsored Deutsche Zeppelin-Reederei was founded
The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4, was the worlds first long-range guided ballistic missile. The V-2 rocket became the first artificial object to cross the boundary of space with the launch of MW18014 on 20 June 1944. Research into military use of long range rockets began when the studies of graduate student Wernher von Braun attracted the attention of the German Army, a series of prototypes culminated in the A-4, which went to war as the V-2. Beginning in September 1944, over 3,000 V-2s were launched by the German Wehrmacht against Allied targets during the war, first London and Antwerp and Liège. As Germany collapsed, teams from the Allied forces—the United States, the United Kingdom, Wernher von Braun and over 100 key V-2 personnel surrendered to the Americans. Eventually, many of the original V-2 team ended up working at the Redstone Arsenal, the US captured enough V-2 hardware to build approximately 80 of the missiles. The Soviets gained possession of the V-2 manufacturing facilities after the war, re-established V-2 production, in the late 1920s, a young Wernher von Braun bought a copy of Hermann Oberths book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen.
Starting in 1930, he attended the Technical University of Berlin, von Braun was working on his doctorate when the Nazi Party gained power in Germany. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, von Brauns thesis, Construction and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket, was kept classified by the German Army and was not published until 1960. By the end of 1934, his group had launched two rockets that reached heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km. At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddards research, before 1939, German engineers and scientists occasionally contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Von Braun used Goddards plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat series of rockets, during 28–30 September 1939, Der Tag der Weisheit conference met at Peenemünde to initiate the funding of university research to solve rocket problems.
By late 1941, the Army Research Center at Peenemünde possessed the essential to the success of the A-4. The four key technologies for the A-4 were large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance, at the time, Adolf Hitler was not particularly impressed by the V-2, he pointed out that it was merely an artillery shell with a longer range and much higher cost. Hitler was sufficiently impressed by the enthusiasm of its developers, and needed a weapon to maintain German morale. The V-2s were constructed at the Mittelwerk site by prisoners from Mittelbau-Dora, the A-4 used a 74% ethanol/water mixture for fuel and liquid oxygen for oxidizer. The rocket reached a height of 80 km after shutting off the engine, the fuel and oxidizer pumps were driven by a steam turbine, and the steam was produced by concentrated hydrogen peroxide with sodium permanganate catalyst. Both the alcohol and oxygen tanks were an aluminium-magnesium alloy, the combustion burner reached a temperature of 2,500 to 2,700 °C
LZ 10 Schwaben
LZ10 Schwaben was a German rigid airship built by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin in 1911 and operated by DELAG for passenger service. It is regarded as the first commercially successful passenger-carrying aircraft, the Schwaben was 140.21 m long,14 metres in diameter and with a lifting gas volume of 17,800 m3. It was powered by three 108 kW Maybach engines giving a speed of 76 km/h. Schwaben was the first to use these engines, which were used to drive most Zeppelins, the cylindrical hull structure was braced by a triangular keel running most of its length, which was widened to accommodate amidships the passenger cabin, which a capacity of 20 people. Two gondolas were suspended from the keel, the gondola containing the control position and one engine. The engines drove two pairs of aluminium-bladed propellers mounted on either side of the hull. The LZ10 made her first flight on June 26,1911 and was put into three weeks later, on July 16,1911. Over the course of the year she made 218 flights. Among whom were Crown Prince Wilhelm and his wife, the Prince, who had a pilots license, travelled in the control car, while the Princess and her attendants occupied the passenger cabin for a flight over Berlin.
Schwaben was destroyed in a gale on June 28,1912 at the airfield near Düsseldorf, The wind prevented it being put into its shed, and it broke loose from its moorings and broke its back. The hydrogen was ignited by spark caused by static electricity accumulated in the rubberised cotton gasbags, sources differ regarding injuries suffered, the New York Times reported 34 soldiers were injured, others claimed either 30 or 40 injured. Giants in the Sky Henley-on Thames, Foulis,1973 ISBN 0-85429-145-8 Dirk Hecht, in, Schriesheimer Jahrbuch 2011,2011, 99-111, Media related to LZ10 Schwaben at Wikimedia Commons Evening Post -9 November 1912 - Page 10, newspaper article with statistics on the Schwaben
Mittelwerk was a German World War II factory built underground in the Kohnstein to avoid Allied bombing. It used forced labor from the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp to produce V-2 ballistic missiles, V-1 flying bombs, on the night of 17/18 August 1943, RAF bombers carried out Operation Hydra against the Peenemünde Army Research Center where V-2 development and production was being carried out. On 19 October 1943, the German limited company Mittelwerk GmbH was issued War Contract No, 0011-5565/43 by General Emil Leeb, head of the Army Weapons Office, for 12,000 A-4 missiles at 40,000 Reichsmarks each. Mittelwerk GmbH headed sites for V-2 rocket development and testing at Schlier, the facility had a communications staff under Captain Dr Kühle, an Administrative Division run by Börner under Mittelwerk board member Otto Karl Bersch, and a Prisoner Labor Supply office. In July 1944, Hans Kammler ordered the North Works to use cross-tunnels 1-20 for a Junkers jet and piston engine factory, during February–April 1945, the Nordhausen plant built Taifun anti-aircraft missiles and Heinkel He 162 jet fighters and put into operation a liquid oxygen plant.
Additional plans for V-2 rocket plants were never fulfilled, V-1 flying bomb assembly began during October/November 1944 in the South end of tunnel A. At the end of January 1945,51 V-1s were shipped from a dispersed Fieseler factory in Upper Bavaria to the Nordhausen plant for completion, although there has long been speculation about other exotic weaponry being constructed or stored at Mittelwerk, evidence of this is scarce. The area was attacked with bombs by RAF Bomber Command on the 3 &4 April. What were believed to be barracks were attacked on 3 April, the attack of 4 April hit the barracks and the town of Nordhausen. The Mittelbau-Dora forced labor was evacuated on 4 April, and scientists evacuated to the Alpenfestung, casualties of the V-2 rocket are estimated at 2,541 killed and 5,923 injured. The total includes 1,300 to 1,500 prisoners killed by British bombs in early April, the Nordhausen area was to become part of the Soviet zone of occupation, and Soviet Army officers arrived to tour the Nordhausen plant on 26 May 1945.
In June 1945, the US Army left the Nordhausen plant as required by JCS Directive 1067/14, with parts, machine tools, the Red Army occupied the Mittelwerk on 5 July 1945 and demolished both of the entrances of the tunnel system in the summer of 1948. The 1947 Dora Trial convicted SS Officers and concentration camp kapos, on 19 May 1947, the former head of the Mittelwerk facility, Georg Rickhey, was extradited to Germany from Wright Field in the U. S. and acquitted of war crimes at the Dora Trial. After a new tunnel had been dug to former rail Tunnel A in 1995,710 meters of the tunnel system were opened for visitors. Large parts of the system are flooded by water, while other parts have collapsed. After the reunification of Germany the tunnels were frequently looted by treasure seekers who gained access via the private mine in the north of the Kohnstein. Willi Kramer, a German archaeologist and scientist who dived in the system in 1992 and 1998. Access through these entrances was not secured until 2004, when the mine went into insolvency, V-2 rocket facilities of World War II Project Riese
The Fliegende Panzerfaust, meaning Flying Bazooka in the German language, was a project for a Third Reich very-short-range interceptor designed by Luftschiffbau Zeppelin. The Fliegende Panzerfaust project was part of the Nazi propaganda-based Wunderwaffe concept and it was proposed to the Emergency Fighter Program against the allied bombing raids over Nazi Germany in the last years of World War II. The Fliegende Panzerfaust was a design meeting the demand for a low-cost aircraft in a very-short-range interceptor role. It was a parasite aircraft meant to be towed behind a Messerschmitt Bf 109G for which it had a long, up-turned nose for towing.5 m. This Zeppelin-built aircraft would have been released upon reaching combat altitude above the enemy bomber fleet, the front half of the aircraft which had the pilot lying in a prone position in the cockpit would split from the other half. Both parts would land separately with parachutes, being retrieved and reused. Owing to the risks for the pilot inherent in its operation this aircraft is sometimes referred to as a suicide weapon.
Data from Dieter Herwig & Heinz Rode, The Luftwaffe Secret Projects, Ground Attack & Special Purpose Aircraft. ISBN 978-1857801507 General characteristics Crew, one Length,6.0 m Wingspan,4.50 m Height,1.50 m Gross weight,1,200 kg Powerplant,6 × Schmidding SG34 solid-fuel rocket engines,4. Emergency Fighter Program Panzerfaust Aircraft of comparable role and era Bachem Ba 349 Blohm & Voss P
Test Stand VII
Test Stand VII was the principal V-2 rocket testing facility at Peenemünde Airfield and was capable of static firing of rocket motors up to 200 tons thrust. Notable events at the site include the first successful V-2 launch on 3 October 1942, visits by German military leaders, a large gap in the wall allowed easy entry by vehicles, and an open tunnel through the ellipse wall at the narrower southern end allowed entry. Integrated into the wall next to the tunnel was a massive observation. The control center had a door with a bulletproof glass window from which an observer maintained telephone communication with the Telemetering Building at a remote location from P-7. A receiver in a lighthouse near Koserow provided telemetry from rockets with the Wolman System for Doppler tracking. For rockets that used radio control for V-2 engine cutoff, the Brennschluss equipment included a transmitter on the bank of the Peene about 7.5 miles from P-7 and the Doppler radar at Lubmin. Additionally, the room had a big X-time countdown clock that display the time until launch.
In addition to the room, the blockhouse contained offices, a conference room, a small dormitory with double bunks and an adjoining shower, a wash room. A long underground corridor led from the measurement blockhouse to a room in the foundation by the flame pit. A different gradually rising tunnel led from the flame pit room to the exterior of the arena near the pumphouse. Near the pumphouse were high wooden towers to cool the water, the tower included an elevator and a German-made Toledo scale for thrust measurements. Actual launches were from a steel table-like structure across the railway from the pit on the test stands large concrete foundation. Under the concrete foundation were the recorder room, a shop, an office, compressed nitrogen storage cylinders. The arena included an engine cold-calibration pad for conducting flow test measurements by pumping water, since the V-2 motor had no controller for the turbopump, cold-calibration allowed the determination of freak cases of equipment. Outside of the arena was the 150x185x100h foot assembly and preparation hall/hangar, which had designed to be able to handle a larger A9/A10 multi-stage rocket that was planned.
The roof of the hangar had camera stations for filming events, on 15 May 1942 after photographing German destroyers berthed at the port of Kiel, Spitfire pilot Flight Lieutenant D. W. Stevenson photographed heavy construction work near the Peenemünde aerodrome. Later in the month Constance Babington Smith decided the scale was too small, something unusual caught my eye. I dismissed the whole thing from my mind, on 22 April 1943 a large cloud of steam was photographed near the embankments, which was identified as coming from a rocket engine being test fired