USS Luiseno was an Abnaki-class fleet ocean tug built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after the Luiseño peoples, she was the only U. S. Naval vessel to bear the name. Luiseno was laid down 7 November 1944 by the Charleston Shipbuilding & Drydock Company of Charleston, South Carolina. After shakedown, Luiseno operated out of Norfolk and Boston before sailing for Florida 28 July. For the rest of the year she performed target towing services in the Florida/Cuba area. During the summer of 1946 the fleet tug made a cruise to Bremerhaven, Germany to tow a 350-ton crane to Cristóbal in the Canal Zone, arriving there 20 September. From 1946 Luiseno performed miscellaneous duties including target towing, salvage operations, other vital services, along the east coast, in the Caribbean and from her home port, Rhode Island. During the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962 she operated out of the Guantanamo Naval Base, ready to perform any duty for which she would be called. Luiseno removed aircraft wreckage from the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash for dumping in the Atlantic.
Decommissioned and struck from the Naval Vessel Register 1 July 1975, Luiseno was subsequently transferred to Argentina under terms of the Security Assistance Program and renamed ARA Francisco de Gurruchaga. Still in service as of 2009. Luiseno received the Navy Unit Commendation, Navy Expeditionary Medal, American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, National Defense Service Medal, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal. On 19 February 1982, six weeks before the beginning of the Falklands War, an incident occurred that could have sparked a full-fledged war between Chile and Argentina during the Papal mediation in the Beagle conflict. ARA Gurruchaga was anchored at Deceit Island inside the Beagle zone under mediation in Vatican, ostensibly providing support for sports boats participating in the Rio de Janeiro-Sydney boat race; the Quidora torpedo Boat ordered the Argentine ship to leave the area. She fired several warning shots when the Argentine craft refused to move, as other Chilean ships converged to the scene.
Although ordered not to leave the area and to wait for Argentine warships to arrive, the Argentine patrol boat received new orders to proceed to port as it became obvious that the Chilean navy had no intentions of backing down. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. "Luiseno". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Retrieved 3 August 2007. "ATF-156 Luiseno". Amphibious Photo Archive. Retrieved 3 August 2007. Melson, Lewis B. CAPT USN. "Contact 261". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians
The Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians is a federally recognized tribe of Cahuilla and Luiseño people, headquartered in Riverside County, California. On June 18, 1883, the Soboba Reservation was established by the United States government in San Jacinto. There are five other federally recognized tribes of Luiseño people in southern California; the Luiseño Indians first encountered Europeans acting as missionaries, the Luiseño allowed them to come through their community because they were literate. Writers passed through the San Jacinto valley where the Luiseño were settled and recorded much of their culture. Along with missionaries and soldiers were a part of the 1776 Juan Bautista de Anza expedition overland to and through Las Californias sponsored by the Spanish monarchy. Took the Luiseño homeland and claimed it theirs for the San Antonio de Pala Asistencia cattle rancho. According to Father Jose Sanchez: "Proceeding in the same direction, we stopped at Jaguara, so called by the natives, but by our people San Jacinto.
This is the rancho for the cattle of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, distant from Temecula about eleven or twelve leagues." The reservation was given back to the Luiseño after the United States Government took control of California. An Executive Order established the Soboba reservation June 19, 1883; the members of the Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians have built a self-sustaining community. Their work includes entertainment; because of the businesses that they created, the economy of Soboba is strong. The tribe has built their own schools, including Noli Indian School, they have created non-profit organizations and a charity with the money they have made from all of their businesses. The Soboba began their economy starting with apricots. Over time, they developed the land surrounding the reservation; the members of the tribe worked their way outside of their own community and working in the citrus industry. This agricultural industry allowed them to expand. In the late 20th century, the Soboba established a gaming casino to earn profits for economic development and for the support of their people.
Under California and federal gambling laws, they could operate a gaming casino on their reservation, sovereign territory. This casino is a premier gaming spot in California for many, it is located about 100 miles from Los Angeles, it attracts people from all over California. Soboba Casino is the biggest source of income for the tribe, continues to grow every day. Soboba has developed a country club, which hosts golf tournaments and has a condominium resort; this resort opened May 2008. From 2009 to 2012, the resort held the Soboba Golf Classic. Membership of the tribe is determined by birth. Although a member is not required to live or be born on the reservation, each must be a documented descendant of another member. Being a member of the tribe entitles one to voting rights for the government of the tribe; the government is administered by five tribal council members. The tribal chairman is the highest position of power and is elected by a popular vote of members of the tribe; the vice chairwoman, secretary and member at large are put into position by demand of the elected council.
The tribal government makes business laws for the Soboba reservation. Elections are held like general elections in the United States, absentee ballots are available upon prior approval. Indigenous peoples of California California mission clash of cultures California Mission Indians Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Soboba Reservation
The Kumeyaay known as Tipai-Ipai Kamia or Diegueño, are Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. They live in the states of California in the Baja California in Mexico. In Spanish, the name is spelled Kumiai; the Kumeyaay consist of the Ipai and Tipai. The two coastal groups' traditional homelands were separated by the San Diego River: the northern Ipai and the southern Tipai. Nomenclature and tribal distinctions are not agreed upon; the general scholarly consensus recognizes three separate languages: Ipai, Kumeyaay proper, Tipai in northern Baja California. Other authorities see only two: Tipai. However, this notion is not supported by speakers of the language who contend that within their territory, all Kumeyaay can understand and speak to each other, at least after a brief acclimatization period. All three languages belong to the Delta–California branch of the Yuman language family, to which several other linguistically distinct but related groups belong, including the Cocopa, Quechan and Kiliwa.
The term Kumeyaay means "those who face the water from a cliff". It may come from the Kiliwa word kumeey meaning "man" or "people." Both Ipai/Iipay and Tipai mean "man" or "people." Some Kumeyaay in the southern areas refer to themselves as MuttTipi, which means "people of the earth."Linguist Margaret Langdon is credited with doing much of the early work on documenting the language. Evidence of settlement in what is today considered Kumeyaay territory may go back 12,000 years. 7000 BCE marked the emergence of two cultural traditions: the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition. The Kumeyaay had land along the Pacific Ocean from present Oceanside, California in the north to south of Ensenada and extending east to the Colorado River; the Cuyamaca complex, a late Holocene complex in San Diego County is related to the Kumeyaay peoples. The Kumeyaay tribe used to inhabit what is now a popular state park, known as Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve. One view holds that historic Tipai-Ipai emerged around 1000 years ago, though a "proto-Tipai-Ipai culture" had been established by about 5000 BCE.
Katherine Luomola suggests that the "nucleus of Tipai-Ipai groups" came together around AD 1000. The Kumeyaay themselves believe. At the time of European contact, Kumeyaay comprised several autonomous bands with 30 patrilineal clans. Spaniards entered Tipai-Ipai territory in the late 18th century, bringing with them non-native, invasive flora, domestic animals, which brought about degradation to local ecology. Under the Spanish Mission system, bands living near Mission San Diego de Alcalá, established in 1769, were called Diegueños. After Mexico took over the lands from Spain, they secularized the missions in 1834, Ipai and Tipais lost their lands. From 1870 to 1910, American settlers seized lands, including native gathering lands. In 1875, President Ulysses S. Grant created reservations in the area, additional lands were placed under trust patent status after the passage of the 1891 Act for the Relief of Mission Indians; the reservations lacked adequate water supplies. Kumeyaay people supported themselves by farming and agricultural wage labor.
For their common welfare, several reservations formed Inc.. The Kumeyaay Community College was created by the Sycuan Band to serve the Kumeyaay-Diegueño Nation, describes its mission as "to support cultural identity and self-determination while meeting the needs of native and non-Native students." The college's focus is on "Kumeyaay History, Kumeyaay Ethnobotany and traditional Indigenous arts." It "serves and relies on resources from the thirteen reservations of the Kumeyaay Nation situated in San Diego county." In the fall of 2016, Cuyamaca College began offering an associate degree in Kumeyaay Studies with courses at its Rancho San Diego campus, as well as at Kumeyaay Community College on the Sycuan reservation. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. In 1925, Alfred L. Kroeber proposed that the population of the Kumeyaay in the San Diego region in 1770 had been about 3,000. More Katharine Luomala points out that this estimate depended on calculations of rates of baptisms at the Mission, as such "ignores the unbaptized."
She suggests. Florence C. Shipek goes further. In the late eighteenth century, it is estimated that the Kumeyaay population was between 3,000 and 9,000. In 1828, 1,711 Kumeyaay were recorded by the missions; the 1860 federal census recorded 1,571 Kumeyaay living in 24 villages. The Bureau of Indian Affairs recorded 1,322 Kumeyaay in 1968, with 435 living on reservations. By 1990, an estimated 1,200 lived on reservation lands; the Kumeyaay live on 13 reservations in San Diego County, California in the United States and are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Campo Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation Capitan Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California: Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Missi
Louis IX of France
Louis IX known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier; as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most-powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Taillebourg, his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably parts of Aquitaine and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king was the supreme judge to whom anyone could appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment, he banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure.
To enforce the application of this new legal system, Louis IX created bailiffs. Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, he died from dysentery during the latter crusade, was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Catholic devotion, he decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution. He spent exorbitant sums on presumed relics of Christ, for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle, he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds and other Jewish books, he is the only canonized king of France, there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Joinville was a close friend and counselor to the king, he participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonisation in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, his chaplain, William of Chartres.
While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king, all three are biased favorably to the king. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' 19th century biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church, his grandfather on his father's side was king of France. Tutors of Blanche's choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, government, he was nine years old when his grandfather Philip II died and his father ascended as Louis VIII. Louis was 12 years old when his father died on 8 November 1226, he was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral. Because of Louis's youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority.
Louis' mother trained him to be a good Christian. She used to say: I love you, my dear son, as much as a mother can love her child, his younger brother Charles I of Sicily was created count of Anjou, thus founding the Capetian Angevin dynasty. No date is given for the beginning of Louis's personal rule, his contemporaries viewed his reign as co-rule between the king and his mother, though historians view the year 1234 as the year in which Louis began ruling with his mother assuming a more advisory role. She continued to have a strong influence on the king until her death in 1252. On 27 May 1234, Louis married Margaret of Provence, whose sister Eleanor became the wife of Henry III of England; the new queen's religious zeal made her a well suited partner for the king. He enjoyed her company, was pleased to show her the many public works he was making in Paris, both for its defense and for its health, they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. This attention raised a certain amount of jealousy in his mother, who tried to keep them apart as much as she could.
In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, translated the Talmud and pressed 35 charges against it to Pope Gregory IX by quoting a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin selected an injunction of the Talmud that permits Jews to kill non-Jews; this led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX, where rabbi Yechiel of Paris defended the Talmud against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud from Judeo Aramaic to a non-Jewish, profane language was seen by Jews as a profound violation; the disputation led to the burning of thousands of copies. When Louis was 15, his mother brought an end to the Albigensian Crusade in 1229 after signing an agreement with Count Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse that cleared the latter's father of wrongdoing. Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse had been suspected of murde
Pablo Tac was a Luiseño Indian and indigenous scholar who provided a rare contemporary Native American perspective on the institutions and early history of Alta California. He created the first writing system for Luiseño, his work is the "only primary source of Luiseño language written by a Luiseño until the twentieth century."Tac was born of Luiseño parents at Mission San Luis Rey de Francia and attended the Mission school. A promising student, he was singled out by the Franciscan missionary, Father Antonio Peyrí, to accompany Peyrí when he left California in 1832. "On January 15, 1834, Father Peyrí, Agapito left San Fernando College and in February boarded a ship for Europe. They travelled via New York and France, arriving in Barcelona, Spain, on June 21. The'New' World was coming to meet the'Old' World." Tac arrived in Rome in September 1834 and was enrolled in the College of the Propaganda, studying Latin grammar. He went on to study rhetoric and philosophy in preparation for missionary work, but he died in 1841.
As a student, Tac wrote a Luiseño grammar and dictionary for the linguist Giuseppi Mezzofanti, notably included a history as part of his manuscript. He created a way of writing Luiseño that drew on Latin and Spanish, different from the modern, decolonized way of writing Luiseño. Tac wrote an essay on the "Conversion of the San Luiseños of Alta California." The latter includes information on aboriginal lifeways and the history and organization of the Mission, along with two drawings by Tac. Tac authored an early account of life at Mission San Luis Rey entitled Indian Life and Customs at Mission San Luis Rey: A Record of California Mission Life by Pablo Tac, An Indian Neophyte. In the book, Tac lamented the rapid decline of his people: In Quechla not long ago there were 5,000 souls, with all their neighboring lands. Through a sickness that came to California 2,000 souls died, 3,000 were left." Tac went on to describe the preferential treatment the padres received: In the mission of San Luis Rey de Francia the Fernandino father is like a king.
He has his pages, majordomos, soldiers, ranchos, livestock...." Tac noted that his people attempted to bar the Spaniards from their southern California homelands. When the foreigners invaders approached, "...the chief stood up...and met them," demanding, "...what are you looking for? Leave our country!" For the 2005 Venice Biennale, Luiseño artist James Luna created an artwork dedicated to the memory of Pablo Tac. The piece, titled Emendatio, included three installations, Spinning Woman, Apparitions: Past and Present, The Chapel for Pablo Tac, as well a personal performance in Venice, Renewal, it was sponsored by the National Museum of the American Indian. Population of Native California List of Native American artists Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas Clifford, Christian.. Meet Pablo Tac: Indian from the Far Shores of California. CreateSpace, North Charleston, SC. ISBN 978-1-542-529303. Haas, Lisbeth. Pablo Tac, Indigenous Scholar: Writings on Luiseño Language and Colonial History, c.
1840. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California.: University of California Press. ISBN 0520261895. Lightfoot, Kent G.. Indians and Merchants: The Legacy of Colonial Encounters on the California Frontiers. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 0-520-20824-2. McFadden, David Revere and Ellen Napiura Taubman. Changing Hands: Art without Reservation 2: Contemporary Native North American Art from the West and Pacific. New York: Museum of Arts and Design, 2005. ISBN 1-890385-11-5. Nottage, James H. ed. Diversity and Dialogue. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-295-98781-1
Bureau of Indian Affairs
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U. S. Department of the Interior, it is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to 48,000 Native Americans; the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health and Welfare, it is now known as the Indian Health Service. Located in Washington, D. C. the BIA is headed by a bureau director. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney; the BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices: Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, Indian Reservation Roads Program.
Office of Justice Services: directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS; the office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, Program Management. The OJS provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested, it operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, Law Enforcement. Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands and resources; the Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices. Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.
S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War. In 1789, the U. S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade" within the War Department, charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade; the post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822; the government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U. S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C.
Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages and cultures, it emphasized being educated to European-American culture. The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a turbulent period of BIA history.
The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement worried the U. S. government. As a branch of the U. S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as: The occupation of BIA headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1972: On November 3, 1972, a group of around 500 American Indians with the AIM took over the BIA building, the culmination of their Trail of Broken Treaties walk. They intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards, they occupied the Department of Interior headquarters from November 3 to November 9, 1972. Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treati
The Chemehuevi are an indigenous people of the Great Basin. They are the southernmost branch of Southern Paiute. Today, Chemehuevi people are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes: Colorado River Indian Tribes Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation Morongo Band of Mission Indians Cabazon Band of Mission Indians Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of CaliforniaSome Chemehuevi are part of the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, which members are Sovovatum or Soboba band members of Cahuilla and Luiseño people. "Chemehuevi" has multiple interpretations. It is considered to either be a Mojave term meaning "those; the Chemehuevi call themselves Nüwüwü or Tantáwats, meaning "Southern Men." Their language, Chemehuevi, is a Colorado River Numic language, in the Numic language branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. First transcribed by John P. Harrington and Carobeth Laird in the early 20th century, it was studied in the 1970s by linguist Margaret L. Press.
Whose field notes and extensive sound recordings remain available. The language is now near extinction. In 2015, the Siwavaats Junior College in Havasu Lake, was established to teach children the language. A Chemehuevi dictionary with 2,500 words was expected to become available in 2016; the Chemehuevi were a desert tribe among the Southern Paiute group. Post-contact, they lived in the eastern Mojave Desert and Cottonwood Island in Nevada and the Chemehuevi Valley along the Colorado River in California, they were a nomadic people living in small groups given the sparse resources available in the desert environment. Carobeth Laird indicates their traditional territory spanned the High Desert from the Colorado River on the east to the Tehachapi Mountains on the west and from the Las Vegas area and Death Valley on the north to the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains in the south, they are most identified as among the Great Basin Indians. Among others they are cousins of the Kawaiisu; the most comprehensive collection of Chemehuevi history and mythology was gathered by Carobeth Laird and her second husband, George Laird, one of the last Chemehuevi to have been raised in the traditional culture.
Carobeth Laird, a linguist and ethnographer, wrote a comprehensive account of the culture and language as George Laird remembered it, published their collaborative efforts in her 1976 The Chemehuevis, the first – and, to date, only – ethnography of the Chemehuevi traditional culture. Describing the Chemehuevi as she knew them, presenting the texture of traditional life amongst the people, Carobeth Laird writes: The Chemehuevi character is made up of polarities which are complementary rather than contradictory, they are capable of silence. They are conservative to a degree, yet insatiably curious and ready to inquire into and to adopt new ways: to visit all tribes, whether friends or enemies. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the combined 1770 population of the Chemehuevi and Kawaiisu as 1,500; the combined estimate in 1910 dropped to 500. An Indian agent reported the Chemehuevi population in 1875 to be 350.
Kroeber estimated U. S. census data put the Chemehuevi population in 1910 as 355. Population as of 2016 is in the 1000s. Howaits Kauyaichits Mokwats Moviats Palonies Shivawach Tümplsagavatsits Yagats Chemehuevi traditional narratives Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas Clemmer, Richard O. and Omer C. Stewart. 1986. "Treaties and Claims". In Great Basin, edited by Warren L. d'Azevedo, pp. 525–557. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Grant, Bruce. 2000. Concise Encyclopedia of the American Indian. 3rd ed. Wings Books, New York. Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Laird, Carobeth. 1976. The Chemehuevis. Malki Museum Press, California. Leland, Joy. 1986. "Population". In Great Basin, edited by Warren L. d'Azevedo, pp. 608–619. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 11. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Official Colorado River Indian Tribes website Official Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation website — in San Bernardino County, California