Delano is a city in Kern County, United States. Delano is located 31 miles north-northwest of Bakersfield at an elevation of 315 feet; the population was 52,088 in 2016, up from 38,824 in 2000. It is Kern County's second largest city after Bakersfield. Agriculture is Delano's major industry; the area is well known as a center for the growing of table grapes. Delano is home to two California state prisons, North Kern State Prison and Kern Valley State Prison; the Voice of America once operated its largest, most powerful shortwave broadcast facility outside Delano at 35°45′15″N 119°17′7″W. However, the Voice of America ceased broadcasts in October 2007, citing a changing political mission, reduced budgets, changes in technology. Delano's two school districts operate eight elementary schools, three middle schools, three comprehensive high schools and two alternative high schools; the city has its own police department and contracts with the Kern County Fire Department for fire services, EMS services are provided by local company, Delano Ambulance Service.
Delano was founded on July 14, 1869, as a railroad town, not because the railroad passed through the town but because the railroad coming down from San Francisco and parts north terminated at Delano. The name was given by the Southern Pacific Railroad in honor of Columbus Delano, at the time the Secretary of the Interior for the United States; the first post office opened in 1874. Delano incorporated in 1913; the town started with a boom. With Delano as the terminus of the railroad to the south, it became the headquarters for hundreds of workmen who were building the railroad into town, who built the railroad into Bakersfield the following year. Meanwhile, the merchandise, trucked south from Visalia to Bakersfield and to Walker Pass, or Tejon Pass, en route to Los Angeles, now coming via freight from the south and west, was trucked in by ox or mule team. Great loads of bullion were delivered here from the mines in the mountains. Delano became the northern terminus for the passenger stages that ran south to Bakersfield and Los Angeles.
The fare from Bakersfield to Delano was $7.00 a trip. Delano was a major hub of farm worker organization efforts and Chicano political movements. Filipino immigrants Philip Vera Cruz and Larry Dulay Itliong were instrumental in shaping the direction of farm worker movement in the 1950s. On September 8, 1965, Larry Itliong and other Filipino leaders led the predominantly Filipino Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee in a "walk off" from table grape farms, now known as the Delano grape strike; the strikers' goal was to improve working conditions. The National Farm Workers' Association, a Hispanic union led by Cesar Chavez, joined the strike within a week. During the strike, the two groups formed the United Farm Workers of America. By 1970, the UFW won a contract with major grape growers across California. Major farm employers in Delano include Wonderful Citrus, Columbine Vineyards, Munger Farms, Lucich Farms, Hronis. Other major employers include Delano Regional Medical Center, The Home Depot, Kmart, Vallarta Supermarkets, Delano Joint Union High School District, Delano Union Elementary School District, the North Kern-South Tulare Hospital District.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.4 square miles. Delano's climate is typical of the San Joaquin Valley, it is located within a desert climatic zone with Mediterranean features. The city receives 7.51 in of rainfall annually in the winter. The weather is cool and damp in winter. Frequent winter ground fog known regionally as tule fog can obscure vision. Record temperatures range between 115 °F and 14 °F; the 2010 United States Census reported that Delano had a population of 53,041. The population density was 3,694.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Delano was 19,304 White, 4,191 African American, 501 Native American, 6,757 Asian, 30 Pacific Islander, 20,307 from other races, 1,951 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37,913 persons; the Census reported that 42,144 people lived in households, 178 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 10,719 were institutionalized. There were 10,260 households, out of which 6,535 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,968 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,089 had a female householder with no husband present, 894 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 833 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 61 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 990 households were made up of individuals and 424 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.11. There were 8,951 families; the population was spread out with 15,089 people under the age of 18, 7,813 people aged 18 to 24, 17,248 people aged 25 to 44, 9,644 people aged 45 to 64, 3,247 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 149.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 172.3 males. There were 10,713 housing units at an average density of 746.3 per square mile, of which 5,764 were owner-occupied, 4,496 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy r
San Jose State University
San José State University is a public comprehensive university located in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley. SJSU is the oldest public university on the West Coast, as well as the founding campus of the California State University system. Located in downtown San Jose, the SJSU main campus is situated on 64 acres, or 19 square blocks. SJSU offers 145 bachelor's and master's degrees with 108 concentrations and five credential programs with 19 concentrations; the university offers two joint doctoral degree programs and one independent doctoral program as of 2018. SJSU is accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. SJSU's total enrollment was 32,828 in fall 2018, including over 5,500 graduate and credential students; as of fall 2018, graduate student enrollment at SJSU was the highest of any campus in the CSU system. SJSU's student population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the nation, with large Asian and Hispanic enrollments, as well as the highest foreign student enrollment of all master's institutions in the United States.
SJSU is listed as one of the leading suppliers of undergraduate and graduate alumni to Silicon Valley technology firms, philanthropic support of SJSU is among the highest in the CSU system. SJSU sports teams are known as the Spartans, compete in the NCAA Division I FBS Mountain West Conference. What is now San José State University was established in 1857 as the Minns Evening Normal School in San Francisco, founded by George W. Minns. In 1862, by act of the California legislature, Minns Evening Normal School became the California State Normal School and graduated 54 women from a three-year program; the school moved to San Jose in 1871, was given Washington Square Park at Fourth and San Carlos Streets, where the campus remains to this day. In 1881, a large bell was forged to commemorate the school; the bell was inscribed with the words "California State Normal School, A. D. 1881," and would sound on special occasions until 1946. The original bell appears on the SJSU campus to this day, is still associated with various student traditions and rituals.
In August 1882, a southern branch campus of the California State Normal School opened in Los Angeles, which became the University of California, Los Angeles. The southern branch campus remained under administrative control of the San Jose campus until 1887. In 1921, the California State Normal School changed its name to the State Teachers College at San Jose. In 1935, the State Teachers Colleges became the California State Colleges, the school's name was changed again, this time to San Jose State College. In 1972, upon meeting criteria established by the board of trustees and the Coordinating Council for Higher Education, SJSC was granted university status, the name was changed to California State University, San Jose. In 1974, the California legislature voted to change the school's name to San José State University. In 1930, the Justice Studies Department was founded as a two-year police science degree program, it holds the distinction of offering the first policing degree in the United States.
A stone monument and plaque are displayed close to the site of the original police school near Tower Hall. In 1942, the old gym was used to register and collect Japanese Americans before sending them to internment camps. Coincidentally, Uchida's parents and siblings were among those processed in the building. In 1963, in an effort to save Tower Hall from demolition, SJSU students and alumni organized testimonials before the State College Board of Trustees, sent telegrams, provided signed petitions; as a result of those efforts, the tower, a prime campus landmark and SJSU icon, was refurbished and reopened in 1966. The tower was again renovated and restored in 2007. Tower Hall is registered with the California Office of Historic Preservation. During the 1960s and early 1970s, San Jose State College witnessed a rise in political activism and civic awareness among its student body, including major student protests against the Vietnam War. One of the largest campus protests took place in 1967 when Dow Chemical Company — a major manufacturer of napalm used in the war — came to campus to conduct job recruiting.
An estimated 3,000 students and bystanders surrounded the Seventh Street administration building, more than 200 students and teachers lay down on the ground in front of the recruiters. In 1972–73, the economics department experienced political turmoil as the administration conducted a purge of left-leaning professors. For several years thereafter, the economics department was under censor by the American Association of University Professors. In 1982 the English department began sponsoring the annual Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest. In 1999, San Jose State and the City of San Jose agreed to combine their main libraries to form a joint city-university library located on campus, the first known collaboration of this type in the United States; the combined library faced opposition, with critics stating the two libraries have different objectives and that the project would be too expensive. Despite opposition, the $177 million project proceeded, the new Martin Luther King Jr. Library opened on time and on budget in 2003.
The new library has won several national awards since its initial opening. During its 2006–07 fiscal year, SJSU received a record $50+ million in private gifts and $84 million in capital campaign contributions. In 2007, SJSU president Don Kassing launched SJSU's first-ever comprehensive capital fundraising campaign dubbed "Acceleration: the Campaign for San Jose State University." The original goal of the multi-year
Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, boogie woogie, rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit. Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music, it went on to spawn various genres without the characteristic backbeat, that are now more called "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage; the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music"; the phrase "rocking and rolling" described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy.
Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951, Ohio, disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation.
The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. Louis, New York City, Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions. Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision"; the immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the 1930s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll. The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments. In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creatin
Fresno is a city in California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern portion of California's Central Valley. Named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885; the city has since become an economic hub of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley, with much of the surrounding areas in the Metropolitan Fresno region predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. The population of Fresno grew from a 1960 census population of 134,000 to a 2000 census population of 428,000. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 527,438, Fresno is the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous city in the Central Valley, the most populous inland city in California, the 34th-most populous city in the nation. Fresno is near the geographical center of California.
It lies 220 miles north of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, 185 miles southeast of San Francisco. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, Sequoia National Park is 75 miles to the southeast; the original inhabitants of the San Joaquin Valley region were the Yokuts people and Miwok people, who engaged in trading with other Californian tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. The first European to enter the San Joaquin Valley was Pedro Fages in 1772; the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River; the county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings and Mono counties.
Millerton on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry and Elkhorn Springs; the San Joaquin River flooded on December 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQueen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.
Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew into the town of Fresno Station called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track. In 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. In carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno; when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires ravaged American frontier towns.
The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded. Fresno entered the ranks of the 100 most populous cities in the United States in 1960 with a population of 134,000. Thirty years in the 1990 census, it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, in the census of 2000, it achieved 37th place with 428,000; the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund site. Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, Chinatown. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Fresno's population as 94.0% white, 3.3% black and 2.7% Asian..
During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps. The Fresno Fairgrounds were utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development in the perio
The Chicano Movement of the 1960s called the Chicano civil rights movement or El Movimiento, was a civil rights movement extending the Mexican-American civil rights movement of the 1960s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment. Similar to the Black Power movement, scholars have written about the repression and police brutality experienced by members of this movement which some connect to larger government-organized activity such as COINTELPRO; the Chicano Movement encompassed a broad list of issues—from restoration of land grants, to farm workers' rights, to enhanced education, to voting and political rights, as well as emerging awareness of collective history. The Chicano Movement addressed negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American consciousness. In an article in The Journal of American History, Edward J. Escobar describes some of the negativity of the time: The conflict between Chicanos and the LAPD thus helped Mexican Americans develop a new political consciousness that included a greater sense of ethnic solidarity, an acknowledgment of their subordinated status in American society, a greater determination to act politically, even violently, to end that subordination.
While most people of Mexican descent still refused to call themselves Chicanos, many had come to adopt many of the principles intrinsic in the concept of chicanismo. Chicanos did this through the creation of works of literary and visual art that validated the Mexican American ethnicity and culture practices; the term Chicanos was used as a derogatory label for the sons and daughters of Mexican migrants. Some prefer to spell the word "Chicano" as "Xicano"; this new generation of Mexican Americans were singled out by people on both sides of the border in whose view these Mexican Americans were not "American", yet they were not "Mexican", either. In the 1960s "Chicano" was accepted as a symbol of ethnic pride; the Chicano Movement addressed discrimination in public and private institutions. Early in the twentieth century, Mexican Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin American Citizens, was formed in 1929 and remains active today.
The Chicano Movement had been fermenting since the end of the U. S.–Mexican War in 1848, when the current U. S–Mexican border took form. Since that time, many Chicanos and Chicanas have campaigned against discrimination and exploitation; the Chicano Movement that culminated in the early 1970s took inspiration from heroes and heroines from their indigenous and American past. The movement gained momentum after World War II when groups such as the American G. I. Forum, founded by returning Mexican American veteran Dr. Hector P. Garcia, joined in the efforts by other civil rights organizations; the AGIF first received national exposure when it took on the cause of Felix Longoria, a Mexican American serviceman, denied a funeral service in his hometown of Three Rivers, Texas after being killed during WWII. After the Longoria incident, the AGIF expanded throughout Texas and by the 1950s, chapters were founded across the U. S. Mexican American civil rights activists achieved several major legal victories including the 1947 Mendez v. Westminster court case ruling which declared that segregating children of "Mexican and Latin descent" was unconstitutional and the 1954 Hernandez v. Texas ruling which declared that Mexican Americans and other historically-subordinated groups in the United States were entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.
S. Constitution. There were several leaders throughout the Chicano Movement. In New Mexico there was Reies López Tijerina, he fought to regain control of. He became involved in civil rights causes within six years and became a cosponsor of the Poor People's March on Washington in 1967. In Texas, war veteran Dr. Hector P. Garcia founded the American GI Forum and was appointed to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. In Denver, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzáles helped define the meaning of being a Chicano through his poem Yo Soy Joaquin. In California, César Chávez and the farm workers turned to the struggle of urban youth, created political awareness and participated in La Raza Unida Party; the most prominent civil rights organization in the Mexican-American community is the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, founded in 1968. Although modeled after the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, MALDEF has taken on many of the functions of other organizations, including political advocacy and training of local leaders.
Some women who worked for the Chicano movement felt that members were being too concerned with social issues that affected the Chicano community, instead of addressing problems that affected Chicana women specifically. This led Chicana women to form the Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional. In 1975, it became involved in the case Madrigal v. Quilligan, obtaining a moratorium on the compulsory sterilization of women and adoption of bilingual consent forms; these steps were necessary because many Hispanic women who did not understand English well were being sterilized in the United States at the time, without proper consent. With the widespread immigration marches which flourished throughout the U. S. in the Spring of 2006, the Chicano Movement has continued to expand in its focus and the number of people who are involved within the Mexican American community. As of the 21st Century, a major focus of the Chicano Movement has been to increase the representation of Chicanos in mainstream American media and entertainment.
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
La Bamba (film)
La Bamba is a 1987 American biographical film written and directed by Luis Valdez that follows the life and career of Chicano rock'n' roll star Ritchie Valens. The film stars Lou Diamond Phillips as Valens, Esai Morales, Rosanna DeSoto, Elizabeth Peña, Danielle von Zerneck, Joe Pantoliano; the film depicts the impact Valens' career had on the lives of his half-brother Bob Morales, his girlfriend Donna Ludwig and the rest of his family. In 2017, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Richard Steven Valenzuela is a normal teenage boy who becomes a rock'n' roll superstar under the stage name Ritchie Valens, he meets and falls in love with high school classmate Donna Ludwig, for whom he writes a song that becomes a number two hit. However, Donna's father has issues with his daughter dating a Mexican-American, which causes friction between Ritchie and Donna. Ritchie's relationship with his mother Connie and half-brother Bob Morales, the jealousy Bob feels toward Ritchie's success are depicted.
Bob wins an important art contest that helps promising cartoonists, only to throw away his prize because, in his mind, his mother does not care enough. Bob resorts to drinking and, at one point, yells in a drunken rage in front of his mother's door, "I want to see my daughter!" in reference to the child he sired with Ritchie's first girlfriend Rosie. However, when they get an opportunity and Bob sneak out for a good time. On one occasion, they take a road trip to Tijuana, visiting one of the local clubs where Ritchie discovers what will become his signature song, "La Bamba". Ritchie has a fear of flying, triggered by a recurring dream resulting from a midair collision between two planes over Ritchie's school which killed his best friend. Ritchie manages to avoid flying to his concerts and appearances, but has to conquer his fear when invited to perform "Donna" on American Bandstand. Ritchie's record producer and manager, Bob Keane, helps him by giving him a little vodka to calm his nerves during the flight to Philadelphia.
As Ritchie becomes more famous, his responsibilities change, he joins the ill-fated Winter Dance Party tour with Buddy Holly and "The Big Bopper" after "La Bamba" and "Donna" reach the top of the Billboard charts. Ritchie and Bopper take off in an airplane during a snowstorm for their fateful flight on February 3, 1959. Before the flight, Ritchie makes a call to his brother, he invites Bob to fly out to Chicago to join the tour for family support. The next day, while Bob is fixing his mother's car, he hears the news bulletin on the radio that his brother's plane crashed without any survivors. Bob darts out of his driveway in an attempt to get to his mother before she hears the news, only to find her standing immobile; the news of Ritchie's death hits the Valenzuela family and Donna hard. After Ritchie's funeral at San Fernando Mission Cemetery, Bob walks across a bridge and screams out Ritchie's name, remembering the good times they had together, accompanied by the Santo & Johnny instrumental "Sleep Walk".
During the end credits, Lou Diamond Phillips, as Ritchie, is shown in footage from an earlier scene performing Valens' version of "La Bamba". Lou Diamond Phillips as Ritchie Valens Esai Morales as Roberto "Bob" Morales Rosanna DeSoto as Connie Valenzuela Danielle von Zerneck as Donna Ludwig Elizabeth Peña as Rosie Morales Joe Pantoliano as Bob Keane Rick Dees as Ted Quillin Marshall Crenshaw as Buddy Holly Howard Huntsberry as Jackie Wilson Brian Setzer as Eddie Cochran Stephen Lee as The Big Bopper Sam Anderson as Mr. Ludwig Also featured are several members of the Valenzuela family and director Luis Valdez's family, including: Concepcion Valenzuela as the elderly woman sitting next to Lou Diamond Phillips at a party Daniel Valdez as Ritchie's Uncle Lelo Katie Valdez as Ritchie's sister Connie Jr. La Bamba opened in wide release in the United States on July 24, 1987. In the Philippines, it premiered on September 10, 1987. In Australia it opened on September 17, 1987. In its opening weekend, the film grossed a total of $5,698,884.
La Bamba grossed $52,678,820 in the United States in 12 weeks. Roger Ebert liked the film and the screenplay, writing, "This is a good small movie and sentimental, about a kid who never got a chance to show his stuff; the best things in it are the most unexpected things: the portraits of everyday life, of a loving mother, of a brother who loves and resents him, of a kid growing up and tasting fame and leaving everyone standing around at his funeral shocked that his life ended just as it seemed to be beginning."Janet Maslin, writing for The New York Times, was impressed with Lou Diamond Phillips' performance, wrote, "A film like this is quite a showcase for its star, as Valens, Lou Diamond Phillips has a sweetness and sincerity that in no way diminish the toughness of his onstage persona. The role is blandly written, but Mr. Phillips gives Valens backbone."The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 96% of critics gave the film a positive review, based on 28 reviews, with an average rating of 6.8/10, with the consensus.
Wins Broadcast Music Incorporated: BMI Film Music Award, Carlos Santana and Miles Goodman. Nominations Golden Globe Award: Best Motion Picture - Drama; because the movie is a celebration of 1