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Lugdunum

Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum was an important Roman city in Gaul. The city was founded in 43 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, it served as the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis and was an important city in the western half of the Roman Empire for centuries. Two emperors and Caracalla, were born in Lugdunum. In the period AD 69–192 the city's population may have numbered 50,000 to 100,000, up to 200,000 inhabitants; the original Roman city was situated west of the confluence of the Rhône and Saône, on the Fourvière heights. By the late centuries of the empire much of the population was located in the Saône River valley at the foot of Fourvière; the Roman city was founded as Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became referred to as Lugdunum by the end of the 1st century AD. During the Middle Ages, Lugdunum was transformed to Lyon by natural sound change. Lugdunum is a latinization of the Gaulish *Lugudunon, meaning "Fortress of Lugus" or, alternately "Fortress of the champion".

The Celtic god Lugus was popular in Ireland and Britain as is found in medieval Irish literature as Lug and in medieval Welsh literature as Lleu. According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Lugdunum takes its name from an otherwise unattested Gaulish word lugos, that he says means "raven", the Gaulish word for an eminence or high ground, dunon. An early interpretation of Gaulish Lugduno as meaning "Desired Mountain" is recorded in a gloss in the 9th-century Endlicher's Glossary, but this may in fact reflect a native Frankish speaker's folk-etymological attempt at linking the first element of the name, Lugu- with the similar-sounding Germanic word for "love", *luβ. Another early medieval folk-etymology of the name, found in gloss on the Latin poet Juvenal, connects the element Lugu- to the Latin word for "light", lux and translates the name as "Shining Hill". Archeological evidence shows Lugdunum was a pre-Gallic settlement as far back as the neolithic era, a Gallic settlement with continuous occupation from the 4th century BC.

It was situated on the Fourvière heights above the Saône river. There was trade with Campania for ceramics and wine, use of some Italic-style home furnishings before the Roman conquest. Gaul was conquered for the Romans by Julius Caesar between 58 and 53 BC, his description, De Bello Gallico, is our principal written source of knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul, but there is no specific mention of this area. In 44 BC, ten years after the conquest of Gaul, Julius Caesar was assassinated and civil war erupted. According to the historian Cassius Dio, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered Munatius Plancus and Lepidus, governors of central and Transalpine Gaul to found a city for a group of Roman refugees, expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. Dio Cassius says this was to keep them from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. Epigraphic evidence suggests. Lugdunum seems to have had a population of several thousand at the time Roman foundation.

The citizens were administratively assigned to the Galerian tribe. The aqueduct of the Monts d'Or, completed around 20BC, was the first of at least four aqueducts supplying water to the city. Within 50 years Lugdunum increased in size and importance, becoming the administrative centre of Roman Gaul and Germany. By the end of the reign of Augustus, Strabo described Lugdunum as the junction of four major roads: south to Narbonensis and Italy, north to the Rhine river and Germany, northwest to the sea, west to Aquitania; the proximity to the frontier with Germany made Lugdunum strategically important for the next four centuries, as a staging ground for further Roman expansion into Germany, as well as the "de facto" capital city and administrative centre of the Gallic provinces. Its large and cosmopolitan population made it the commercial and financial heart of the northwestern provinces as well; the imperial mint established a branch in 15 BC, during the reign of Augustus, produced coinage for the next three centuries.

In its 1st century, Lugdunum was many times the object of attention or visits by the emperors or the imperial family. Agrippa, Drusus and Germanicus were among the gubernatorial generals who served in Lugdunum. Augustus is thought to have visited at least three times between 16 and 8 BC. Drusus lived in Lugdunum between 13 and 9 BC. In 10 BC his son Claudius was born there. Tiberius stopped in Lugdunum in 5–4 BC, on his way to the Rhine, again in 21 AD, campaigning against the Andecavi. Caligula's visit in 39–40 was longer and better documented by Suetonius. Claudius and Nero contributed to the city's importance and growth. In 12 BC, Drusus completed an administrative census of the area and dedicated an altar to his stepfather Augustus at the junction of the two rivers. To promote a policy of conciliation and integration, all the notable men of the three parts of Gaul were invited. Caius Julius Vercondaridubnus, a member of the Aedui tribe, was installed as the first priest of the new imperial cult sanctuary, subsequently known as the Junction Sanctuary or the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls.

The altar, with

Heinz Harmel

Heinz Harmel was a German SS commander during the Nazi era. He commanded the 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg during World War II. Harmel was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords of Nazi Germany. Born in 1906, Harmel volunteered for the SS-Verfügungstruppe in 1935 and served as a company commander in the SS-Regiment "Der Führer", with which he took part in the Battle of France in 1940. In 1941, Harmel took part in the Balkans Operation Barbarossa. In December 1941, Harmel took command of SS-Infanterie-Regiment "Deutschland". Harmel participated in the capture of Kharkov on 15 March 1943. Harmel received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 31 March 1943. On 7 September 1943, he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. In early 1944 after completing a divisional commanders' training course, Harmel took command of the SS Division Frundsberg. During the summer 1944, the division moved in Normandy. Harmel had been ordered to break the enemy's lines, to free the German units encircled in Falaise pocket numbering 125,000 troops of the 7th Army.

The operation ended with serious damage. Harmel was sent to the Netherlands, he fought against the Allied offensive. After the battles around Nijmegen, Harmel received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords on 15 December 1944, his division was transferred to Alsace, where Harmel was ordered to establish a bridgehead to join the Colmar Pocket. After the failure of the December 1944/January 1945 offensive in Alsace, Harmel's division was transferred to the Eastern Front fighting in Pomerania and Brandenburg to hold the Oder Front; the division was subsequently transferred to Heeresgruppe Mitte where in late April it was ordered to counterattack the forces of Marshal Ivan Konev. Harmel was dismissed from command by Field Marshal Schoerner. Harmel subsequently commanded an ad hoc battle group formed around the 24th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS, the SS Officer's School at Graz and other smaller units. Harmel ended up in British captivity. Harmel died in 2000. Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class German Cross in Gold Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords Knight's Cross on 31 March 1943 as SS-Obersturmbannführer and commander of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment "Deutschland".

296th Oak Leaves on 7 September 1943 as SS-Standartenführer and commander of SS-Panzergrenadier-Regiment "Deutschland" 116th Swords on 15 November 1944 as SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor der Waffen SS and commander of 10. SS-Panzer-Division "Frundsberg" List SS-Brigadeführer A Bridge Too Far, by Cornelius Ryan ISBN 978-8171676361, The Battle of Arnhem in detail, inclusive of the roles of the Waffen-SS Divisions Hohenstaufen and Frundsberg. Based on Cornelius Ryan's extensive interviews of Waffen-SS Generals Willi Bittrich, Heinz Harmel and Walter Harzer, the commanding officers on the German side during the battle of Arnhem. German Commanders of World War II: Waffen-SS, Luftwaffe & Navy, by Gordon Williamson ISBN 978-1841765976

Morbid Fascination of Death

Morbid Fascination of Death is the third studio album by the Norwegian black metal band Carpathian Forest. It was released in 2001 by Avantgarde Music, it was the last album to feature guitarist and founding member Johnny "Nordavind" Krøvel on the band's line-up, it was their last studio album to be released by Avantgarde before they switched to Season of Mist. It was re-released in 2007 with two bonus tracks; the track "Carpathian Forest" is a re-recorded version of the eponymous track present in their debut EP, Through Chasm and Titan Woods. All tracks are written by Nordavind unless noted. Carpathian ForestRoger Rasmussen — vocals, synthesizer, choir on "Fever and Hell" Anders Kobrodrums, percussion Daniel Vrangsinnbass, synthesizer Terje Vik Schei — bass Johnny Krøvel — guitars, choir on "Fever and Hell"Session musiciansC. Alucard — speech on "Morbid Fascination of Death" Nina Hex — female backing vocals on "Doomed to Walk the Earth as Slaves of the Living Dead" Eivind Kulde — backing vocals on "Knokkelmann" and "Carpathian Forest" Arvid Thorsen — tenor saxophone on "Cold Comfort" and "Nostalgia"Other staffE.

Øvestad — artwork Lorenzo Mariani — cover art Roxy Ueland — photography Terje Refsnes — engineering, production