Roberto Sánchez Vilella
Roberto Sánchez Vilella was the second Governor of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, holding the position from 1965 to 1969. Sánchez Vilella ran for governor in the 1964 elections for the Partido Popular Democrático, he is the founder of the People's Party, "Partido del Pueblo" known as el Partido del Sol. Sánchez Vilella was born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico to Luis Sánchez Frasqueri and Angela Vilella velez and his family moved to Ponce, Puerto Rico when he was five years old. In Ponce he attended secondary schools, including the Ponce High School. After graduation, he attended Ohio State University where he graduated with a degree in engineering in 1934; as an engineer, in 1941 he was president of the Ponce chapter of the Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico, the professional organization covering all engineers and land surveyors in Puerto Rico. He was a professor for a short time at the University of Puerto Rico. After a long and distinguished career as city manager of the city of San Juan, Secretary of Public Works and as the first Secretary of State, Sánchez Vilella was handpicked by Governor Luis Muñoz Marín to run as the PPD's candidate for governor in 1964.
Sánchez won the election by a comfortable margin, becoming the second democratically elected governor of the island. During his tenure, Sánchez Vilella tried to change his party's membership, urging a younger generation to rise in the friends party's organization, it could be argued that Sánchez Vilella was influenced by the youth movement that the island was experiencing countrywide during the 1960s, a period where many social areas in Puerto Rico, including television and sports, were being introduced to fresh, younger personalities. Sánchez Vilella had public marital problems during his term; this marked the first time. His marital problems were brought to center stage during the 1968 gubernatorial campaign, given the still-conservative Puerto Rican moral values of the time, including the stigmatization of divorce, his goals of revitalization and change led to a public break with former governor, Luis Muñoz Marín, still party leader. Because of this, the PPD nominated Luis Negrón López for governor in the elections of 1968.
Sánchez Vilella founded his own party, the Partido del Pueblo. While his new party lost in the 1968 elections, it caused a considerable percentage of PPD voters to vote for him, indirectly helping Luis A. Ferré and his New Progressive Party to win that year, it did not matter that Ferré had made a similar split with his Partido Estadista Republicano due to that party's decision not to support the statehood status option in the 1967 Puerto Rican status plebiscite. There is speculation that United States Navy officials, scorned by Sánchez Vilella as long-time meddlers in Puerto Rican affairs used Navy intelligence resources to prepare a smear campaign against Sánchez Vilella and helped Ferré with logistics and money for his own gubernatorial campaign. Sánchez Vilella was blamed for the first loss in the history of the PPD, his relationship with former governor Muñoz Marín was strained, but the two friends mended their differences in the late 1970s. In 1972, Sánchez Vilella made his third and last run for elective office when he obtained over 100,000 votes in his bid to become a representative-at-large, but lost when the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico certified the election of Puerto Rican Independence Party candidate Luis Ángel Torres, who polled fewer than 150 votes, based on its interpretation of the Puerto Rico Constitution's rules regarding the election of at-large legislative candidates.
After leaving La Fortaleza and his unsuccessful House bid in 1972, Sánchez Vilella lived a quiet life, serving as a professor at the University of Puerto Rico's School of Public Administration and its law school, as a radio commentator. The Puerto Rican sculptor Tomás Batista created a bust in his honor, it is located in the city of Ponce, at the Parque del Tricentenario, he died on 24 March 1997 and was buried at the Panteón Nacional Román Baldorioty de Castro in Ponce, Puerto Rico which he had claimed as his adoptive city. The legacy of Sánchez Vilella, judged rather harshly by historians, has been perceived in a better light recently, his term was overshadowed by the legacy of Muñoz, his predecessor, the PDP's loss in the 1968 elections is still blamed on him. However, he is perceived by many political commentators to have led the most efficient public administration of all Puerto Rican-born governors, many long for Sánchez Vilella's frankness and political integrity in light of the deteriorating political climate that has developed after he left office.
As the perception of his legacy improves, he is now being honored more frequently. The Government's largest building complex at Minillas in Santurce, has now been named after him, Senate President Kenneth McClintock placed a bust of Sánchez Vilella in 2007 at the Capitol Building's Governors' Hall, righting a decades-long omission. Sánchez Vilella had two daughters and Vilma, from his marriage to First Lady Concepción "Conchita" Dapena, he had seven grandchildren born prior to his passing: Marta Monserrate-Kohler, Mari Mo
Juan Cancel Ríos
Juan José Cancel Ríos was a Puerto Rican politician and lawyer who served as the 7th President of the Senate of Puerto Rico from 1973 to 1976. Juan Cancel Ríos was born on August 1925 in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico, his parents were Salustiana Ríos. Cancel Ríos studied his elementary at Rafael Balseiro Maceira Elementary School in Barceloneta, graduating in 1940, he went to José Severo Quiñonez High School in Manatí, graduating in 1944. He went to study at the University of Puerto Rico, but after his first year, enrolled with the United States Army to serve during World War II. In 1947, he was honorably discharged by the Army and he returned to the University, graduating in 1953 with two degrees: Social Science and Law. After passing the bar exam, he became an attorney. Cancel showed interest in politics since his youth. From 1957 to 1960, he presided the Municipal Assembly of Barceloneta. In 1960, he was elected as a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives for the District of Manatí-Barceloneta.
He served in that position from 1961 to 1964. In 1964, Cancel was elected to the Senate of Puerto Rico for the District of Arecibo, he was reelected in 1968 and 1972. In 1973, his fellow senators chose him as President of the Senate, he did so until 1976. Cancel was a member of the Board of the Attorney's College, the Lions Club of Manatí, the American Legion, other civic organizations. After retiring from politics, Cancel presided the Puerto Rico Baseball League. Cancel Ríos was married to Carmen Leticia Alegría Estela, they had three children together: Carmencita, María Magdalena and Juan Andrés. Cancel Ríos died on August 1992 in San Juan, Puerto Rico; the Barceloneta Government Center is named after him. List of famous Puerto Ricans Senate of Puerto Rico Juan Cancel Biography Personas Ilustres de Barceloneta
Ponce Cement, Inc. was a cement and limestone manufacturer in Ponce, Puerto Rico. The company was located in Barrio Magueyes, it was founded in 1941 by a Puerto Rican industrialist of Cuban origin. In 1963, the company became the first Puerto Rican company to go public and be listed in the New York Stock Exchange. Ponce Cement was part of the Empresas Ferré enterprise from 1941 to 2002. In 1950, Empresas Ferré purchased another cement enterprise, the Puerto Rico Cement Company owned by the Government of Puerto Rico. In 2002, Ponce Cement, Inc. was sold to Cemex, a Mexican business concern, both the world's largest building materials supplier and the third largest cement producer, of which Ponce Cement is now a subsidiary. The plant continues to operate at the same location, continues to sell its products to the Puerto Rico market, but with the change in ownership, the company is no longer named Ponce Cement, Inc.. The new owners did keep the Cemento Ponce product label; the municipality of Ponce was the perfect place to establish a cement plant as the type of soil needed for cement production is abundant in the region.
After founding the Puerto Rico Iron Works, the El Dia newspaper, Empresas Ferre entered the construction business with Ponce Cement, Inc. and subsequently with Puerto Rican Cement, Inc. Over the 1940s, the company enlarged and Luis A. Ferre became its chief engineer. By 1960, the company had become the leading cement supplier on the island, much of it the result of increasing new highway and housing construction projects spreading throughout the Island. On 23 February 1989 the Ponce Cement plant received approval for conversion from a wet to a dry manufacturing process, which allowed it to double its output; as of year 2000, cement was Puerto Rico's leading nonfuel mineral commodity. Geologic map of the Ponce Quadrangle. R. D. Krushensky and W. H. Monroe. IMAP 863. U. S. Department of The Interior. United States Geological Survey. 1971. Accessed 6 December 2018. Ponce Limestone Luis A. Ferré Ponce, Puerto Rico
Miguel Hernández Agosto
Miguel Hernández Agosto was a Puerto Rican politician whose service in government spanned several generations. Affiliated with the Popular Democratic Party, he started his political career as a Cabinet member, but became a Senator at-large. Hernández Agosto served as President of the Senate of Puerto Rico for 12 years. Hernández Agosto was born on April 1927 in Las Piedras, Puerto Rico. Hernández Agosto finished his bachelor studies in Agricultural Sciences from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez at the age of 19. Next year, he completed a master's degree from Michigan State University, a PhD from University of Michigan. In 1970, Hernández Agosto concluded his studies with a JD from the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico School of Law. Hernández Agosto is a member of the Latino fraternity Phi Iota Alpha, the oldest inter-collegiate Greek-letter organization established for Latino Americans. During his youth, Hernández Agosto served as a science and math teacher at high schools in Humacao and Juncos.
From 1960 to 1965, Hernández Agosto served as Executive Director of the Puerto Rico Lands Authority under Gov. Luis Muñoz Marín, who subsequently appointed him as Secretary of the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture, a position he held under the governorship of Roberto Sánchez Vilella. In 1970, he entered elective politics as a Senator at-large, filling the vacancy created by the resignation of then-Sen. Muñoz Marín. Two years he was elected Senator for the Popular Democratic Party. One year after his election, he was named Vice-President of the Senate. Hernández agosto was appointed as Minority Speaker. In 1981, after being reelected again, Hernández Agosto became the Senate of Puerto Rico's ninth President, a position he held for 12 years. In 1993, after the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico's defeat in the 1992 elections, he became again the Senate Minority Leader of his party until 1996. Hernández Agosto was President of the Popular Democratic Party from 1978 to 1981, presided the Committee for the Quincentenary of the discovery of America and Puerto Rico.
At the national level, Hernández Agosto was affiliated with the Democratic Party. After winning a bruising reorganization primary campaign in 1988 against former Governor Carlos Romero Barceló, he became State Chair of the Democratic Party of Puerto Rico, a post he held until 1992. In his final years, Hernández Agosto was a part-time law professor at the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico School of Law and practiced law. In 2008, he chaired then-Gov. Aníbal Acevedo Vilá's unsuccessful reelection campaign. Hernández Agosto died on March 18, 2016. Gov. Alejandro García Padilla ordered flags to be raised at half-staff for five days in his honor. List of famous Puerto Ricans Senate of Puerto Rico Official Biography from the Senate of Puerto Rico
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Ponce, Puerto Rico
Ponce is both a city and a municipality on the southern coast of Puerto Rico. The city is the seat of the municipal government. Ponce, Puerto Rico's most populated city outside the San Juan metropolitan area, was founded on 12 August 1692 and is named for Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the great-grandson of Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce is referred to as La Perla del Sur, La Ciudad Señorial, La Ciudad de las Quenepas; the city serves as the governmental seat of the autonomous municipality as well as the regional hub for various Government of Puerto Rico entities, such as the Judiciary of Puerto Rico. It is the regional center for various other Commonwealth and Federal Government agencies; the Municipality of Ponce the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce, is located in the southern coastal plain region of the island, south of Adjuntas and Jayuya. The municipality has a total of 31 barrios, including 19 outside the city's urban area and 12 in the urban area of the city; the historic Ponce Pueblo district, located in the downtown area of the city, is shared by several of the downtown barrios, is located three miles inland from the shores of the Caribbean.
Ponce is a principal city of both the Ponce Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Ponce-Yauco-Coamo Combined Statistical Area. The municipality of Ponce is the second largest in Puerto Rico by land area, it was the first in Puerto Rico to obtain its autonomy, becoming the Autonomous Municipality of Ponce in 1992; the region of what is now Ponce belonged to the Taíno Guaynia region, which stretched along the southern coast of Puerto Rico. Agüeybaná, a cacique who led the region, was among those who greeted Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León when he came to the island in 1508. Archaeological findings have identified four sites within the municipality of Ponce with archeological significance: Canas, Caracoles, El Bronce. During the first years of the colonization, Spanish families started settling around the Jacaguas River, in the south of the island. For security reasons, these families moved to the banks of the Rio Portugués called Baramaya. Starting around 1646 the whole area from the Rio Portugués to the Bay of Guayanilla was called Ponce.
In 1670, a small chapel was raised in the middle of the small settlement and dedicated in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Among its earliest settlers were Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the Portuguese Don Pedro Rodríguez de Guzmán, from nearby San Germán. On 17 September 1692, the King of Spain Carlos II issued a Cédula Real converting the chapel into a parish, in so doing recognizing the small settlement as a hamlet, it is believed that Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, Juan Ponce de León's great-grandson, was instrumental in obtaining the royal permit to formalize the founding of the hamlet. Captains Enrique Salazar and Miguel del Toro were instrumental; the city is named after Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the great-grandson of Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. In the early 18th century Don Antonio Abad Rodriguez Berrios built a small chapel under the name of San Antonio Abad; the area would receive the name of San Antón, a important part of modern Ponce. In 1712 the village was chartered as El Poblado de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Ponce.
In the early 19th century, Ponce continued to be one of dozens of hamlets. Its inhabitants survived by subsistence agriculture, cattle raising, maritime contraband with foreigners. Mayor José Benítez categorized the jurisdiction into cotos, criaderos, monterías, terrenos realengos. Cotos were lands awarded to residents as reward for their services to the king, they were developed into lands apt to be cultivated for agricultural use. Hatos were lands not granted to anyone in particular, but available for communal use where cattle could roam at will. Monterías were hilly areas located next to hatos were cattle could be reigned in or gathered together with the help of trained dogs. Criaderos were lands. Goats, pigs and mares were herded in criaderos. Terrenos realengos were lands. However, in the 1820s, three events took place that changed the size of the town; the first of these events was the arrival of a significant number of white Francophones, fleeing the Haitian Revolution of 1791–1804. The effect of this mass migration was not felt until the 1820s.
These French Creole entrepreneurs were attracted to the area because of its large flatlands, they came with enough capital and commercial connections to stimulate Ponce's sugarcane production and sales. Secondly and merchants migrated from various Latin American countries, they had migrated for better conditions, as they were leaving economic decline following the revolutions and disruption of societies as nations gained independence from Spain in the 1810s-1820s. Third, the Spanish Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 attracted numerous European immigrants to Puerto Rico, it encouraged any citizen of a country politically friendly to Spain to settle in Puerto Rico as long as they converted to the Catholic faith and agreed to work in the agricultural business. With such mass migrations, not only the size of the town was changed, but the character of its population was changed as well. Europeans, including many Protestants, immigrated from a variety of nations. On 29 July 1848, as a result of this explosive growth, the Ponce haml
Pau Casals i Defilló known in English as Pablo Casals, was a cellist and conductor from Catalonia, Spain. He is regarded as the pre-eminent cellist of the first half of the 20th century, one of the greatest cellists of all time, he made many recordings throughout his career, of solo and orchestral music as conductor, but he is best remembered for the recordings of the Bach Cello Suites he made from 1936 to 1939. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy. Casals was born in El Vendrell, Spain, his father, Carles Casals i Ribes, was choirmaster. He gave Casals instruction in piano, songwriting and organ, he was a strict disciplinarian. When Casals was young his father would pull the piano out from the wall and have him and his brother, stand behind it and name the notes and the scales that his father was playing. At the age of four Casals could play the violin and flute, his first encounter with a cello-like instrument was from witnessing a local travelling Catalan musician, who played a cello-strung broom handle.
Upon request, his father built using a gourd as a sound-box. When Casals was eleven, he first heard the real cello performed by a group of traveling musicians, decided to dedicate himself to the instrument. In 1888 his mother, Pilar Defilló de Casals, born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico of Catalan ancestry, took him to Barcelona, where he enrolled in the Escola Municipal de Música. There he studied cello and piano. In 1890, when he was 13, he found in a second-hand sheet music store in Barcelona a tattered copy of Bach's six cello suites, he spent the next 13 years practicing them every day before he would perform them in public for the first time. Casals would make his own version of the six suites, he made prodigious progress as a cellist. He graduated from the Escola with honours five years later. In 1893, Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz heard him playing in a trio in a café and gave him a letter of introduction to the Count Guillermo Morphy, the private secretary to María Cristina, the Queen Regent of Spain.
Casals was asked to play at informal concerts in the palace, was granted a royal stipend to study composition at the Madrid Royal Conservatory in Madrid with Víctor Mirecki. He played in the newly organised Quartet Society. In 1895 he went to Paris, having lost his stipend, he earned a living by playing second cello in the theatre orchestra of the Folies Marigny. In 1896, he returned to Spain and received an appointment to the faculty of the Escola Municipal de Música in Barcelona, he was appointed principal cellist in the orchestra of Barcelona's opera house, the Liceu. In 1897 he appeared as soloist with the Madrid Symphony Orchestra, was awarded the Order of Carlos III from the Queen. In 1899, Casals played at The Crystal Palace in London, for Queen Victoria at Osborne House, her summer residence, accompanied by Ernest Walker. On 12 November, 17 December 1899, he appeared as a soloist at Lamoureux Concerts in Paris, to great public and critical acclaim, he toured Spain and the Netherlands with the pianist Harold Bauer from 1900 to 1901.
On 15 January 1904, Casals was invited to play at the White House for President Theodore Roosevelt. On 9 March, of that year he made his debut at Carnegie Hall in New York, playing Richard Strauss's Don Quixote under the baton of the composer. In 1906 he became associated with the talented young Portuguese cellist Guilhermina Suggia, who studied with him and began to appear in concerts as Mme. P. Casals-Suggia, although they were not married, their relationship ended in 1912. The New York Times of 9 April 1911, announced that Casals would perform at the London Musical Festival to be held at the Queen's Hall on the second day of the Festival; the piece chosen was Haydn's Cello Concerto in D and Casals would join Fritz Kreisler for Brahms's Double Concerto for Violin and Cello. In 1914, Casals married singer Susan Metcalfe. Although Casals made his first recordings in 1915, he would not release another recording until 1926. Back in Paris, Casals organized a trio with the pianist Alfred Cortot and the violinist Jacques Thibaud.
Casals became interested in conducting, in 1919 he organized, in Barcelona, the Pau Casals Orchestra and led its first concert on 13 October 1920. With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, the Orquesta Pau Casals ceased its activities. Casals was an ardent supporter of the Spanish Republican government, after its defeat vowed not to return to Spain until democracy was restored. Casals performed at the Gran Teatre del Liceu on 19 October 1938 his last performance in Spain during his exile. In the last weeks of 1936 he stayed in Prades, a small village in France near the Spanish border, where Casals would settle in 1939, in Pyrénées-Orientales, a Catalan region. Between 1939 and 1942 he made sporadic appearances as a cellist in the unoccupied zone of southern France and in Switzerland, he was mocked by the Francoist press, which wrote articles despising him as "a donkey", was fined for his political views with an amount of a million pes