Carlos Enrique José Pellegrini was Vice President of Argentina and became President of Argentina from 6 August 1890 to 12 October 1892, upon Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman's resignation. His administration he cleaned up the finances and created the Banco de la Nación Argentina, Argentina's national bank, the prestigious high-school that carries his name, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, public school of noted academic level, part of Universidad de Buenos Aires. After the end of his term, he served as senator between 1895 and 1903, in 1906, he was elected national representative in the lower house. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason, he is buried in La Recoleta Cemetery. Carlos Pellegrini at Find a Grave
Juan Esteban Pedernera
Juan Esteban Pedernera was interim President of Argentina during a brief period in 1861. Born in 1796 in San Luis Province, he studied in a Franciscan monastery when young, left his studies to join the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers being summoned by José de San Martín to fight in the War of Independence against Spanish rule. In 1815, he fought in Chile, he was imprisoned by the Spanish during the former campaign in Chiloé Island, but managed to escape and rejoin his army. Lieutenant-general Juan Esteban Pedernera married the former Rosa Juana Heredia in Callao on September 23, 1823. In 1826 engaged again in military activity, this time in the Cisplatine War. In the Argentine Civil War, he joined the Unitarian side, under the command of General José María Paz, fought in La Tablada against federalist forces. After a long time in exile, he returned to the country after the fall of the Rosas' regime, acted as Senator for San Luis Province. In 1856, he was designated commander of the frontier armed forces, in 1859 he was elected Governor of San Luis, fought at the Battle of Cepeda that same year.
He was elected Vice-President to President of the Argentine Confederation Santiago Derqui, served from 1860 until 1861, when Derqui resigned after the Battle of Pavón. Pedernera acted as President until the political situation forced the dissolution of the office. In 1882 he was designated Lieutenant General of the Armies of the Republic. Argentine War of Independence Argentine Confederation Battle of Caseros
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution; the territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay and Bolivia were part of the viceroyalty, began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards; the vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru. Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions. In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe known as peninsulares, without strong compromises for American problems or interests; this created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, white people born in Latin America, the peninsulares, Spanish people who arrived from Europe. Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters; the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos. The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.
The population of Buenos Aires was militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves. A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, forced to leave the viceroyalty; the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was deposed by the criollos during the conflict, the Regiment of Patricians became a influential force in local politics after the end of the British threat. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern, it was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France; when the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.
Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him; the military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Junta of Seville was disestablished, several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta; this began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon. Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government.
The military gave their support to the request. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, the Junta was forced to resign immediately, it was replaced by the Primera Junta. Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies; the precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it.
He thought that the revolution could be contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack. Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty
Roque Sáenz Peña
Roque Sáenz Peña Lahitte was the sixteenth President of Argentina, serving from October 12, 1910 to his death in office on August 9, 1914. He was the son of former President Luis Sáenz Peña, he was responsible for passing Law 8871, known as "Sáenz Peña Law", which reformed the Argentine electoral system, making the vote secret and compulsory for males over 18. This ended the rule by electoral fraud of the conservative Argentine oligarchy, paved the way for the rise of the Radical Civic Union in the first free elections of the country. President Roque Sáenz Peña Avenue in Buenos Aires is named after him, he served in the War of the Pacific as a lieutenant colonel of the Peruvian Army, was made prisoner by Chile for six months following the Battle of Arica. He served as Ambassador to Spain and Italy. Roque Sáenz Peña was born on March 1851 in Buenos Aires to an aristocratic family, his father was Luis Sáenz Peña, the president of Argentina between 1892 and 1895. Sáenz Peña inherited the opponents of his father, forced to resign, traveled throughout Europe before he entered politics.
He studied law during the unsuccessful 1874 revolution started by the Liberal party lead by Bartolomé Mitre, in which Sáenz Peña did not participate. After earning his law degree in 1875 and joining the National Autonomist Party, he joined the militia and was under the orders of General Luis María Campos until 1877. In 1876 he was elected to the Buenos Aires Legislature as a member of the Autonomist Party; the War of the Pacific pitted Chile against Peru. Argentina secretly joined the alliance; the dispute was over territory on the Pacific coast that had never been resolved control of a part of the Atacama Desert. The area contained high amounts of sodium nitrate, a valuable mineral resource. During the war, Sáenz Peña left Argentina to fight with the Peruvians, his main motivation was not patriotic or to show solidarity, but rather to escape Buenos Aires due to an unrequited love affair. After his superior officers had been killed in the Battle of Arica he assumed their roles and commanded a weak Peruvian division.
Sáenz Peña was captured after the Peruvian’s defeat at the battled and imprisoned by the Chileans. When Sáenz Peña returned to Buenos Aires he was appointed sub-secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Relations under Minister of Foreign Relations Bernardo de Irigoyen in 1880, he soon left politics only to return in 1887. He represented Argentina at the 1888 Montevideo Congress. Sáenz Peña held firm to his legal and political doctrines and definitively stated that Argentine was immune to any action taken by the assembly. Along with Manuel Quintana, Sáenz Peña represented Argentina in the first Pan American Conference in 1889; the two delegates made a 40-day journey to New York and a four-day trip to Washington for the meeting, taking placed in the State Department building. The Argentine delegation boycotted the opening meeting over, as they saw it, a violation of diplomatic custom. Custom requires a delegate from an invited country to preside over the conference, but the U. S. Secretary of State was elected to be the permanent chair of the conference.
The delegates attended the second session. Throughout the conference Sáenz Peña advocated against an American free trade area; the United States and twelve nations voted for a “recommendation to work for inter-American reciprocity treaties.” Only Argentina and Bolivia voted against it. During Sáenz Peña’s tenure as foreign minister he traveled the world and argued for policies that benefited Argentina, he performed traditional ceremonial duties, like in 1906 when he attended the wedding of Spanish king Alfonso XIII. He worked with the Italian government to increase trade while providing them with official cables from Argentina telling of the economic developments within the country, he distributed these cables to businessmen as well. Before his presidency, Sáenz Peña made Europeans aware of Argentina's significance internationally. On October 1, 1910, Roque Sáenz Peña assumed the presidency of Argentina. In his first inaugural address he declared: “My international policy if known to you, it will be friendship for Europe and fraternity for America.”
He came into power like his father. Sáenz Peña was elected while tensions were high in 1910 while promising electoral reform to curb the power of the oligarchy and to prevent a revolution. Electoral reform was debated in Congress in 1911 and implemented in 1912 as La ley 8.871, now known as the Sáenz Peña Law. The president said, "I have told my country my thought, my convictions, my hopes. Let my country listen to the words and advice of its head of state, may it vote." The law established compulsory and universal male suffrage for those who are over eighteen years of age. There was no discussion of; the law required voting in order to increase civic engagement, in order to stop corruption the Army was deployed during elections. One third of the vote turned out before the passage of the legislation compared to 70 to 80 percent of it afterwards. Political corruption was curbed; the core purpose of the law was to create a new large conservative voting bloc and force oligarchs to adapt to changing times.
After the law was implemented, the newly formed opposition to the oligarchs won positions after the elections of 1912 and 1914, but Hipolito Yrigoyen’s and his Radical Party’s presidential victory in 1916 was the greatest blow to the
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. This Spanish colony included the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and parts of Brazil; the result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta, on May 25. It was the first successful revolution in the South American Independence process; the May Revolution was a direct reaction to Spain's Peninsular War. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. A Supreme Central Junta led resistance to Joseph's government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reversals that resulted in the Spanish loss of the northern half of the country. On February 1, 1810, French troops gained control of most of Andalusia; the Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it.
News of these events arrived in Buenos Aires on May 18, brought by British ships. Viceroy Cisneros tried to maintain the political status quo, but a group of criollo lawyers and military officials organized an open cabildo on May 22 to decide the future of the Viceroyalty. Delegates denied recognition to the Council of Regency in Spain and established a junta to govern in place of Cisneros, since the government that had appointed him Viceroy no longer existed. To maintain a sense of continuity, Cisneros was appointed president of the Junta. However, this caused much popular unrest, so he resigned under pressure on May 25; the newly formed government, the Primera Junta, included only representatives from Buenos Aires and invited other cities of the Viceroyalty to send delegates to join them. This resulted in the outbreak of war between the regions that accepted the outcome of the events at Buenos Aires and those that did not; the May Revolution began the Argentine War of Independence, although no formal declaration of independence was issued at the time and the Primera Junta continued to govern in the name of the deposed king, Ferdinand VII.
As similar events occurred in many other cities of the continent, the May Revolution is considered one of the early events of the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians today debate whether the revolutionaries were loyal to the Spanish crown or whether the declaration of fidelity to the king was a necessary ruse to conceal the true objective—to achieve independence—from a population, not yet ready to accept such a radical change. A formal declaration of independence was issued at the Congress of Tucumán on July 9, 1816; the United States' declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1776 led criollos to believe that revolution and independence from Spain were feasible. Between 1775 and 1783, the American patriots of the Thirteen Colonies waged the American Revolutionary War against both the local loyalists and the Kingdom of Great Britain establishing a popular government in the place of the British monarchy; the fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state.
The ideals of the French Revolution of 1789 spread across Europe and the Americas as well. The overthrow and execution of King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette ended centuries of monarchy and removed the privileges of the nobility. Liberal ideals in the political and economic fields developed and spread through the Atlantic Revolutions across most of the Western world; the concept of the divine right of kings was questioned by the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, by the oft-quoted statement that "all men are created equal" in the United States Declaration of Independence and by the Spanish church. However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. Spain instituted those bans when it declared war on France after the execution of Louis XVI and retained them after the peace treaty of 1796. News of the events of 1789 and copies of the publications of the French Revolution spread around Spain despite efforts to keep them at bay.
Many enlightened criollos came into contact with liberal authors and their works during their university studies, either in Europe or at the University of Chuquisaca. Books from the United States found their way into the Spanish colonies through Caracas, owing to the proximity of Venezuela to the United States and the West Indies; the Industrial Revolution started in Britain, with the use of plateways and steam power. This led to dramatic increases in the productive capabilities of Britain, created a need for new markets to sell its products; the Napoleonic Wars with France made this a difficult task, after Napoleon imposed the Continental System, which forbade his allies and conquests to trade with Britain. Thus Britain needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because the colonies were restricted to trade only with their parent state. To achieve their economic objectives, Britain tried to invade Rio de la Plata and conquer key cities in Spanish America; when that failed, they chose to promote the Spanish-American aspirations of emancipation from Spain.
The mutiny of Aranjuez in 1808 led King Charles IV of Spain to abdicate in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Charles IV requested.
Ignacio Álvarez Thomas
José Ignacio Álvarez Thomas was a South American military commander and politician of the early 19th century. Álvarez Thomas was born in Arequipa and his family lived for some time in Lima. When his father, in Spanish service, was called back to Madrid in 1797, they travelled via Buenos Aires; the family stayed there while his father continued the voyage alone, Álvarez joined the army in 1799. Subsequently, he got involved in the independence war in Argentina. In the war against the British in 1806/07, he was wounded and captured, released only after the withdrawal of the British troops. Under Carlos María de Alvear, he fought as a Colonel at Montevideo. However, soon after he opposed the politics of de Alvear's government, his insurrection caused the resignation of the latter and resulted in a new election of a Supreme Director in the Constituting General Assembly, where he was designated interim Supreme Director from April 20, 1815 to April 16, 1816 in place of the elected José Rondeau, absent on a military campaign in Peru.
Álvarez was sworn in on May 6 but had to resign a year after some military failures. When the Constituting General Assembly was dissolved in 1820, he was, as a still-influential member of the former leadership, sent to prison, but released after 19 days. Subsequently, his political influence was diminished. In 1825, he was named ambassador in Peru, in October named ambassador to Chile. After his return to Buenos Aires, he was exiled and spent some time in prison for his opposition against the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he emigrated to Rio de Janeiro, from where he tried to mount an insurrection against Rosas in 1840. In 1846, he fled first the Chile and Peru, before returning to Buenos Aires after the fall of Rosas government in 1852, he died of tuberculosis on July 20, 1857 in Buenos Aires in Argentina at the age of 70. Ignacio Álvarez Thomas at Find a Grave