click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport

Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport is a joint civil-military international airport named for Puerto Rico's first democratically elected governor and located in suburban Carolina, Puerto Rico, three miles southeast of San Juan. It is the busiest airport in the Caribbean region by passenger traffic. Over 4 million passengers board a plane at the airport per year according to the Federal Aviation Administration; the airport is owned by the Puerto Rico Ports Authority and managed by Aerostar Airport Holdings, a public–private partnership, awarded a lease by the government of Puerto Rico to operate and manage the airport for 40 years beginning in 2013. SJU is the second international airport to be privatized in the United States or its territories, and, as of 2013, is the only privatized airport in the nation. Taxis and rental cars can transport travelers to and from the airport; the airport serves as a gateway to the Caribbean islands. SJU covers 1,600 acres of land. In 1945, aware of the importance of aviation for the development of the economy of Puerto Rico, the island government had pointed out the need to build a newer international airport capable of handling the growing air traffic of San Juan International Airport, in Isla Grande, operating since 1929.

Until Isla Grande had been the main airport of Puerto Rico. As airlines began switching from propeller aircraft to jets, the 4,000-foot Isla Grande airstrip did not have the necessary distance for modern aircraft to land and take off. On the other hand, the government had decided that it should direct the air operations, relying these powers in the Puerto Rico Transportation Authority, created in 1942, which became the Ports Authority; the Committee of Airports of the Planning Board began to study the feasibility of the new airport, submitting in 1944 its plans and studies to the Federal Civil Aeronautics Administration, to determine the most appropriate place. In 1945, it was determined that the place would be Isla Verde, to make the airport a metropolitan facility. Construction was approved by the Puerto Rico Planning Board in 1946, the project began in 1947. During that same year, the Port Authority of Puerto Rico assumed title to and ownership of the Isla Grande Airport and other regional airports, military installations during World War II.

The design of the new airport was carried out by the firm of Toro-Ferrer, founded by the architects Miguel Ferrer, architect Osvaldo Toro, which were known for their designs of the Caribe Hilton Hotel and the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico. During 1949, the first phase of construction of the Isla Verde Airport was completed: cleaning, filling and drainage of soils; the second phase began: paving the runway and platforms. The certified airlines operating in Puerto Rico in 1950 were Pan American World Airways, Eastern Air Lines, Riddle Aviation Co. Caribbean Atlantic Airlines, British Airways, Dominican Airlines and Flying Tigers Airline; the latter contracted the movement of migrant workers to the United States, with the Insular Department of Labor, transferring some 5,706 workers to different points of that nation, at a cost of $55 per passage. On May 22, 1955, the Puerto Rico International Airport was inaugurated, built on a 1,718.72 acre land lot. The facilities, estimated at a cost of $22 million, had a six-story passenger terminal, control tower, 7,800-foot-long runway, cargo building and police stations, a hotel.

Hundreds of people, enthusiastic about the new aerial installation, witnessed the inaugural events presided over by Luis Muñoz Marín. In a part of his eloquent speech, the Governor said: "Impressive is this work in its structure and in its many facilities, but not as impressive as the fact that this center of communications symbolizes the great technical processes that are transforming civilization"; the first year of operations of the new airport produced an upward movement of passengers to 694,199 and a total of 28 million pounds of cargo was handled. By 1959, major airlines had introduced jets, which reduced flight time and increased flight cruising safety. At the start of operations, the airport had only one runway, the old control tower on top of the Hotel, 3 terminals and a parking lot for 200 cars. During the beginning of the 60s, several expansion and improvement projects began, starting with the runway extending from 7,800 to 10,000 feet in length. Construction of the second runway on the south side began in May 1967.

The project was completed in 1974 at an approximate cost of $4.2 million. With the introduction of the 747 aircraft, runway 8–26 was reinforced and widened in 1974, ten years it was repaved. On January 17, 1983, the two-leveled vehicular access system was built at a cost of $9.2 million. This access separates the arrivals and departures of passengers at different levels, to eliminate traffic congestion. On February 18, 1985, the Governor of Puerto Rico, Rafael Hernández Colón, converted to law the project to Senate Number 1 designating the international airport under the name of Luis Muñoz Marín, in honor of the first governor of Puerto Rico elected by the people; the airport served as a hub for Pan Am, Trans Caribbean Airways, Eastern Air Lines, for a short period a focus

Artemy Volynsky

Artemy Petrovich Volynsky was a Russian statesman and diplomat. His career started as a soldier but was upgraded to ambassador to Safavid Iran, as Governor of Astrakhan during the reign of Peter the Great, he was accused of corruption and stripped of nearly all his powers, before Catherine I of Russia sent him to govern the vast Governorate of Kazan. Anna of Russia appointed Volynsky one of her three chief ministers in 1738. After beating the noted poet Vasily Trediakovsky, Volynsky was arrested on charges of conspiracy and misconduct. Volynsky's archenemy Ernst Johann von Biron had him sentenced to death and beheaded on June 27, 1740. Artemy Volynsky was a male-line descendant of Prince Bobrok, his father was one of the dignitaries at the court of Feodor III, a voivod in Kazan. He entered a dragoon regiment in 1704 and rose to the rank of captain, by 1711, he was present during the Pruth Campaign and shared Shafirov's captivity in the Seven Towers in Constantinople. In 1715, by orders of Peter the Great he was sent to Persia as the new Russian ambassador.

During his travelling he was supposed to redirect the silk trade route in Persia to Russia with the Armenians' help. During his stay in Isfahan, Volynsky signed a treaty with the Shah Husayn giving commercial advantages over a country torn by revolts. In 1718 Peter made him one of his six adjutant generals, governor of Astrakhan. In this post Volynsky displayed distinguished financial talents. In 1722 he married Peter's cousin; the same year he was accused of peculation and other offences to the emperor, who caned him and deprived him of his plenipotentiary powers, despite his undeniable services in Persia, but for which Peter could never have emerged so triumphantly from the difficult Persian war of 1722-1723. Catherine I made Volynsky governor of the Kazan Governate for a short time, he held the same post for two years under Peter II, but his incurable corruption and unbridled temper so discredited the government that he was deprived of the post shortly after the accession of Anne. From 1730 to 1736 Volynsky served in the army under Munnich.

In 1737 he was appointed the second Russian plenipotentiary at the abortive congress of Nemirov held for the conclusion of peace with the Porte. In 1738 he was introduced into the Russian cabinet by Biron as a counterpoise against Andrei Osterman. Volynsky, now thought himself strong enough to attempt to supersede Biron himself, opposed the favorite in the State Council in the debates as to the indemnity due to Poland for the violations of her territory during the War of the Polish Succession, Biron advising that a liberal indemnity should be given, whereas Volynsky objected to any indemnity at all. Biron thereupon forced Anne to order an inquiry into Volynsky's past career, with the result that he was tried before a tribunal of Biron's men; the charges faced were that he, as a minister, Andrey Khrushchyov, as an assistant minister, tried to dethrone Empress Anne for Peter the Great's daughter, Elizabeth. He was arrested on June 23, 1740 and thus condemned to be broken on the wheel and beheaded.

On the scaffold, by the clemency of the empress, his punishment was mitigated to the severing of his right hand followed by decapitation on June 27, 1740. The sentence was executed 31 years after the Battle of Poltava. Volynsky had by his side architect Pyotr Andrey Khrushchyov. A tombstone in their honour was erected in 1741 by order of Elizabeth of Russia over their burial place beside St. Sampson Cathedral; that was the only thing, visible over their grave until 1885 when a monument was placed as they were seen as national heroes because they opposed German ideas, as represented by Biron. This point of view would have been quite amazing to their contemporaries and reflects more the concerns of the next century than of Biron's and Volynsky's time; the charge of conspiracy appears to have been untrue. Volynsky was tortured twice but under torture he refused to admit to conspiracy, while admitting the ancillary charge of taking bribes. Volynsky's draft of a General Project of Internal Affairs of the State contained many suggestions for reforms of administration but avoided altogether the subject of imperial succession and prerogatives

Golemiya Kazan

Golemiya Kazan is one of the two cirques that form an area called Kazanite, situated in Bulgaria's Pirin mountain range. Kazanite are located below the two highest summits Vihren to Kutelo to the north, it is composed of two cirques, Malkiya Kazan, the lower one and is grassy, Golemiya Kazan, situated at 2,400 m and with stony slopes. The size of Golemiya Kazan is 1,200 m by 1,100 m, they were named like that because there is fog rising from the cirques. Due to the karst in the region there are no lakes or streams in Kazanite. A 450 m-high face of Vihren begins from Golemiya Kazan and at its foot a small glacier called Snezhnika is located, whose size is 80x90 m in summer, with a latitude of 41°46′09″ N it is the southernmost glacial mass in Europe. Chamois are abundant in this area. Мичев, Николай. Географски речник на България. София: Наука и култура. Душков, Добри. Пирин. Туристически речник. София: Наука и култура

Franz Jáchym

Franz Jáchym was an Austrian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Coadjutor Bishop of Vienna from 1950–83, as Titular Archbishop of Maronea. He graduated from the University of Vienna. After ordination, his served in a parish and the diocesan chancery before being appointed coadjutor bishop in 1950. Consecrated in May 1950 by Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, he served in that office until his retirement in 1983. Jáchym was born on 3 September 1910 in Austria-Hungary. Orphaned at age eight, in 1925 he entered the Knabenseminar Hollabrunn, a minor seminary in Vienna, he passed the matriculation examination on 20 June 1931, entered the Seminary of Vienna, studied theology at the University of Vienna. In the late 1930s he returned to the University of Vienna to study moral theology, earning his Doctor of Divinity on 3 December 1941. Jáchym was ordained a priest on 19 July 1936. Three months after ordination, he was sent to Purkersdorf, where he served as parochial vicar of the parish there until returning to work in the chancery of the Archdiocese of Vienna soon after.

On 7 October 1938, he participated in the Rosary demonstration, a demonstration in which 6,000 Catholics came together for a rosary devotion in protest of the Nazi occupation of Austria. The next day, Nazi soldiers stormed and vandalized the Episcopal Palace in Vienna, Jachym was injured in the violence that ensued. On 10 May 1947, Jáchym earned habilitation, in 1949 he was appointed professor of Catholic moral theology at the University of Vienna. On 20 January 1950, Jáchym was appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Vienna and Titular Archbishop of Vienna, he arrived at St. Stephen's Cathedral for what was supposed to be his episcopal consecration on 23 April 1950. However, before the ceremony could take place, he stood up and addressed the congregation, saying that he did not "feel worthy of such an honor", before leaving the cathedral, where a car was waiting for him, returning to his apartment. Canons of the cathedral recalled that the purple robe, the biretta, shoes he was wearing were not his, but were borrowed from the cathedral sacristy.

Jáchym declined to become a bishop, but Pope Pius XII refused to accept his decision. His consecration was rescheduled to 19 May 1950, took place in Rome and the church of Santa Maria dell'Anima. Archbishop of Vienna Cardinal Theodor Innitzer was principal consecrator, with bishops Michael Keller and Alois Hudal serving as co-consecrators. While there are varying accounts as to why Jáchym chose to reject his episcopal consecration in the first place, he did remain loyal to his office and to the archbishop, both Innitzer and his successor, Cardinal Franz König; as coadjutor bishop, he led the building department of the Archdiocese of Vienna, building new churches and commissioning artwork. From 1952-56, he served as Chairman of the Austrian Bishops' Conference. In 1956, he took over leadership of the archdiocesan offices. From 1963-65, he took part in the Second Vatican Council. From 1 September 1969 to 31 December 1980, he was vicar general of the archdiocese, succeeding Jakob Weinbach. On 30 September 1972, he became dean of St. Stephen's Cathedral and Chancellor of the Faculty of Catholic Theology at the University of Vienna.

On 15 September 1983, he resigned from his positions, aged 73. After retiring, Jáchym retired to an apartment in Vienna, one that would be lived in by Cardinal König in his old age, he died on 29 November 1984 of heart failure in an open-air market in Vienna, aged 74. He was buried in a tomb in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. In 1992, the Franz-Jáchym-Platz in Vienna was named for him and a monument erected in his honor. Cardinal Scipione Rebiba Cardinal Giulio Antonio Santorio Cardinal Girolamo Bernerio, OP Archbishop Galeazzo Sanvitale Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi Cardinal Luigi Caetani Cardinal Ulderico Carpegna Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni Pope Benedict XIII Pope Benedict XIV Pope Clement XIII Cardinal Bernardino Giraud Cardinal Alessandro Mattei Cardinal Pietro Francesco Galleffi Cardinal Giacomo Filippo Fransoni Cardinal Carlo Sacconi Cardinal Edward Henry Howard Cardinal Mariano Rampolla Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val Archbishop Enrico Sibilia Cardinal Theodor Innitzer Archbishop Franz Jáchym Catholic Church in Austria

Jennifer Williams

Jennifer Williams is an American United States Department of State official who has served as a special advisor to U. S. vice president Mike Pence on European and Russian affairs. Williams testified under subpoena, in the impeachment hearings of Donald J. Trump, in closed-door hearings before the House intelligence and Foreign Affairs committees on November 9, 2019, she gave public testimony to the House of Representatives ten days later. Williams grew up in Texas, she attended Memorial High School in the Spring Branch ISD, serving as class vice-president and graduating in 2001. Williams earned a bachelor's degree in international security studies from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and a master's degree in public policy from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. Williams began her government career in the United States Department of Homeland Security in 2005, shortly after graduating from Georgetown, she served as a political appointee of Secretary Michael Chertoff, the second United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving under President George W. Bush.

She joined the United States Department of State in 2006, where she has served for more than thirteen years. She was focused on Middle East policy, served overseas in Beirut and Kingston, Jamaica, she managed the U. S. government's humanitarian assistance program for Syrian refugees from 2011 to 2014, served as Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs at the State Department headquarters in Washington, D. C. Williams served in London as the Press Officer for the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom for three years. Williams has served as Mike Pence's aide on European and Russian affairs since April 2019. Williams accompanied Pence when he traveled to Poland in September 2019 with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky regarding the $400 million in military aid put on hold by the White House. Williams became the first witness from Pence's staff to give testimony in the impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump, she was expected to answer inquiries regarding Pence's communications with Rudy Giuliani and Ukrainian leaders.

Williams was one of a few officials on Trump's July 25, 2019 call with Ukraine President Zelensky in which Trump asked the Ukrainian leader to open an investigation into one of Trump's domestic political opponents. She indicated that she overheard the July 25, 2019 call, that the Trump administration wanted better knowledge about the controversy surrounding Burisma, she stated that she expressed concern over the phone conversation, which she described as "unusual." However, Williams' supervisor Lt. Gen. Keith Kellogg, said Williams "never reported any personal or professional concerns to him regarding the call... In fact, she never reported any personal or professional concerns to any other member of the Vice President’s staff, including our Chief of Staff and the Vice President". Williams testified that when Zelensky was elected, Pence agreed to attend the inauguration if his schedule permitted, but that plan was cancelled when on May 13, Williams was informed that President Trump had decided that Pence would not represent the U.

S. at the inauguration in Ukraine after all. Williams gave testimony about phone conversations between Pence and Zelensky, including one on September 18, noting that Pence told the Ukrainian President, "President Trump would be eager to hear about President Zelensky's progress in his reform agenda."Williams has been recognized as one of the "powerful, professional women on both sides of the dais who have emerged as major figures in the impeachment investigation into President Donald Trump," and one of the witnesses who have "held their own" in the face of partisan attacks. Before her public testimony, without evidence, accused her of being a "Never Trumper," as he has with other witnesses. Williams, who started her government career in the Bush administration and called former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice “a personal hero of mine,” denied being a “Never Trumper.”On December 6, 2019, House Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam Schiff requested in a letter to Pence that he declassify more material related to Williams' testimony in the House impeachment investigation.

Pence had announced that he was willing to release transcripts and documents related to his September 18, 2019 phone call with Ukrainian President Zelensky. Williams testified about the call but at a hearing announced that details about the phone conversation had been classified. Media related to Jennifer Williams at Wikimedia Commons

Nedda Harrigan

Nedda Harrigan was an American actress. Her name was sometimes seen as Hedda Harrigan. Harrigan was the youngest of 10 children of entertainer Edward Harrigan and his wife, Annie Braham Harrigan, her grandfather was conductor David Braham, one of her brothers was actor William Harrigan As a child, she sometimes appeared on stage with her father. Her first experiences in acting came at the National Park Seminary in Washington, D. C. In 1918, Harrigan was the leading lady in a production of Common Cause in San Francisco, she acted in stock theater companies, including the Woodward Players at the Majestic Theater in Detroit. Decades Harrigan reflected on the education that she gained from working in stock theater. "There were no schools then," she said. "But you see, there were a lot of stock companies. You learned an awful lot in stock. I played stock every year and learned by just doing."In 1984, Harrigan was production consultant for Harrigan and Hart, a stage show about the entertainment team formed by her father and Tony Hart.

In 1985, she performed with her husband, Joshua Logan, in An Evening with Joshua Logan, a show that reviewed his career as a director. In 1934, Harrigan left New York's stages and went to Hollywood to act in the Columbia Pictures film I'll Fix It, she returned to Hollywood to make The Case of the Caretaker's Cat. Her other films included Thank Mr. Moto and Devil's Island. During World War II, Harrigan was a leading force in establishing the Stage Door Canteen, which produced plays for servicemen, she led tours of plays to Europe to entertain troops. Harrigan served as president of the Actors Fund, was a founder of the Actors Fund Bloodbank and a trustee of the Museum of the City of New York. Harrigan's long-term service to the United Service Organizations led to her being awarded the USO's Woman of the Year award in the 1980s. In 1921, Harrigan married actor Walter Connolly, she married Joshua Logan, a director and writer. On April 1, 1989, Harrigan died of cancer at her home in Manhattan at age 89.

The Actors Fund of America created the Nedda Harrigan Logan Award to honor Harrigan. Nedda Harrigan at the Internet Broadway Database