Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Matilda. Otto inherited the Duchy of Saxony and the kingship of the Germans upon his father's death in 936, he continued his father's work of unifying all German tribes into a single kingdom and expanded the king's powers at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, Otto installed members of his family in the kingdom's most important duchies; this reduced the various dukes, co-equals with the king, to royal subjects under his authority. Otto transformed the Roman Catholic Church in Germany to strengthen royal authority and subjected its clergy to his personal control. After putting down a brief civil war among the rebellious duchies, Otto defeated the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, thus ending the Hungarian invasions of Western Europe; the victory against the pagan Magyars earned Otto a reputation as a savior of Christendom and secured his hold over the kingdom.
By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy. The patronage of Otto and his immediate successors facilitated a so-called "Ottonian Renaissance" of arts and architecture. Following the example of Charlemagne's coronation as "Emperor of the Romans" in 800, Otto was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 962 by Pope John XII in Rome. Otto's years were marked by conflicts with the papacy and struggles to stabilize his rule over Italy. Reigning from Rome, Otto sought to improve relations with the Byzantine Empire, which opposed his claim to emperorship and his realm's further expansion to the south. To resolve this conflict, the Byzantine princess Theophanu married his son Otto II in April 972. Otto returned to Germany in August 972 and died at Memleben in May 973. Otto II succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor. Otto was born on 23 November 912, the oldest son of the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda, the daughter of Dietrich of Ringelheim, a Saxon count in Westphalia. Henry had married Hatheburg of Merseburg a daughter of a Saxon count, in 906, but this marriage was annulled in 909 after she had given birth to Henry's first son and Otto's half-brother Thankmar.
Otto had four full siblings: Hedwig, Gerberga and Bruno. On 23 December 918, King of East Francia and Duke of Franconia, died. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad persuaded his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia, the presumptive heir, to offer the crown of East Francia to Otto's father Henry. Although Conrad and Henry had been at odds with one another since 912, Henry had not opposed the king since 915. Furthermore, Conrad's repeated battles with German dukes, most with Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia, had weakened the position and resources of the Conradines. After several months of hesitation and the other Frankish and Saxon nobles elected Henry as king at the Imperial Diet of Fritzlar in May 919. For the first time, a Saxon instead of a Frank reigned over the kingdom. Burchard II of Swabia soon swore fealty to the new king, but Arnulf of Bavaria did not recognize Henry's position. According to the Annales iuvavenses, Arnulf was elected king by the Bavarians in opposition to Henry, but his "reign" was short-lived.
In 921, Henry forced him into submission. Arnulf had to accept Henry's sovereignty. Otto first gained experience as a military commander when the German kingdom fought against Wendish tribes on its eastern border. While campaigning against the Wends/West Slavs in 929, Otto's illegitimate son William, the future Archbishop of Mainz, was born to a captive Wendish noblewoman. With Henry's dominion over the entire kingdom secured by 929, the king began to prepare his succession over the kingdom. No written evidence for his arrangements is extant, but during this time Otto is first called king in a document of the Abbey of Reichenau. While Henry consolidated power within Germany, he prepared for an alliance with Anglo-Saxon England by finding a bride for Otto. Association with another royal house would give Henry additional legitimacy and strengthen the bonds between the two Saxon kingdoms. To seal the alliance, King Æthelstan of England sent Henry two of his half-sisters, so he could choose the one which best pleased him.
Henry selected Eadgyth as Otto's bride and the two were married in 930. Several years shortly before Henry's death, an Imperial Diet at Erfurt formally ratified the king's succession arrangements; some of his estates and treasures were to be distributed among Thankmar and Bruno. But departing from customary Carolingian inheritance, the king designated Otto as the sole heir apparent without a prior formal election by the various dukes. Henry died from the effects of a cerebral stroke on 2 July 936 at his palace, the Kaiserpfalz in Memleben, was buried at Quedlinburg Abbey. At the time of his death, all of the various German tribes were united in a single realm. At the age of 24, Otto assumed his father's position as Duke of Saxony and King of Germany, his coronation was held on 7 August 936 in Charlemagne's former capital of Aachen, where Otto was anointed and crowned by Hildebert, the Archbishop of Mainz. Though he was a Saxon by birth, Otto appeared at the coronation in Frankish dress in an attempt to demonstrate his sovereignty over the Duchy of Lotharingia and his role as true successor to Charlemagne
A stem duchy was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire in the 10th century. The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century; as the Carolingian Empire declined in the late 9th century, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as subdivisions of the realm. These are the five stem duchies: Bavaria, Lotharingia and Swabia; the Salian emperors retained the stem duchies as the major divisions of Germany, but they became obsolete during the early high-medieval period under the Hohenstaufen, Frederick Barbarossa abolished them in 1180 in favour of more numerous territorial duchies. The term Stammesherzogtum as used in German historiography dates to the mid-19th century, from the beginning was related to the question of national unification; the term's applicability, the nature of the stem duchies in medieval Germany have a long history of controversy.
The overly literal or etymologizing English translation "stem duchy" was coined in the early 20th century. While authors tend to clarify the term by using the alternative translation "tribal", use of the term "stem duchies" has become conventional; the derivation of the German people from a number of German tribes developed in 18th to 19th century German historiography and ethnography. This concept of German "stems" relates to the early and high medieval period and is to be distinguished from the more generic Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity. A distinction was sometimes made between the "ancient stems", which were in existence in the 10th century, "recent stems", which emerged in the high medieval period as a result of eastward expansion; the delineation of the two concepts is vague, as a result the concept has a history of political and academic dispute. The terms Stamm, Nation or Volk variously used in modern German historiography reflect the Middle Latin gens, natio or populus of the medieval source material.
Traditional German historiography counts six Altstämme or "ancient stems", viz. Bavarians, Franks, Saxons and Thuringians. All of these were incorporated in the Carolingian Empire by the late 8th century. Only four of them are represented in the stem duchies; the customary or tribal laws of these groups were recorded in the early medieval period. Franconian and Swabian law remained in force and competed with imperial law well into the 13th century; the list of "recent stems" or Neustämme, is much less definite and subject to considerable variation. The use of Stämme, "tribes", rather than Völker "nations, peoples", emerged in the early 19th century in the context of the project of German unification. Karl Friedrich Eichhorn in 1808 still used Deutsche Völker "German nations". Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann in 1815 asked for unity of the German nation in its tribes; this terminology became standard and is reflected in the preamble of the Weimar constitution of 1919, reading Das deutsche Volk, einig in seinen Stämmen "The German nation, united in its tribes...".
The composition of the German population of these stems or tribes as a historical reality is recognized in contemporary historiography, while the caveat is made that each of them should be treated as an individual case with a different history of ethnogenesis, although some historians have revived the terminology of "peoples" rather than "tribes". The division remains in current use in the conventional classification of German dialects into Franconian, Thuringian and Low Saxon. In the Free State of Bavaria, the division into "Bavarian stems" remains current for the populations of Altbayern and Swabia. Within East Francia were large duchies, sometimes called kingdoms after their former status, which had a certain level of internal solidarity. Early among these were Saxony and Bavaria, conquered by Charlemagne, Alamannia, placed under Frankish administration in 746. In German historiography they are called the jüngere Stammesherzogtümer, or "more recent tribal duchies", although the term "stem duchies" is common in English.
The duchies are called "younger" in order to distinguish them from the older duchies which were vassal-states of the Merovingian monarchs. Historian Herwig Wolfram denied any real distinction between older and younger stem duchies, or between the stem duchies of Germany and similar territorial principalities in other parts of the Carolingian empire: I am attempting to refute the whole hallowed doctrine of the difference between the beginnings of the West-Fran
Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Wenceslaus I, Wenceslas I or Václav the Good was the duke of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935. His younger brother, Boleslaus the Cruel, was complicit in the murder, his martyrdom and the popularity of several biographies gave rise to a reputation for heroic virtue that resulted in his elevation to sainthood. He was posthumously declared to be a king and came to be seen as the patron saint of the Czech state, he is the subject of a carol for Saint Stephen's Day. Wenceslaus was the son of Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid dynasty, his grandfather, Bořivoj I of Bohemia, was converted to Christianity by Saints Methodius. His mother, Drahomíra, was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of the Havelli, but was baptized at the time of her marriage, his paternal grandmother, Ludmila of Bohemia, saw to it that he was educated in the Old-Slavonic language and, at an early age, Wenceslas was sent to the college at Budeč. In 921, when Wenceslas was about thirteen, his father died and his grandmother became regent.
Jealous of the influence that Ludmila wielded over Wenceslas, Drahomíra arranged to have her killed. Ludmila was at Tetín Castle near Beroun when assassins murdered her on September 15, 921, she is said to have been strangled by them with her veil. She was at first buried in the church of St. Michael at Tetín, but her remains were removed by Wenceslas, to the church of St. George in Prague, built by his father. Drahomíra assumed the role of regent and initiated measures against the Christians; when Wenceslas was 18, those Christian nobles who remained rebelled against Drahomira. The uprising was successful, Drahomira was sent into exile to Budeč. With the support of the nobles, Wenceslas took control of the government. To prevent disputes between him and his younger brother Boleslav, they divided the country between them, assigning to the latter a considerable territory. After the fall of Great Moravia, the rulers of the Bohemian duchy had to deal both with continuous raids by the Magyars and the forces of the Saxon duke and East Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who had started several eastern campaigns into the adjacent lands of the Polabian Slavs, homeland of Wenceslas's mother.
To withstand Saxon overlordship, Wenceslas's father Vratislaus had forged an alliance with the Bavarian duke Arnulf, a fierce opponent of King Henry at that time. The alliance became worthless, when Arnulf and Henry reconciled at Regensburg in 921. Early in 929, the joint forces of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria and King Henry I the Fowler reached Prague in a sudden attack that forced Wenceslas to resume the payment of a tribute first imposed by the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia in 895, he introduced German priests, favoured the Latin rite instead of the old Slavic, which had gone into disuse in many places for want of priests. He founded a rotunda consecrated to St. Vitus at Prague Castle in Prague, which exists as present-day St. Vitus Cathedral. Henry had been forced to pay a huge tribute to the Magyars in 926 and needed the Bohemian tribute, which Wenceslas refused to pay after the reconciliation between Arnulf and Henry. Another possible reason for the attack was the formation of the anti-Saxon alliance between Bohemia, the Polabian Slavs, the Magyars.
In September 935, a group of nobles allied with Wenceslas's younger brother Boleslav plotted to kill him. After Boleslav invited Wenceslas to the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Stará Boleslav, three of Boleslav's companions, Tira, Česta, Hněvsa, fell on the duke and stabbed him to death; as the duke fell, Boleslav ran him through with a lance. According to Cosmas of Prague, in his Chronica Boëmorum of the early 12th century, one of Boleslav's sons was born on the day of Wenceslas's death; because of the ominous circumstance of his birth, the infant was named Strachkvas, which means "a dreadful feast". There is a tradition that Saint Wenceslas's loyal servant Podevin avenged his death by killing one of the chief conspirators, but was executed by Boleslav. Wenceslas was considered a martyr and saint after his death, when a cult of Wenceslas grew up in Bohemia and in England. Within a few decades, four biographies of him were in circulation; these hagiographies had a powerful influence on the High Middle Ages concept of the rex justus, a monarch whose power stems from his great piety as well as his princely vigor.
Referring approvingly to these hagiographies, the chronicler Cosmas of Prague, writing in about the year 1119, states: But his deeds I think you know better than I could tell you. Several centuries this legend was asserted as fact by Pope Pius II. Although Wenceslas was only a duke during his lifetime, Holy Roman Emperor Otto I posthumously "conferred on the regal dignity and title", why he is referred to as "king" in legend and song; the hymn "Svatý Václave" or "Saint Wenceslas Chorale" is one of the oldest known Czech songs. Tracing back to the 12th century, it is still among the most popular religious songs. In 1918, at the founding of the modern Czechoslovak state, the song was discussed as a possible choice for the national anthem. During the Nazi occupation, it was played along with the Czech anthem. Wenceslaus' feast day is celebrated on September 28, on this day celebrati
Henry II, Duke of Bavaria
Henry II, called the Wrangler or the Quarrelsome, a member of the German royal Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria from 955 to 976 and again from 985 to 995, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 989 to 995. He was the son of Duke Henry I of Bavaria, younger brother of King Otto I of Germany, his wife Judith. Henry succeeded his father under the guardianship of his mother, his sister Hadwig was married to Duke Burchard III of Swabia in 954. In 972 Henry married Princess Gisela of Burgundy, herself a niece of Empress Adelaide. Upon Emperor Otto's death in 973, Henry could rely on his ties to the South German duchies of Swabia and Bavaria as well as to the adjacent Kingdom of Burgundy, he installed his cousin Henry as Bishop of Augsburg, denying the investiture rights of Emperor Otto's son and successor Otto II. When his brother-in-law Duke Burchard III died without heirs, he raised claims to his Swabian duchy. However, Otto II enfeoffed his nephew Otto of Swabia. In 974 Duke Henry resolved to oust Otto II from the throne.
With support of his sister Hadwig, he forged alliances with Bavarian and Saxon nobles, with Duke Boleslaus II of Bohemia and Duke Mieszko I of Poland. Otto II was able to take Henry captive in Ingelheim - though he had to deal with rebellious nobles in the County of Hainaut and the Bishopric of Cambrai as well as with the raids of the Danish king Harald Bluetooth in Holstein. In 976 Henry managed to escape and instigated a revolt in Bavaria, but was defeated when Otto II occupied Regensburg and stripped Henry of his duchy, he severed the Duchy of Carinthia and the Margraviate of Austria from the Bavarian lands and enfeoffed them to his supporters Henry the Younger and Leopold of Babenberg. The smaller Bavarian duchy was ceded to Henry's rival Duke Otto of Swabia. Following the War of the Three Henries in 977/78, the deposed duke was placed under the custody of Bishop Folcmar of Utrecht; when in 983 Otto II died from malaria in Rome, Henry was released from captivity. He once again tried to usurp the German throne, when he abducted the infant Otto III and, according to the medieval chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg, had himself proclaimed King of the Romans at the graves of Emperor Otto I and King Henry the Fowler in Magdeburg and Quedlinburg.
However, it turned out that he had lost the support of the German dukes and was not able to oust Duke Henry the Younger from Bavaria. Through the agency of Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, Henry in 985 submitted to Empress Theophanu and her mother-in-law Adelaide at an Hoftag assembly in Rohr. Although he failed in his attempt to gain control of Germany, he did regain Bavaria and in 989 received the Carinthian duchy. Henry and his wife Gisela of Burgundy had the following children: Henry IV of Bavaria, succeeded his father as Duke of Bavaria in 995, fulfilled his father's ambitions when he was elected King of the Romans in 1002 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1014 Bruno, Bishop of Augsburg from 1006 Gisela of Bavaria, married King Stephen I of Hungary
The Ottonian dynasty was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs, named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto its first Emperor Otto I. It is known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony; the family itself is sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Count Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers were successors of the Germanic king Conrad I, the only Germanic king to rule in East Francia after the Carolingian dynasty and before this dynasty. In the 9th century, the Saxon count Liudolf held large estates on the Leine river west of the Harz mountain range and in the adjacent Eichsfeld territory of Thuringia, his ancestors acted as ministeriales in the Saxon stem duchy, incorporated into the Carolingian Empire after the Saxon Wars of Charlemagne. Liudolf married a member of the Frankish House of Billung. About 852 the couple together with Bishop Altfrid of Hildesheim founded Brunshausen Abbey, relocated to Gandersheim, rose to a family monastery and burial ground.
Liudolf held the high social position of a Saxon dux, documented by the marriage of his daughter Liutgard with Louis the Younger, son of the Carolingian king Louis the German in 869. Liudolf's sons Bruno and Otto the Illustrious ruled over large parts of Saxon Eastphalia, Otto acted as lay abbot of the Imperial abbey of Hersfeld with large estates in Thuringia, he married a daughter of the Babenberg duke Henry of Franconia. Otto accompanied King Arnulf on his 894 campaign to Italy. According to the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Otto upon the death of the last Carolingian king Louis the Child in 911 was a candidate for the East Frankish crown, which however passed to the Franconian duke Conrad I. Upon Otto's death in 912, his son Henry. Henry had married Matilda of Ringelheim, a descendant of the legendary Saxon ruler Widukind and heiress to extended estates in Westphalia; the Ottonian rulers of East Francia, the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire were: Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony from 912, King of East Francia from 919 until 936 Otto I, the Great, Duke of Saxony and King of East Francia from 936, King of Italy from 951, Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until 973 Otto II, co-ruler from 961, Holy Roman Emperor from 967, sole ruler from 973 until 983 Otto III, King of the Romans from 983, Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until 1002 Henry II, the Saint, Duke of Bavaria from 995, King of the Romans from 1002, King of Italy from 1004, Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until 1024 Although never Emperor, Henry the Fowler was arguably the founder of the imperial dynasty.
While East Francia under the rule of the last Carolingian kings was ravaged by Hungarian invasions, he was chosen to be primus inter pares among the German dukes. Elected Rex Francorum in May 919, Henry abandoned the claim to dominate the whole disintegrating Carolingian Empire and, unlike his predecessor Conrad I, succeeded in gaining the support of the Franconian, Bavarian and Lotharingian dukes. In 933 he led a German army to victory over the Hungarian forces at the Battle of Riade and campaigned both the land of the Polabian Slavs and the Duchy of Bohemia; because he had assimilated so much power through his conquest, he was able to transfer power to his second son Otto I. Otto I, Duke of Saxony upon the death of his father in 936, was elected king within a few weeks, he continued the work of unifying all of the German tribes into a single kingdom expanding the powers of the king at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, he installed members of his own family to the kingdom's most important duchies.
This, did not prevent his relatives from entering into civil war: both Otto's brother Duke Henry of Bavaria and his son Duke Liudolf of Swabia revolted against his rule. Otto was able to suppress their uprisings, in consequence, the various dukes, co-equals with the king, were reduced into royal subjects under the king's authority, his decisive victory over the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 ended the Hungarian invasions of Europe and secured his hold over his kingdom. The defeat of the pagan Magyars earned King Otto the reputation as the savior of Christendom and the epithet "the Great", he transformed the Church in Germany into a kind of proprietary church and major royal power base to which he donated charity and for the creation of which his family was responsible. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy, a troublesome inheritance that none wanted, extended his kingdom's borders to the north and south. In control of much of central and southern Europe, the patronage of Otto and his immediate successors caused a limited cultural renaissance of the arts and architecture.
He confirmed the 754 Donation of Pepin and, with recourse to the concept of translatio imperii in succession of Charlemagne, proceeded to Rome to have himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in 962. He reached a settlement with the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes by marrying his son and heir Otto II to John's niece Theophanu. In 968 he established the Archbishopric of Magdeburg at his long-time residence. Co-ruler with his father since 961 and crowned emperor in 967, Otto II ascended the throne at the age of 18. By excluding the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of succession, he strengthened Imperial authority and secured his own son's
The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia, as well as in parts of Poland and Austria. The dynasty's origin dates back to the 9th century, when the Přemyslids ruled a tiny territory around Prague, populated by the Czech tribe of the Western Slavs, they expanded, conquering the region of Bohemia, located in the Bohemian basin where it was not threatened by the expansion of the Frankish Empire. The first historically-documented Přemyslid duke was Bořivoj I. In the following century, the Přemyslids ruled over Silesia and founded the city of Wroclaw, derived from the name of a Bohemian duke, Vratislaus I, father of Saint Wenceslaus. Under the reign of Prince Boleslaus I the Cruel and his son Boleslaus II the Pious, the Přemyslids ruled territory stretching to today's Belarus; the dynasty controlled vital trade routes during this time. The Bohemian lands and Prague were an important center of trade where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub.
He wrote, "Prague is a city from the stone, the richest of all states north of the Alps." After their rise to prominence, struggles within the family set in motion a decline in power and, in 1002, the Polish duke Boleslaus the Brave occupied Prague. Boleslaus III, son of Boleslaus II, escaped from Bohemia; the decline ended in the reign of Prince Bretislaus I, grandson of Boleslaus II. He in turn looted Poland, including the cities of Krakow and Gniezno, where he obtained the relics of St. Adalbert, he sought the establishment of a royal title. His son and successor Vratislaus II became the first King of Bohemia in 1085. Vratislav's son Sobeslaus I destroyed the Imperial army of King Lothar III in the Battle of Chlumec in 1126; this allowed a further strengthening of Bohemia, culminating during the reign of Vratislav's grandson, King Vladislaus II. Vladislav II founded many monasteries and built the first stone bridge across the Vltava river, one of the earliest in Central and Northern Europe. Once again, internal struggles started the decline of the Přemyslids.
Many leaders from the dynasty alternated on the Bohemian throne, leading to their eventual bankruptcy. On his ascension to the throne, Ottokar I began a series of changes that brought Bohemia out of crisis, began a period of success that lasted for nearly 220 years. Ottokar I became the third King of Bohemia in the year 1198 but was the first King of Bohemia to acquire a hereditary royal title; this began significant growth of the Přemyslids' dynastic power. There was a large urban and crafts development in Bohemia. In the second half of the 13th century, the Přemyslids were one of the most powerful dynasties in Central Europe. King Přemysl Ottokar II, son of Wenceslas I, earned the nickname "Iron and Golden King" because of his military power and wealth. After several victorious wars with the Hungarian Kingdom, he acquired Austria, Styria and Carniola, extending Bohemian territory to the Adriatic Sea. King Ottokar II aspired to the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire, his ambitions started the conflict with House of Habsburg, who were, until little-known princes, which suited the interests of German noble Houses better than the mighty king Ottokar.
The representative of Habsburgs Rudolf was elected as King of Romans. In the Battle of Marchfeld, Ottokar clashed with Imperial and Hungarian armies yet he was killed in battle himself; the Habsburgs acquired Austria. Ottokar's son King Wenceslaus II was just seven. Over time, thanks to deft diplomacy, he gained the Polish crown for himself and the crown of Hungary for his son. Wenceslas II brought together a vast empire stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Danube river and established numerous cities, among them Plzeň in 1295. Bohemia became a wealthy nation during his reign thanks to a large vein of silver at Kutná Hora, he introduced the silver Prague groschen, an important European currency for centuries, planned to build the first university in Central Europe. The power and wealth of the Kingdom of Bohemia gave rise to great respect, but to the hostility of other European royal families; the dynasty began to collapse following the untimely death of Wenceslaus II, the assassination of his only son, Wenceslaus III in 1306, which ended their rule.
On the distaff side, the dynasty continued, in 1355, Bohemian king Charles IV, the grandson of Wenceslaus II, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. The name of the dynasty, according to Cosmas in his Chronica Boemorum, comes from its legendary founder, Přemysl, husband of duchess Libuše. Přemysl and Libuše Nezamysl Mnata Vojen Vnislav Křesomysl Neklan Hostivít The first historical Přemyslid was Duke Bořivoj I, baptised in 874 by Saint Methodius. In 895, Bohemia gained independence from Great Moravia. Between 1003 and 1004, Bohemia was controlled by Boleslaus the Brave, Duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty, grandson of Boleslaus I the Cruel. In 1085, Duke Vratislaus II, and, in 1158, Duke Vladislaus II, were crowned King of Bohemia as a personal award from the Holy Roman Emperor; the title, was not hereditary. Bořivoj I Spytihněv I Vratislaus I Saint Wenceslaus Boleslaus I the Cruel Boleslaus II the Pious Boleslaus III the Red-haired Vladivoj (1002–1003