Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2010. Lula was a founding member of the Workers' Party and ran unsuccessfully for president three times before achieving victory in the 2002 election, being re-elected in the 2006 election; the introduction of social programs such as Bolsa Família and Fome Zero were hallmarks of his time in office. As president, Lula played a prominent role in international matters including activities related to the nuclear program of Iran and global warming, being described as "a man with audacious ambitions to alter the balance of power among nations". Succeeded by his former Chief of Staff, Dilma Rousseff, he left an enduring mark on Brazilian politics in the form of Lulism, he is the fifth President of Brazil who has gone to jail and the first to be arrested for corruption. Lula has been called one of the most popular politicians in the history of Brazil and while in office was one of the most popular in the world.
He was featured in Time's 2010 The 100 Most Influential People in the World and Perry Anderson called him "the most successful politician of his time". In October 2011, a smoker for 40 years, was diagnosed with throat cancer and underwent chemotherapy, leading to a successful recovery. In early 2016, Lula was appointed Chief of Staff under Rousseff, but Justice Gilmar Mendes of the Supreme Federal Court blocked the appointment due to ongoing federal investigations. On 12 July 2017, Lula was convicted of money laundering and passive corruption, defined in Brazilian criminal law as the receipt of a bribe by a civil servant or government official. Lula was sentenced to nine years and six months in prison by judge Sérgio Moro, but he remained free pending an appeal of the sentence. On 24 January 2018, the Regional Federal Court of the 4th Region, a panel of three appellate judges, unanimously upheld Moro's ruling against Lula and increased the sentence to 12 years. On 5 April 2018, the Supreme Federal Court voted to reject Lula's habeas corpus plea and on the same day a warrant was issued for his arrest.
He turned himself in and began serving his sentence on 7 April 2018. He was sentenced to 12 years in prison and jailed on 7 April 2018 on charges of money laundering and passive corruption, he announced his candidacy for the 2018 presidential election, but he was disqualified from running under Brazil's Clean Slate Law by the Superior Electoral Court on 31 August 2018 and was replaced by Fernando Haddad on 11 September 2018. The United Nations Human Rights Committee requested that the Brazilian government allow Lula to exercise his political rights as a presidential candidate. Prior to being barred, Lula led all scenarios in polls for the October election, achieving 39 percent in voter intentions within one month of the first round. On 8 November 2019, after 580 days in jail, Lula was released from prison following a supreme court's decision that defendants can remain free until they have exhausted all appeals as well as increasing claims by his allies of a lack of evidence behind his arrest.
Luiz Inácio da Silva was born on 27 October 1945 in Caetés, located 250 km from Recife, capital of Pernambuco, a state in the Northeast of Brazil. He was the seventh of eight children of Eurídice Ferreira de Melo. Two weeks after Lula's birth, his father moved to Santos, São Paulo, with Valdomira Ferreira de Góis, a cousin of Eurídice, he was raised Roman Catholic. Lula's mother was of partial Italian descent. In December 1952, when Lula was only 7 years old, his mother decided to move to São Paulo with her children to rejoin her husband. After a journey of thirteen days in a pau-de-arara, they arrived in Guarujá and discovered that Aristides had formed a second family with Valdomira. Aristides' two families lived in the same house for some time, but they did not get along well, four years Eurídice moved with her children to a small room behind a bar in São Paulo. After that Lula saw his father, who became an alcoholic and died in 1978. Lula was married twice. In 1969, he married Maria de Lourdes, who died of hepatitis in 1971, while pregnant with their first son, who died.
Lula and Miriam Cordeiro had a daughter, born out of wedlock in 1974. In 1974, Lula married Marisa Letícia Rocco Casa, a widow with whom he had three sons, he adopted Casa's son from her first marriage. They remained married until her death on 2 February 2017 after a stroke. Lula had little formal education, he did not learn to read until he was ten years old, quit school after the second grade to work and help his family. His first job at age 12 was as street vendor. By 14 he had a formal job in a warehouse, he lost the little finger on his left hand at 19 in an accident, while working as a press operator in an automobile parts factory. After the accident he had to run to several hospitals; this experience increased his interest in participating in the Workers' Union. Around that time, he held several important union posts. Due to perceived incompatibility between the Brazilian military government and trade union activities, Lula's views moved further to the political left. Inspired by his brother Frei Chico, Lula joined the labour movement when he worked at Villares Metals S.
USS Raleigh was the fourth Omaha-class light cruiser classified as a scout cruiser, built for the United States Navy. She was the third Navy ship named for the city of North Carolina; the first being Raleigh, a 32–gun frigate built in 1776, during the American Revolution, captured by the British in 1778. The second was the protected cruiser Raleigh, commissioned in 1894, decommissioned in 1919. Raleigh spent most of her pre-war career in the Atlantic, her first duty was to assist in the USAAS's first aerial circumnavigation of the world in 1924. In 1936, Raleigh joined Squadron 40-T in neutrality patrols during the Spanish Civil War where she would serve until 1938, when she would be transferred to the Pacific; this would lead her to be fatefully moored at berth F-12 on the morning of 7 December 1941, where she would take a torpedo in her No.2 boiler room and claim five victories with her anti-aircraft batteries with no loss of life. Raleigh was ordered on 29 August 1916, contracted to be built by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation's Fore River Shipyard, Massachusetts, 21 August 1917.
Her keel was laid on 16 August 1920, launched on 25 October 1922, the cruiser was christened by Miss Jennie Proctor. Raleigh was 550 feet long at the waterline with an overall length of 555 feet 6 inches, her beam was 55 feet 4 inches and a mean draft of 13 feet 6 inches, her standard displacement was 9,508 long tons at full load. Her crew, during peace time, consisted of 429 enlisted men. Raleigh was powered by four Curtis steam turbines geared steam turbines, each driving one screw, using steam generated by 12 Yarrow boilers; the engines were designed to reach a top speed of 35 knots. She was designed to provide a range of 10,000 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots, but was only capable of 8,460 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots Raleigh's main armament went through many changes while she was being designed, she was to be mounted by ten 6-inch /53 caliber guns. After the United States entry into World War I the US Navy worked alongside the Royal Navy and it was decided to mount four 6-inch/53 caliber guns in two twin gun turrets fore and aft and keep the eight guns in the tiered casemates so that she would have an eight gun broadside and, due to limited arcs of fire from the casemate guns, four to six guns firing fore or aft.
Her secondary armament consisted of two 3-inch /50 caliber anti-aircraft guns in single mounts. Raleigh was built with the capacity to carry 224 mines, but these were removed early in her career to make way for more crew accommodations, she carried two triple and two twin, above-water, torpedo tube mounts for 21-inch torpedoes. The triple mounts were fitted on either side of the upper deck, aft of the aircraft catapults, the twin mounts were one deck lower on either side, covered by hatches in the side of the hull; the ship lacked a full-length waterline armor belt. The sides of her boiler and engine rooms and steering gear were protected by three inches of armor; the transverse bulkheads at the end of her machinery rooms were one and a half inches thick forward and three inches thick aft. The conning tower and the deck over the machinery spaces and steering gear had one and a half inches of armor; the gun turrets only provided protection against muzzle blast. Raleigh carried two floatplanes aboard.
These were Vought VE-9s Vought UO-1s, the ship operated Curtiss SOC Seagulls from 1935, Vought OS2U Kingfishers after 1940. During her career Raleigh went through several armament changes; some of these changes were to reduce weight. On 8 September 1926, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Edward W. Eberle, along with the Commanders in Chief of the United States Fleet and Battle Fleet, their subordinate commanding officers, the Secretary of the Navy, Curtis D. Wilbur, ordered that all mines and the tracks for laying the mines be removed from all of the Omaha-class cruisers, the working conditions had been found to be "wet". Another change made before the war was to increase the 3-inch guns to eight, all mounted in the ship's waist. After 1940 the lower aft 6-inch guns were removed and the casemates plated over for the same reason as the lower torpedo mounts; the ship's anti-aircraft armament were augmented by three twin 40 mm Bofors guns along with eight 20 mm Oerlikon cannons by the end of the war.
Raleigh shifted to the New York Navy Yard on 26 February 1924, to complete fitting out and cleared that port 16 April, for shakedown off the Virginia Capes. Final building yard alterations were completed at Quincy on 24 June. After shifting to Provincetown, Raleigh put to sea from that harbor on 30 July, to join the Light Cruiser Division, Scouting Fleet, in northern European waters for duty in connection with the United States Army Air Service's World Flight, the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. After calling at ports in Norway and Scotland, she took up her reconnaissance station on 31 July, off Hvalfjörður, Iceland, she shifted her station to the east coast of Greenland on 10 August and upon completion of duty with the flight operations, she returned to the Boston Navy Yard on 3 September for voyage repairs. She stood
John Wentworth Pardoe is a retired British businessman and Liberal Party politician. Pardoe attended King's College School, Cambridge where he was a chorister in the Choir of King's College, Cambridge, he went to Sherborne School, a boarding independent school for boys in the market town of Sherborne in Dorset, followed by Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. He was active in the famous Footlights drama club. In the 1964 general election, Pardoe stood as the Liberal candidate against Margaret Thatcher in Finchley. In the 1966 election, the Liberal Party increased its number of MPs from nine to twelve: one of them was Pardoe, who captured the North Cornwall seat from the Conservative Party's James Scott-Hopkins, he became the party's Economic Affairs spokesman in parliament and was respected for the intellect of his views, if not for the partisan nature of his comments. In 1976, after the resignation of Jeremy Thorpe, Pardoe was a candidate for the leadership of the Liberal Party, he lost to David Steel, who received 12,541 votes to Pardoe's 7,032.
In 1978, John Pardoe MP played the fairy-tale Liberal prime minister in BBC Radio 4's Christmas Pantomime, Black Cinderella Two Goes East, on the basis that Liberal prime ministers exist only in fairy tales. The'often partisan nature of his comments' became a running gag within the programme. In the 1979 general election, he lost his seat because of his outspoken support for neighbouring MP Jeremy Thorpe, about to stand trial at the Old Bailey for conspiracy and incitement to murder. In the general election of 1987, Pardoe served as campaign manager of the SDP-Liberal Alliance. In the 1960s, John Pardoe was a member of Mebyon Kernow as well as the Liberal Party. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Pardoe