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Luigi Galvani

Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician, physicist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity. He is recognized as the pioneer of bioelectromagnetics. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs' legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark; this was one of the first forays into the study of bioelectricity, a field that still studies the electrical patterns and signals from tissues such as the nerves and muscles. Galvani's wife Lucia Galeazzi Galvani encouraged his independent research, served as a counsellor and guide for his experiments until her death. Luigi Galvani was born to Domenico and Barbara Caterina Foschi, in Bologna part of the Papal States. Domenico was a goldsmith, Barbara was his fourth wife, his family was not aristocratic, but they could afford to send at least one of their sons to study at a university. At first Galvani wished to enter the church, so he joined a religious institution, Oratorio dei Padri Filippini, at 15 years old, he planned to take religious vows.

Around 1755, Galvani entered the Faculty of the Arts of the University of Bologna. Galvani attended the medicine course, which lasted four years, was characterized by its "bookish" teaching. Texts that dominated this course were by Hippocrates and Avicenna. Another discipline Galvani learned alongside medicine was surgery, he learned the practice. This part of his biography is overlooked, but it helped with his experiments with animals and helped familiarize Galvani with the manipulation of a living body. In 1759, Galvani graduated with degrees in philosophy, he applied for a position as a lecturer at the university. Part of this process required him to defend his thesis on 21 June 1761. In the following year, 1762, he became a permanent anatomist of the university and was appointed honorary lecturer of surgery; that same year he married daughter of one of his professors, Gusmano Galeazzi. Galvani helped with his father-in-law's research; when Galeazzi died in 1775, Galvani was appointed lecturer in Galeazzi's place.

Galvani moved from the position of lecturer of surgery to theoretical anatomy and obtained an appointment at the Academy of Sciences in 1776. His new appointment consisted of the practical teaching of anatomy, conducted by human dissection and the use of the famous anatomical waxes; as a "Benedectine member" of the Academy of Sciences, Galvani had specific responsibilities. His main responsibility was to present at least one research paper every year at the Academy, which Galvani did until his death. There was a periodical publication that collected a selection of the memoirs presented at the institution and was sent around to main scientific academies and institutions around the world. However, since publication was so slow, sometimes there were debates on priority of the topics used. One of these debates occurred with Antonio Scarpa; this debate caused Galvani to give up the field of research on which he had presented for four years in a row: the hearing of birds and humans. Galvani had yet to publish them.

It is suspected that Scarpa attended Galvani's public dissertation and claimed some of Galvani's discoveries without crediting him. Galvani began taking an interest in the field of "medical electricity"; this field emerged in the middle of the 18th century, following the electrical researches and the discovery of the effects of electricity on the human body. The beginning of Galvani's experiments with bioelectricity has a popular legend which says that the Galvani was skinning a frog at a table where he and his wife had been conducting experiments with static electricity by rubbing frog skin. Galvani's assistant touched an exposed sciatic nerve of the frog with a metal scalpel that had picked up a charge. At that moment, they saw sparks and the dead frog's leg kicked as if in life; the observation made the Galvanis the first investigators to appreciate the relationship between electricity and animation—or life. This finding provided the basis for the new understanding that the impetus behind muscle movement was electrical energy carried by a liquid, not air or fluid as in earlier balloonist theories.

Galvani coined the term animal electricity to describe the force that activated the muscles of his specimens. Along with contemporaries, he regarded their activation as being generated by an electrical fluid, carried to the muscles by the nerves; the phenomenon was dubbed galvanism, after Galvani and his wife, on the suggestion of his peer and sometime intellectual adversary Alessandro Volta. Galvanis are properly credited with the discovery of bioelectricity. Today, the study of galvanic effects in biology is called electrophysiology, the term galvanism being used only in historical contexts. Volta, a professor of experimental physics in the University of Pavia, was among the first scientists who repeated and checked Galvani’s experiments. At first, he embraced animal electricity. However, he started to doubt that the conductions were caused by a specific electricity intrinsic to animal's legs or other body parts. Volta believed that the contractions depended on the metal cable Galvani used to connect the nerves and muscles in his experiments.

Volta's investigations led shortly to the invention of an early battery. Galvani believed. Volta, in opposition, reasoned that the animal electricity was a physical phenomenon caused by rubbing frog skin and not a metallic electricity; every cell has a cell potentia

Andrew Stewart (gridiron football)

Andrew Stewart is a former American football defensive end who played one season with the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League. He was drafted by the Browns in the fourth round of the 1989 NFL Draft, he played college football at Fresno Cincinnati. He was a member of the Cincinnati Bengals, San Francisco 49ers, Ottawa Rough Riders, BC Lions, Toronto Argonauts, Saskatchewan Roughriders and Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Stewart played for the Fresno City Rams of Fresno City College in 1985. Stewart played for the Cincinnati Bearcats of the University of Cincinnati from 1986 to 1988, recording career totals of 36 tackles for loss and sixteen sacks, he set the school's single season sack record with nine in 1987. He played in the East–West Shrine Game and Senior Bowl. Stewart was selected by the Cleveland Browns with the 107th pick in the 1989 NFL Draft, he won the Maurice Bassett Award in 1989. The Award is given to the Browns' most outstanding rookie in training camp as voted by the local media.

He played in all 16 games for the Browns during the 1989 season. Stewart was released by the Browns on November 28, 1990, after having spent the prior three months on injured reserve due to an Achilles tendon injury, he signed with the Cincinnati Bengals during the 1991 off-season. He suffered a torn knee ligament July 31, 1991, missed the 1991 and 1992 seasons. Stewart was signed by the San Francisco 49ers, he suffered a right hand injury during a preseason game in 1993. He was released by the team in 1993. Stewart was signed with the Ottawa Rough Riders in October 1993 and played in six games for the team during the 1993 season, he was traded to the BC Lions in June 1994 with Angelo Snipes and Denny Chronopoulos for Kent Warnock and BC's second round pick in the 1995 CFL Draft. He played two seasons for the Lions, earning CFL Northern All-Star honors in 1995 when he recorded five sacks; the Lions won the 82nd Grey Cup against the Baltimore Football Club on November 27, 1994. Stewart signed with the Toronto Argonauts for the 1996 season and played for the team from 1996 to 1997, compiling eight sacks in 1997.

He won back to back Grey Cups with the team in 1996 and 1997. He was traded to the Saskatchewan Roughriders in May 1998 and was released by the Roughriders in May 1999. Stewart played for them during the 1999 season, he retired from football in 2001. Andrew's brother Alex played gridiron football. In 1991, Andrew claimed. In 2012, a judge ordered the Bert Bell/Pete Rozelle NFL Player Retirement Plan to provide disability benefits to Stewart after he had been refused an NFL pension. In 2016, Stewart was diagnosed with cancer. Just Sports Stats

Kitasen Road

The Kitasen Road or Daini Shinmei Road Kitasen Route is an expressway that links the wards Tarumi-ku and Nishi-ku of Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. It is owned and operated by West Nippon Expressway Company and is signed as E94 under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism's "2016 Proposal for Realization of Expressway Numbering." In 1998, the Kitasen Road was opened in conjunction with the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway. MLIT is in the process of acquiring right of way to build a 7.1 km extension of the Kitasen Road to link up with the Daini-Shinmei Road in the neighboring city, Akashi. The entire expressway is in Hyōgo Prefecture. Daini-Shinmei Road West Nippon Expressway Company

Maison de l'Art Nouveau

The Maison de l'Art Nouveau, abbreviated as L'Art Nouveau, known as Maison Bing for the owner, was a gallery opened on 26 December 1895, by Siegfried Bing at 22 rue de Provence, Paris. The building was designed by the architect Louis Bonnier. Unlike his earlier stores at the same location and nearby at 19 rue Chauchat that specialised in Japonism and imports from Asia, the gallery specialised in modern art; the original exhibition featured windows designed by Nabi artists, including Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, made by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The fame of his gallery was increased at the 1900 Exposition Universelle, where he presented co-ordinated—in design and colour—installations of modern furniture and objets d'art; these decorative displays became associated with an artistic style, becoming popular across Europe, for which his gallery subsequently provided a name: Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau in Paris Media related to Maison de l'Art Nouveau at Wikimedia Commons

1982 Kansas gubernatorial election

The 1982 Kansas gubernatorial election was held on November 2, 1982. Incumbent Democrat John W. Carlin defeated Republican nominee Sam Hardage with 53.16% of the vote. Primary elections were held on August 3, 1982. John W. Carlin, incumbent Governor Jimmy D. Montgomery Sam Hardage, businessman Dave Owen, former Lieutenant Governor Wendell Lady, Speaker of the Kansas House of Representatives Louis A. Klemp Jr. Leavenworth County Commissioner Bill Huffman Major party candidates John W. Carlin, Democratic Sam Hardage, RepublicanOther candidates James H. Ward, Libertarian Frank W. Shelton Jr. American Warren C. Martin, Prohibition

Papal bull

A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal, traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it. Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, only internally for unofficial administrative purposes. However, it had become official by the 15th century, when one of the offices of the Apostolic Chancery was named the "register of bulls". By the accession of Pope Leo IX in 1048, a clear distinction developed between two classes of bulls of greater and less solemnity; the majority of the "great bulls" now in existence are in the nature of confirmations of property or charters of protection accorded to monasteries and religious institutions. In an epoch when there was much fabrication of such documents, those who procured bulls from Rome wished to ensure that the authenticity of their bull was above suspicion.

A papal confirmation, under certain conditions, could be pleaded as itself constituting sufficient evidence of title in cases where the original deed had been lost or destroyed. Since the 12th century, papal bulls have carried a leaden seal with the heads of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul on one side and the pope's name on the other. Papal bulls were issued by the pope for many kinds of communication of a public nature, but by the 13th century, papal bulls were only used for the most formal or solemn of occasions. Papyrus seems to have been used uniformly as the material for these documents until the early years of the eleventh century, after which it was superseded by a rough kind of parchment. Modern scholars have retroactively used the word "bull" to describe any elaborate papal document issued in the form of a decree or privilege, solemn or simple, to some less elaborate ones issued in the form of a letter. Popularly, the name is used for any papal document. Today, the bull is the only written communication in which the pope will refer to himself as "Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei".

For example, when Pope Benedict XVI issued a decree in bull form, he began the document with "Benedictus, Servus Servorum Dei". While papal bulls always used to bear a metal seal, they now do so only on the most solemn occasions. A papal bull is today the most formal type of public decree or letters patent issued by the Vatican Chancery in the name of the pope. A bull's format began with one line in tall, elongated letters containing three elements: the pope's name, the papal title "Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei", its incipit, i.e. the first few Latin words from which the bull took its title for record keeping purposes, but which might not be directly indicative of the bull's purpose. The body of the text had no specific conventions for its formatting; the closing section consisted of a short "datum" that mentioned the place of issuance, day of the month and year of the pope's pontificate on which issued, signatures, near, attached the seal. For the most solemn bulls, the pope signed the document himself, in which case he used the formula "Ego N. Catholicae Ecclesiae Episcopus".

Following the signature in this case would be an elaborate monogram, the signatures of any witnesses, the seal. Nowadays, a member of the Roman Curia signs the document on behalf of the pope the Cardinal Secretary of State, thus the monogram is omitted; the most distinctive characteristic of a bull was the metal seal, made of lead, but on solemn occasions was made of gold, as those on Byzantine imperial instruments were. On the obverse it depicted somewhat crudely, the early Fathers of the Church of Rome, the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, identified by the letters Sanctus PAulus and Sanctus PEtrus. St. Paul, on the left, was shown with flowing hair and a long pointed beard composed of curved lines, while St. Peter, on the right, was shown with curly hair and a shorter beard made of dome-shaped globetti; each head was surrounded by a circle of globetti, the rim of the seal was surrounded by an additional ring of such beads, while the heads themselves were separated by a depiction of a cross.

On the reverse was the name of the issuing pope in the nominative Latin form, with the letters "PP", for Pastor Pastorum. This disc was attached to the document either by cords of hemp, in the case of letters of justice and executory letters, or by red and yellow silk, in the case of letters of grace, looped through slits in the vellum of the document; the term "bulla" derives from the Latin "bullire", alludes to the fact that, whether of wax, lead, or gold, the material making the seal had to be melted to soften it for impression. In 1535, the Florentine engraver Benvenuto Cellini was paid 50 scudi to recreate the metal matrix which would be used to impress the lead bullae of Pope Paul III. Cellini retained definitive iconographic items like the faces of the two Apostles, but he carved them with a much greater attention to detail and artistic sensibility than had been in evidence. On the reverse of the seal he added several fleurs-de-lis, a heraldic device of the Farnese family, from which Pope Paul III descended.

Since the late 18th century, the lead bulla has been replaced with a red ink stamp of Saints Peter and Paul with the reigning pope's name encircling the picture, though formal letters, e. g. the bull of Pope John XXIII convo