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A luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. A luger steers by using their calf muscles to flex the sled's runners or by exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21–25 kg for singles and 25–30 kg for doubles. Luge is the name of an Olympic sport. Lugers can reach speeds of 140 km/h. Austrian Manuel Pfister reached a top speed of 154 km/h on a track in Whistler, prior to the 2010 Winter Olympics. Lugers compete against a timer in one of the most timed sports in the world—to one one-thousandth of a second on artificial tracks; the first recorded use of the term "luge" dates to 1905 and derives from the Savoy/Swiss dialect of the French word luge, meaning "small coasting sled." The practical use of sleds is ancient and widespread. The first recorded sled races took place in Norway sometime during the 15th century; the sport of luge, like the skeleton and the bobsleigh, originated in the health-spa town of St Moritz, Switzerland, in the mid-to-late 19th century, through the endeavours of hotel entrepreneur Caspar Badrutt.

Badrutt sold the idea of winter resorting, as well as rooms with food and activities. His more adventurous English guests began adapting delivery boys' sleds for recreation, which led to collisions with pedestrians as they sped down the lanes and alleys of the village; the first organized meeting of the sport took place in 1883 in Switzerland. In 1913, the Internationale Schlittensportverband or International Sled Sports Federation was founded in Dresden, Germany; this body governed the sport until 1935, when it was incorporated in the Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing. After it had been decided that luge would replace the sport of skeleton at the Olympic Games, the first World Championships in the sport were held in 1955 in Oslo. In 1957, the Fédération Internationale de Luge de Course was founded. Luge events were first included in the Olympic Winter Games in 1964. Americans were slow to adopt the sport of luge; the first luge run in North America was built at Lolo Hot Springs, Montana, in 1965.

Although the United States competed in every Olympic luge event from 1964 through 1976, it was not until 1979 that the United States Luge Association was founded. The first artificial American track was completed in that year for use in the 1980 XIII Winter Olympic Games at Lake Placid, New York. Since that time the United States luge program has improved. A second artificial track was constructed near Park City, for the 2002 XIX Olympic Winter Games at Salt Lake City. Caitlin Nash and Natalie Corless, both of Canada, became the first all-female team to compete in a World Cup doubles race in luge in 2019. Artificial luge tracks have specially designed and constructed banked curves plus walled-in straights. Most tracks are artificially refrigerated, but artificial tracks without artificial cooling exist. Tracks tend to be smooth; the athletes ride in a flat, aerodynamic position on the sled, keeping their heads low to minimize air resistance. They steer the sled with their calves by applying pressure on the runners—right calf to turn left, left calf to turn right.

It takes a precise mix of shifting body weight, applying pressure with calves and rolling the shoulders. There are handles for minor adjustments. A successful luger maintains complete concentration and relaxation on the sled while traveling at high speeds. Most lugers "visualize" the course in their minds before sliding. Fastest times result from following the perfect "line" down the track. Any slight error, such as brush against the wall, costs time. Track conditions are important. Softer ice tends to slow speeds. Lugers race at speeds averaging 120–145 km/h around high banked curves while experiencing a centripetal acceleration of up to 5g. Men's Singles have their start locations near where the bobsled and skeleton competitors start at most tracks, while both the Doubles and Women's Singles competition have their starthouse located farther down the track. Artificial track luge is the most agile sledding sport. Natural tracks are adapted from paths. Artificially banked curves are not permitted; the track's surface should be horizontal.

They are iced. Tracks can get rough from the braking and steering action. Athletes use a steering rein and drag their hands and use their legs in order to drive around the tight flat corners. Braking is required in front of curves and is accomplished by the use of spikes built on the bottom of the shoes. Most of the tracks are situated in Austria and Italy, with others in Germany, Russia, Canada, Croatia, Turkey, Finland, Bulgaria, New Zealand and the United States; the Upper Peninsula Luge Club in Negaunee, Michigan, is home to one of only five lighted natural track luge runs in the world, the only natural track in the United States. The over 800 meter track features 29 curves along its 88-meter vertical drop; the club hosts international luge events and offers luge instruction to the public during the winter months. World championships have been held since 1979 while European championships have been held since 1970. There are five luge disciplines. Men's singles Men's doubles Women's singles Women's doubles Team relay These are further broken into several age classes - multiple youth and junior classes that cover the range of age 7–20, general class.

Older competi

Ann Charters

Ann Charters, née Ann Ruth Danberg is a professor of American Literature at the University of Connecticut at Storrs. Charters was born on November 1936 in Bridgeport, Connecticut, she is a professor of American Literature at the University of Connecticut at Storrs and has been interested in Beat writers since 1956, when as an undergraduate English major at the University of California, Berkeley she attended the repeat performance of the Six Gallery Poetry reading in San Francisco where Allen Ginsberg gave his second public reading of "Howl." She began collecting books written by Beat writers when she was a graduate student at Columbia University, after completing her doctorate she worked with Jack Kerouac to compile his bibliography. After his death she wrote the first Kerouac biography, she edited his posthumous collection Scattered Poems. She has written a literary study of Charles Olson and biographies of black entertainer Bert Williams and the Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, she was the general editor of the two volume encyclopedia The Beats: Literary Bohemians in Postwar America and has published a collection of her photographic portraits of well-known writers in the book Beats & Company.

She is the editor of numerous volumes on Beat and 1960s American literature, including The Portable Beat Reader, The Portable Sixties Reader, Beat Down To Your Soul, The Portable Jack Kerouac, in 2010 Brother-Souls: John Clellon Holmes, Jack Kerouac, the Beat Generation, which she co-authored with her husband Samuel Charters, a musicologist. Her photographs of the Nobel-Prize winning Swedish poet Tomas Transtromer illustrate Samuel Charters' English translation of Transtromer's long poem Baltics, she photographed the American poet Charles Olson in Gloucester, Massachusetts in her book of their letters, Evidence of What Is Said. Charters, Ann A Bibliography of Works by Jack Kerouac: 1939-1967 The Phoenix Bookshop, New York. Charters, Ann Kerouac: A biography, Straight Arrow Books, San Francisco Charters, Ann Beats and Company: Portrait of a Literary Generation. Doubleday, Garden City Charters, Ann The portable Beat reader. VikingCharters, Ann, ed.. The portable Jack Kerouac. New York: Viking. —, ed..

Jack Kerouac: selected letters, Vol 1, 1940–1956. New York: Viking. Charters, Ann, ed. Jack Kerouac: selected letters, Vol 2, 1957-1969. Viking, New York Charters, Ann The portable Sixties Reader. Viking Brief biography Works by or about Ann Charters in libraries

Healthcare in Staffordshire

Healthcare in Staffordshire is now the responsibility of six Clinical Commissioning Groups, covering: Stafford & Surrounds. A deficit of more than £200 million is forecast for the county by 2018. From 1947 to 1974 NHS services in Staffordshire were managed by the Birmingham Regional Hospital Board. In 1974 the Boards were replaced by Regional Health Authorities. Staffordshire still came under the Birmingham RHA. Regions were reorganised in 1996 and Staffordshire came under the West Midlands Regional Health Authority. From 1974 there was an Area health authority covering the county. There were three District Authorities, covering South-East Staffordshire, Mid-Staffordshire and North Staffordshire. In 1993 Mid-Staffordshire was merged into South Staffordshire. Four Primary care trusts established in the county in 2002: Newcastle-under-Lyme PCT, Staffordshire Moorlands PCT, Stoke-on-Trent PCT and South Staffordshire PCT. Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire Moorlands were merged into North Staffordshire PCT in 2006.

They were managed by the Shropshire and Staffordshire Strategic health authority, merged into NHS West Midlands in 2006. Management consultancy KPMG produced a report on the local health economy in March 2015 for the NHS Trust Development Authority, NHS England and Monitor which criticised the lack of collaboration between different organisations in the county, they said the health system was in “perpetual crisis mode” with a lack of clinical leaders and a managerially focused leadership with “many examples of silo working”. They reported that Clinical commissioning groups in the county did not collaborate and their plans, including financial contracts, were not aligned with each other or providers; the CCGs of Stafford & Surrounds, Cannock Chase, South East Staffordshire and Seisdon Peninsula are proposing a virtual merger, in which all operational functions are combined, leaving only the governing bodies separate. Staffordshire formed a sustainability and transformation plan area in March 2016 with John MacDonald, the Chair of University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust as its leader Burton Hospital A&E and Stafford A&E are to be downgraded, the community hospitals at Longton and Cheadle and Haywood Hospital will lose 167 hospital beds.

A Care Quality Commission visit to Stoke found that in the city there was no shared vision for services or evidence of whole system strategic planning and commissioning. So many older people had to stay excessively long in hospital, it criticised proposals to close community beds without consulting social care leaders about the impact. North Staffordshire Clinical commissioning group decided that from October 2015 they would no longer pay for hearing aids for people with mild hearing loss or some people with moderate hearing loss; this will save around £200,000 a year. The decision was accepted by Staffordshire County Council's health scrutiny committee in June 2015, it is expected. The process was suspended in February 2016 after the collapse of a similar contract in Cambridgeshire; the CCGs in Stoke-on-Trent, North Staffordshire, East Staffordshire, Stafford & Surrounds, Cannock Chase and South East Staffordshire and Seisdon Peninsula agreed to share an accountable officer in August 2017. The North Staffordshire and Stoke on Trent clinical commissioning groups expect a deficit of £27 million in 2018-19.

The CCGs in Cannock Chase, South East Staffordshire and Seisdon Peninsula, Stafford and Surrounds forecast a combined deficit of £29 million. At the same time the University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust expects a deficit of £40 million, there are financial disputes between the trust and the CCGs. Both CCGs were rated inadequate by the Care Quality Commission in 2019. Out-of-hours services are provided by Staffordshire Doctors Urgent Care, part of Vocare. Three quarters of the general practitioners in Stoke on Trent were found to refuse to take on homeless people as patients in both 2016 and 2018; the Sustainability and Transformation Partnership place Amazon Alexa in the homes of 50 patients in 2019 as a trial. They reported being better able to lead more independent lives. Hospital provision in the North of the county is by the University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust which runs facilities in Stafford. Burton Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is in the South-East of the county, the South West is served by hospitals in Wolverhampton and Walsall.

The four CCGs covering Stafford and Surrounds, Cannock Chase, Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffordshire set up a ten-year contract for cancer services in 2015 with Interserve Investments, University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust and Royal Wolverhampton Hospitals NHS Trust. It is intended that the £690 Million contract would provide a 10% increase in cancer patients being treated without any extra money; the North Midlands Trust withdrew in July 2015 because it expected that costs for drugs, would rise at a rate above inflation. The arrangement has been criticised as an attempt to privatise the NHS. In June 2015 more than 63,000 people presented it to a CCG meeting. North Staffordshire Combined Healthcare NHS Trust provides mental health services across Stoke-on-Trent and North Staffordshire. Mental health services in the South of the county are provided by South Staffordshire and Shropshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust. Children’s autism service were provided by South Staffordshire and Shropshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust and Midlands Psychology, a social enterprise from 2010 until 2019 when it

The Devil and Sonny Liston

The Devil and Sonny Liston is a biography of world heavyweight champion boxer Sonny Liston by Nick Tosches. The book's title is a reference to the story "The Devil and Daniel Webster". Tosches' intended title was "Night Train" after one of Liston's favorite songs, it was changed at the behest of his publisher in order to avoid potential confusion with the novel of the same name by Martin Amis. Among the controversial topics covered are Liston's disputed birth date, his alleged mob ties, corruption in the professional boxing world, the 1964 Liston-Clay fight in which Liston claimed to have a shoulder injury, the 1965 Liston-Ali fight and the so-called "phantom punch", Liston's heroin overdose death in 1970

Mauricio Montes

Mauricio Alejandro Montes Sanguinetti is a Peruvian footballer who plays as a striker for Ayacucho FC in the Torneo Descentralizado. Montes played for Segunda División Peruana team C. D. Bella Esperanza in the 2001 season, he scored his club finished in third that season. On July 27, 2010, it was announced that Montes rescinded his contract with Cienciano due to unpaid wages and signed for Club Juan Aurich, it was reported that he received a contract offer from his previous club Alianza Lima, but he preferred the one offered by Juan Aurich. He joined the Chiclayo based club along with Nelinho Quina for the second part of the 2010 season. On September 18, 2010, he made his debut for Juan Aurich as a starter in a league match against León de Huánuco, which ended in a 1-1 draw. In the 2011 season Montes scored a hat-trick in an away league match against Sport Boys, which finished 5-0 in favor of Juan Aurich. Juan AurichTorneo Descentralizado: 2011 Profile at Club Juan Aurich official site at the Wayback Machine Mauricio Montes at Mauricio Montes at Soccerway

FEV1/FVC ratio

The FEV1/FVC ratio called Tiffeneau-Pinelli index, is a calculated ratio used in the diagnosis of obstructive and restrictive lung disease. It represents the proportion of a person's vital capacity that they are able to expire in the first second of forced expiration to the full, forced vital capacity; the result of this ratio is expressed as FEV1%. Normal values are 75%. Predicted normal values can be calculated online and depend on age, sex and ethnicity as well as the research study that they are based upon. A derived value of FEV1% is FEV1% predicted, defined as FEV1% of the patient divided by the average FEV1% in the population for any person of similar age and body composition. In obstructive lung disease, the FEV1 is reduced due to an obstruction of air escaping from the lungs. Thus, the FEV1/FVC ratio will be reduced. More according to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence, the diagnosis of COPD is made when the FEV1/FVC ratio is less than 0.7 or the FEV1 is less than 75% of predicted.

The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease criteria require that values are after bronchodilator medication has been given to make the diagnosis. According to the European Respiratory Society criteria, it is FEV1% predicted that defines when a patient has COPD—that is, when the patient's FEV1% is less than 88% of the predicted value for men, or less than 89% for women. In restrictive lung disease, the FEV1 and FVC are reduced due to fibrosis or other lung pathology. Thus, the FEV1/FVC ratio should be normal, or increased due to a decrease in magnitude of FVC as compared to FEV1