Luhansk or Lugansk known as Voroshilovgrad, is internationally recognized as a city in eastern Ukraine, but Lugansk is the capital and administrative center of the Luhansk People's Republic, an unrecognized state, established in 2014. Until the establishment of LPR, Luhansk was the administrative center of the Luhansk Oblast; the city traces its history to 1795 when the British industrialist Charles Gascoigne founded a metal factory near the Zaporizhian Cossacks settlement Kamianyi Brid. The settlement around the factory was known as Luganskiy Zavod. In 1882 the factory settlement Luganskiy Zavod was merged with the town of Kamianyi Brid into the city of Luhansk. Located in the Donets Basin, Luhansk developed into an important industrial center of Eastern Europe as a home to the major locomotive-building company Luhanskteplovoz; the city was occupied by Nazi Germany between 14 July 1942 and 14 February 1943. On 5 November 1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovgrad in honour of Soviet military commander and politician Kliment Voroshilov.
On 5 March 1958, with the call of Khrushchev not to give names of living people to cities, the old name was reinstated. On 5 January 1970, after the death of Voroshilov on 2 December 1969, the name changed again to Voroshilovgrad. On 4 May 1990, a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city back its original name. In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level. During the War in Donbass, separatists seized governmental buildings in the region, proclaiming the Luhansk People's Republic. An independence referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian law, was held on 11 May 2014; this referendum was not recognized as legitimate by any government except South Ossetia. Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the US said the referendums were illegal; the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition, considered the referendum legitimate and recognized its outcome.
On 25 June 2014, Luhansk was pronounced as the capital of the Luhansk People's Republic by the government of the separatist republic. In August 2014, Ukrainian government forces surrounded rebel-held Luhansk. Heavy shelling caused civilian casualties in the city. On 17 August, Ukrainian soldiers entered the rebel-controlled Luhansk and for a time had control over a police station. After the Ilovaisk counteroffensive, LPR forces regained other Luhansk suburbs. Ukrainian forces withdrew from the Luhansk International Airport on 1 September after heavy fighting. Luhansk became the capital and the administrative center of the rebel state of Luhansk People's Republic; the administration of the Luhansk Oblast was moved to Sievierodonetsk by the government of Ukraine. Some of the more prestigious universities in Ukraine have their home in Luhansk. Luhansk is the location of the main campus of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Luhansk, East Ukrainian Volodymyr Dahl National University and of Luhansk State Medical University.
In the Ukrainian Census of 2001, 49.6% of the inhabitants declared themselves as ethnically Ukrainians and 47% declared themselves as ethnically Russian. The most widespread native language was Russian, at 85.3% of the population. Ukrainian was the native language for 13.7% of the population, there was smaller numbers of speakers of Armenian and Belarusian. Luhansk is home to Zorya Luhansk which now plays in the Ukrainian Premier League annual football championship and plays at the Avanhard Stadium; the club won the 1972 Soviet Top League. The other football team was Dynamo Luhansk. On 7 September 2006, archaeologists in Ukraine announced that an ancient structure had been discovered near Luhansk, which the press reported as a pyramid antedating those in Egypt by at least 300 years; the stone foundations of the structure were said to resemble Aztec and Mayan pyramids in Mesoamerica. It was concluded that the site in question was not a pyramid but was still of great interest. During 2014 and 2015, Luhansk has been the scene of intense fighting and most of these buildings are damaged to some extent.
Some may be destroyed. Nikolay Shmatko, sculptor and painter. Sergey Bubka and Ukrainian pole vaulter, former World Record holder, Olympic Champion Vasiliy Bubka and Ukrainian pole vaulter Vladimir Dal, Russian lexicographer Fedor Emelianenko, a mixed martial arts champion Andriy Serdinov, Ukrainian swimmer Kliment Voroshilov, Soviet military commander Mikhail Matusovsky, Soviet poet, songwriter Oleksandr Zavarov and Ukrainian football player and coach Valeriy Brumel, Soviet olympic champion Sergei Semak, Russian football player Viktor Onopko, Russian football player Yelyzaveta Bryzhina, Bronze Medal 4 × 100 m Relay London 2012 T-DJ Milana, Ukrainian DJ, composer and model Luhansk features hot summer humid continental climate, it has both the highest and lowest temperature recorded in Ukraine.
Shopping malls in New Jersey have played a major role in shaping the suburban landscape of the state following World War II. New Jersey, the most densely populated state in the United States, in the suburban sphere of influence of both New York City and Philadelphia, has a comparatively large number of notable malls throughout the state. Paramus, in Bergen County, is one of the largest shopping meccas in the country, with its four major shopping malls accounting for a significant proportion of the over $5 billion in annual retail sales generated in the borough, more than any other ZIP Code in the United States; this high level of retail sales persists despite the fact that the County, in general, the Borough, in particular, have blue laws that force the malls and other retailers to close on Sunday. Garden State Plaza was the state's first shopping mall, it opened in three stages between May 1957 and August 1960 and was enclosed in 1983. The shopping complex is now known as Westfield Garden State Plaza.
The Garden State's second mall-type shopping venue, Bergen Mall, was built in Paramus and Maywood and was dedicated on November 14, 1957, with great fanfare, as Dave Garroway, host of The Today Show served as master of ceremonies. The Bergen Mall, enclosed in 1973, was first planned in 1955 by Allied Stores to have 100 stores and 8,600 parking spaces in a 1.5 million square feet mall that would include a 300,000 sq ft Stern's store and two other 150,000 sq ft department stores as part of the initial design. Allied's chairman B. Earl Puckett confidently announced The Bergen Mall as the largest of ten proposed centers, stating that there were 25 cities that could support such centers and that no more than 50 malls of this type would be built nationwide. Cherry Hill Mall, was the first large indoor shopping center on the East Coast of the United States and attracted busloads of visitors soon after its opening in October 1961.. The popularity of the mall as a destination is cited as one of the factors that led the mall's host municipality to change its name from Delaware Township, to its current name of Cherry Hill Township.
With the shift in shopping from publicly owned Main Streets to held shopping malls, the question of access to malls, their shoppers, as a public forum has been an issue raised nationwide. This issue has become relevant in New Jersey, where malls in both suburban and exurban areas have supplanted local downtown districts as shopping destinations, depriving individuals and organizations of a public location to reach out to neighbors for distribution of fliers and other forms of expression. While different conclusions have been reached elsewhere, New Jersey's approach has been one of the most expansive in providing groups with access to malls as a public forum, despite their private ownership; the Bergen Mall was the target of a lawsuit by nuclear-freeze advocates who challenged the malls restrictions on distribution of literature to shoppers. On October 12, 1984, Bergen County Superior Court judge Paul R. Huot ruled that the organization should be allowed to distribute literature anywhere and anytime in a shopping mall, noting that "The Bergen Mall has assumed the features and characteristics of the traditional town center for the citizens who reside in Paramus and surrounding Bergen County towns."The New Jersey Supreme Court has been at the forefront in providing access to malls as a public forum under the New Jersey State Constitution's free-speech protections, requiring private owners of shopping malls to allow use as a forum by individuals and groups.
In New Jersey Coalition Against War in the Middle East v. JMB Realty Corp. the Court ruled that because the mall owners "have intentionally transformed their property into a public square or market, a public gathering place, a downtown business district, a community," they cannot deny their own implied invitation to use the space as it was intended. Despite the broad powers granted to those seeking to use these facilities as public forums, mall owners retain the right to establish regulations regulating the time and manner of exercising of freedom of speech rights on their properties. In their role as a public forum, malls have developed a role as a public performance venue, as an addition to theaters and stadiums. Singer Tiffany was one of the pioneers in this innovative use of malls, using the mall tour as a stepping stone to stardom; the first performance on Tiffany's mall tour — "The Beautiful You: Celebrating The Good Life Shopping Mall Tour'87" — took place on June 23, 1987 at The Bergen Mall in Paramus.
The tour was sponsored by major advertisers Toyota and Adidas. While not the first singer to do so, Tiffany established the shopping mall as a location for public performances. Britney Spears' Hair Zone Mall Tour built on Tiffany's use of the mall as a medium to reach fans; the New Jersey Youth Symphony plays annually in the Jersey Gardens Outlet Mall. This performance occurs in March; the following is a sortable list of shopping malls in the state of New Jersey: The largest malls in New Jersey—those with at least 1,000,000 square feet of Gross Leasable Area and ranked in descending order by size—are: American Dream Meadowlands – 3,000,000 sq ft Westfield Garden State Plaza – 2,292,611 sq ft Freehold Raceway Mall – 1,671,000 sq ft Woodbridge Center – 1,633,000 sq ft Willowbrook Mall – 1,514,0
Francis Bloodgood was an American lawyer, mayor of Albany, New York in 1831 and 1833. Francis Bloodgood was born on 12 June 1775 in Albany, the son of James and Lydia Van Valkenburgh Bloodgood, his great-grandfather was Francis Bloetgoet of Long Island. His father was a merchant, involved in the West Indian trade, he studied law at Yale University. His uncle was Elisha Jenkins, three times Secretary of State of New York, was mayor of Albany from 1816 to 1819. Bloodgood established a law firm in Albany in the State Hall on State Street, he became President of the Albany Insurance Company. He was a trustee of the Albany Presbyterian Church. Bloodgood married Elizabeth Cobham in 1792. In 1800 his household had four slaves. From 1797 to 1825 he was clerk of the New York Supreme Court. Bloodgood was involved in a street brawl in April 1807 over a political dispute. After Elisha Jenkins had passed a resolution questioning Solomon Van Rensselaer's honesty, the two men came to blows. Witnesses said that Bloodgood struck Van Rensselaer on the head with a large cane.
He paid damages to Solomon Van Rensselaer for injuries received in the brawl. Bloodgood's first wife died on 13 November 1818, aged fifty, was buried in the Presbyterian burial ground, he may have married Caroline Whistler. In December 1830 he was elected mayor of Albany. Francis Bloodgood entered office in 1831 and paid all the debts of those in debtors' prison on the occasion of his swearing in. A City Hall was erected on Eagle Street, between Maiden Lane and Pine Street, the location of the current City Hall, made of marble and capped by a gilded dome. John Townsend returned as mayor in 1832. In 1833 Francis Bloodgood became mayor for the second time. Francis Bloodgood died on 5 March 1840, aged 71, he was buried in the Presbyterian burial ground. At the time of his death he was married to Anna Shoemaker, from a Philadelphia Quaker family, the widow of Robert Morris Jr, his wife lived on until 5 March 1865. His son was Major William Bloodgood, father of Captain Edward Bloodgood, who died at Fort Larned on 31 July 1867.
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