The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the Wehrmacht during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Imperial Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Imperial Navy had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base in Soviet Union. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe's existence was publicly acknowledged on 26 February 1935, just over two weeks before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on 16 March; the Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new tactics and aircraft. As a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.
By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader. The Luftwaffe operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units; the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground support and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.
In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, met with failure. With dwindling supplies of petroleum and lubricants after this campaign, as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely; the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe was involved in Nazi war crimes. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration camps, an industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners; the Luftwaffe's demand for labor was one of the factors that led to the deportation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews in 1944.
The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe organized Nazi human experimentation, Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in Italy and Poland. The Imperial German Army Air Service was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most shortened to Fliegertruppe, it was renamed the Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916. The air war on the Western Front received the most attention in the annals of the earliest accounts of military aviation, since it produced aces such as Manfred von Richthofen and Ernst Udet, Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Civil aviation schools within Germany were used, yet only light trainers could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa.
To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Union, isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in 1924 and operated for nine years using Dutch and Soviet, but some German, training aircraft before being closed in 1933; this base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. Roessing, Fosse, Heini, Makratzki and many other future Luftwaffe aces were trained in Russia in joint Russian-German schools that were set up under the patronage of Ernst August Köstring; the first steps towards the Luftwaffe's formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power. Hermann Göring, a World War I ace, became National Kommissar for aviation with former Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch as his deputy. In April 1933 the Reich Aviation Ministry was established; the RLM was in charge of production of aircraft.
Göring's control over all aspects of aviation became absolute. On 25 March 1933 the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its'sports' title. On 15 May 1933, all military aviation orga
Aliette de Bodard is a French-American speculative fiction writer. She is of French/Vietnamese descent, born in the US, grew up in Paris. French is her mother-tongue. A graduate of École Polytechnique, she works as a software engineer specialising in image processing and is a member of the Written in Blood writers group, she was a 2007 winner of Writers of the Future, in 2009 was nominated for the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer, she has been published in Interzone, Hub magazine, Black Static, Andromeda Spaceways Inflight Magazine, Asimov's, Realms of Fantasy, Apex Magazine, among others. She won the 2012 Nebula Award and Locus Award for Best Short Story for her short story "Immersion", she won the 2013 Nebula Award for "The Waiting Stars". Her short story "The Shipmaker" won the 2010 British Science Fiction Award for Best Short Fiction, her Xuya Universe novella The Tea Master and the Detective won the 2018 Nebula Award for Best Novella and the 2019 World Fantasy Award for Best Novella, is nominated for the 2019 Hugo Award for Best Novella.
Her novelette "The Jaguar House, in Shadow" was nominated for both the Hugo Awards. Her short story "Shipbirth" was nominated for the Nebula, her novella "On a Red Station, Drifting", released by Immersion Press in December 2012, was a finalist for the Nebula and Hugo. The science fiction work chronicles the conflict between two members of an extended Vietnamese family on a space station ruled by an AI, is part of Bodard's Asian-dominated alternate-history series. Many of her stories are set in alternate history worlds where Aztec or pre-communist Chinese cultures are dominant, her novel Servant of the Underworld is a historical fantasy/mystery set in the fifteenth-century Aztec Empire. Bodard's short story collection Scattered Among Strange Worlds was released in July, 2012; the collection features two science fiction stories entitled "Scattered Along the River of Heaven" and "Exodus Tides". Her short story "The Dust Queen" was published in the science fiction anthology Reach for Infinity in 2014.
Her novel The House of Shattered Wings, set in a devastated Paris ruled by fallen angels, was published by Gollancz/Roc in August 2015. It won the BSFA Award for Best Novel of 2015, her story "Three Cups of Grief, by Starlight" won the BSFA Award for Best Short Story of 2015, the first time a single author has won both fiction categories in the same year. Personal Website Written in Blood writers group Aliette de Bodard at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Interview from Locus magazine, August 2013
Central Jakarta is one of the five administrative cities which form the Special Capital Region of Jakarta. It had 898,883 inhabitants according to the 2010 Census. Central Jakarta is not self-governed and does not have a city council, hence it is not classified as a proper municipality. Central Jakarta is the smallest in population of the five cities of Jakarta, it is both the political center of Jakarta and Indonesia. Central Jakarta contains a number of large international hotels and major landmarks such as Hotel Indonesia. Central Jakarta is bounded by North Jakarta to the north, East Jakarta to the east, South Jakarta to the south, West Jakarta to the west. Central Jakarta is divided into 8 kecamatan: Gambir Tanah Abang Menteng Senen Cempaka Putih Johar Baru Kemayoran Sawah Besar Central Jakarta has an average of 19,000 residents per square kilometre, making it the most densely populated municipality in Jakarta. Both GRDP at current market price and GRDP at 2000 constant price in 2007 for Municipality of Central Jakarta is higher than other municipalities in DKI Jakarta, Rp. 145 million and Rp. 80 million respectively.
At the end of the first quarter of 2010, the Jakarta CBD had an occupancy rate of 80%, an increase from the 78% at the end of the first quarter of 2009. According to Jones Lang LaSalle, the amount of office space in the Jakarta CBD increased by 93,000 square metres between the second half of 2010 and the second half of 2009. In September 2010, Jones Lang LaSalle estimated that the Jakarta CBD had 30,000 square metres of serviced office space, making up less than 1 percent of the total amount of office space in the CBD. 70% of the tenants in the serviced spaces were international companies. The number of serviced office spaces in Central Jakarta increased by 50% in the year leading to September 2010. Government agencies with head offices in Central Jakarta include the National Search and Rescue Agency, which has its head office in Kemayoran, the National Transportation Safety Committee, which has its head office in the Ministry of Transport Building. Official site Jakarta/Central travel guide from Wikivoyage