Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and as a vital transportation artery and communications link.
Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St.
Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river
1932 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 193224 Hours of Le Mans was the 10th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 18 and 19 June 1932. This change was made to keep the race away from the suburbs of Le Mans, the two Dunlop Bridges were first seen at this race. Alfa Romeo –5,41 Distance –2954.038 km Average Speed –123.084 km/h 8th Bienniel Cup – #21 Aston Martin Ltd, index of Performance – #8 Raymond Sommer
North American Racing Team
The North American Racing Team was created by businessman Luigi Chinetti to promote the Ferrari marque in United States through success in endurance motorsport. It was created in 1958 when Chinetti received backing from wealthy racers George Arents, NART raced at only the worlds premier races, such as the 24 Hours of Daytona in Florida and the 24 Hours of Le Mans in Le Mans, France. Their first race was the 12 Hours of Sebring in March 1958, pedro Rodríguez won the second and the third editions of Daytona with NART team. In 1963 was a three hours race and in 1964 a 2,000 kilometers, both in a Ferrari 250 GTO. A Ferrari 158 officially entered by NART sealed the win of the 1964 F1 World championship with John Surtees and this was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car. The peak of NARTs own racing success came in 1965, when a NART-entered 250 LM became the last Ferrari to win Le Mans outright with Jochen Rindt, with this model, NART scored 2nd in the 1973 Daytona 24h, behind a Porsche 911.
NART raced Ferraris until 1982, at which point it had participated in more than 200 races with over 100 different drivers, including Mario Andretti and Phil Hill. NART had a Ferrari model with its attached to it – the 1967275 GTB/4 NART Spyder was a convertible version of the 275 GTB/4 requested especially by Luigi Chinetti. The original order of 25 cars was never fulfilled, as only 10 were delivered from the Maranello factory, because of the popularity of the drop-top NART Spyder design, many 275 GTB/4 were converted to drop-top models to imitate the NART Spyders design
The Indianapolis 500 is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend, which is typically the last weekend in May and it is contested as part of the Verizon IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel formula colloquially known as Indy Car Racing. The name of the race is often shortened to Indy 500, the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, the inaugural running was won by Ray Harroun in 1911. The race celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, and the 100th running was held in 2016, alexander Rossi is the defending champion. The most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser, the active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three.
Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six, the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 16 total wins and 17 poles. For a list of races and winners, see List of Indianapolis 500 winners, the Indianapolis 500 is held annually at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, a 2.5 mile oval circuit. Drivers race 200 laps, counterclockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles, since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled on or around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece. The event is contested by Indy cars, a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, as of 2015, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider.
The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar and it has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world. Likewise, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the worlds largest sporting facility in terms of capacity, the total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Due to safety issues, the race is not held in wet conditions, in the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, and the track is sufficiently dried. If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway complex was built in 1909 as a gravel-and-tar track and hosted a smattering of small events, including ones for motorcycles. The first long distance event, in conditions, was the 100-lap Prest-O-Lite Trophy in 1909
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
Francis Curzon, 5th Earl Howe
Francis Richard Henry Penn Curzon, 5th Earl Howe, CBE, RD, PC, styled as Viscount Curzon from 1900 to 1929, was a British naval officer, Member of Parliament, and motor racing driver and promotor. In the 1918 UK General Election he won the Battersea South seat as the candidate of the Conservative Party, while in Parliament he took up motor racing, and won the 193124 Hours of Le Mans race. He ascended to the Peerage in 1929, succeeding his father as the 5th Earl Howe, Earl Howe co-founded the British Racing Drivers Club with Dudley Benjafield in 1928, and served as its President until his death in 1964. Francis, Viscount Curzon, joined the Royal Navy after leaving school, when World War I started the RNVR was formed into the Royal Naval Division and they were to fight on land like infantrymen not sailors. Hon. Viscount Curzon served as Battalion Commander, Howe Battalion of the 2nd Brigade RND. Howe Battalion saw action at Gallipoli, April 1915 – January 1916, Mudros and Stavros, January - May 1916, France and Belgium, May 1916 - February 1918, during part of this period Curzon served as aide-de-camp to George V.
Following the armistice Viscount Curzon moved into politics, in the 1918 General Election he won the Battersea South seat, standing for the Conservative Party. Following his fathers death in 1929 Francis Curzon ascended to the title Earl Howe and he was appointed a Privy Counsellor in the 1929 Dissolution Honours. However, during his years as an MP Curzon had begun to become involved in motor racing. An associate of the infamous Bentley Boys, he was instrumental in forming the ideas which led Dudley Benjafield to set up the British Racing Drivers Club in 1928, the newly ennobled Earl Howe was elected its President at the BRDCs first Annual General Meeting in 1929. Francis Curzon made his debut at the comparatively old age of 44. After leaving the House of Commons he pursued his career with increasing vigour. During the 1930s he became a known driver, competing in many national and international races. He entered the endurance classic six times between 1929 and 1935, only missing the 1933 event, for the first year he was entered as a part of the Bentley factory team, but latterly he entered his own cars.
It was in his own Alfa Romeo 8C that he won the race in 1931, away from La Sarthe, Earl Howe drove in a variety of automobiles. Indeed, in the mid-1930s he was credited by Time magazine as having Europes most elaborate collection of racing cars and he favored the Bugatti marque and campaigning several Bugattis. He won the Donington Park Trophy race in 1933, and added to his victory haul with a win in the 1938 Grosvenor Grand Prix, at Cape Town in South Africa. R. Aside from assuming the Presidency of the BRDC, Earl Howe served as Vice-President of the FIAs Commission Sportive Internationale and he kept motorsport issues on the political landscape, with numerous speeches in the House of Lords
Greenwich /ˈɡrɛnᵻtʃ/ is a town in Fairfield County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 61,171. The largest town on Connecticuts Gold Coast, it is home to many hedge funds, Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as the six-state region of New England. It takes roughly 40-50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, cNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich first on its list of the 100 Best Places to Live in the United States in 2005. The town is named after Greenwich, a borough of London in the United Kingdom, the town of Greenwich was settled in 1640. One of the founders was Elizabeth Fones Winthrop, daughter-in-law of John Winthrop, Greenwich was declared a township by the General Assembly in Hartford on May 11,1665. During the American Revolution, General Israel Putnam made an escape from the British on February 26,1779. Although British forces pillaged the town, Putnam was able to warn Stamford, p1270020-300x225.
jpg | Putnam Hill, where General Putnam escaped. In 1974, Gullivers Restaurant and Bar, on the border of Greenwich and Port Chester, in 1983, the Mianus River Bridge, which carries traffic on Interstate 95 over an estuary, resulting in the death of three people. For many years, Greenwich Point, was only to town residents. However, a lawyer sued, saying his rights to freedom of assembly were threatened because he was not allowed to go there, the lower courts disagreed, but the Supreme Court of Connecticut agreed, and Greenwich was forced to amend its beach access policy to all four beaches. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 67.2 square miles, of which 47.8 square miles is land and 19.4 square miles. In terms of area, Greenwich is twice the size of Manhattan. The town is bordered to the west and north by Westchester County, New York, to the east by the city of Stamford, and faces the Village of Bayville to the south across the Long Island Sound. The Census Bureau recognizes seven CDPs within the town, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside, the USPS lists separate zip codes for Greenwich, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, and Riverside.
Additionally, Greenwich is often divided into several smaller, unofficial neighborhoods. The Hispanic population is concentrated in the corner of the town. In 2011, numerous neighborhoods were voted by the Business Insider as being the richest neighborhoods in America, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, and Riverside each have their own ZIP Codes and with the exception of Byram, each has a Metro North station
Briggs Swift Cunningham II was an American entrepreneur and sportsman, who raced automobiles and yachts. Born into a family, he became a racing car constructor, driver. He skippered the first victorious 12-metre yacht Columbia in the 1958 Americas Cup race and he was featured on the April 26,1954 cover of Time magazine, with three of his Cunningham racing cars. The caption reads, Road Racer Briggs Cunningham, Endurance and he became an early member of the Road Racing Drivers Club, an invitation-only club formed to honor notable road racing drivers. He was inducted into the Americas Cup Hall of Fame in 1993, the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1997, Cunningham died in Las Vegas, of complications from Alzheimers disease, at the age of 96. In 1931 Cunningham was a member on the Dorade when it won the Fastnet race. He invented the cunningham downhaul to increase the speed of racing sailboats and he continued in competition for 36 years. By 1940 he was building cars for others to race. His first race as a driver was with his Bu-Merc, a modified Buick chassis with Buick engine and Mercedes-Benz SSK body, some of his other hybrids involved Cadillacs and Fords.
Cunningham was one of the first to purchase a Ferrari Tipo 166 Corsa Spyder, in 1950 Briggs Cunningham entered two Cadillac cars for Le Mans, one a stock-appearing Sixty Special, the other a special-bodied sports car dubbed Le Monstre. They finished 10th and 11th overall, on December 31,1950 Cunningham participated in the 6-hour Sam Collier Memorial Race, the first automobile race held on the Sebring Airport race track, which was won by a Crosley HotShot. Cunningham finished 3rd in class and 17th overall in his Aston Martin DB2 Vantage LML/50/21,1955 was last year for the Cunningham marque of cars. The Internal Revenue Service rules of the time allowed such prototype low volume manufacturers 5 years to reach profitability before classifying the business as a non-deductible hobby. By 1956 Team Cunningham, which fielded other marques, was described as a dominant force in SCCA sports car racing — a distinction the team retained for the next decade. The team traveled in a caravan with tractor trailer vans that contained the automobiles and equipment and this contrasted with the typical arrival into the pits of a single race car on a trailer, and was described as impressive by driver Lake Underwood.
The teams chief mechanic was Alfred Momo. Cunningham concentrated on automobiles, high-performance prototypes that he. A few, adapted for use, were personal vehicles. In 1952, Cunningham introduced the Continental C3 road car, production began in his West Palm Beach plant where his team of mechanics installed 331-cubic-inch Chrysler hemi V-8s in Cunningham C-2R racing chassis
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, and includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is governed by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, in 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose as open road racing, on roads, was banned. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom, following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular, after World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became firmly established, motorsports ultimately became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, and their appropriate organisations. Open-wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, with their wheels outside of.
However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series, more recently, new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the Formula moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former Formula series include Formula 5000 and Formula Two, the formula regulations contain a very strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. In the United States, Indy Car is a class of single seat paved track racing and its premier race is the Indianapolis 500. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are primarily enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, and specialised racing types. The premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June, sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles, that race over a speedway track, while once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. NASCAR was organised in 1947, to flat track oval racing of production cars.
Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Motorsport was an event at the 1900 Summer Olympics