National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina
National Statistics and Censuses Institute is the Argentine government agency responsible for the collection and processing of statistical data. The institute analyses economic and social indicators such as inflation rate, consumer price index and unemployment, among others; the INDEC is supervised by different federal agencies, is under the direct oversight of the Secretaría de Programación Económica y Regional of the Ministerio de Economía y Producción. The INDEC coordinates the Sistema Estadístico Nacional through which the national and local statistical services work together; each provincial government has a statistics bureau called Dirección de Estadística, that collects and processes information. The Argentine Constitution does not provide for a national census; these were conducted only generationally until 1947, every decade since then. National censuses were taken in 1869, 1895, 1914, 1947, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010. Demographic and economic information is permanently updated with off-year censuses, such as the Economic and Agricultural Censuses, the sampled surveys published in Encuesta Permanente de Hogares.
Monthly releases include figures on inflation, trade balances, industrial production, retail sales, GDP. The first national statistics' centre was the Dirección General de Estadística, established in 1894 as a division of the Ministry of Public Finances. Fifty years in 1944, the Consejo Nacional de Estadística y Censos was created, with dependencies on both the Ministry of the Interior and the National Presidential Office. Other agencies were formed in 1950, 1952, 1956 before the final creation of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos in 1968 by Law 17622 and Decrees 3110/70 and 1831/93; the bureau's headquarters are located in a downtown, rationalist building designed by Arturo Dubourg, commissioned by President Juan Perón for use as the Ministry of Labour, completed in 1956. Although nominally independent, INDEC is subject to strong political pressure from the government, its statistics are no longer considered trustworthy; because INDEC's statistics have been reported as being manipulated by the Kirchner government, it is considered "discredited".
Controversy arose when the government of President Néstor Kirchner replaced Graciela Bevacqua, the Consumer Prices Indicator director. Bevacqua is reported to have arrived at a consumer price increase figure of 2.0% for January 2007 from internal data but the rate reported to the public was 1.1%. The head of INDEC resigned in March, a new board of directors led by Ana María Edwin was installed by the Ministry of Economy. A group of employees protested publicly at what they saw as a violation of INDEC's autonomy, an attempt by the Economy Ministry under Felisa Miceli to illegally keep inflation indicators under one percent a month. Prosecutors gathered evidence that high government officials had inquired of statistical staff how to get lower inflation numbers, that in early 2007 managers of the price indexes had excluded products whose prices had risen more than 15% in the survey and changed price data after it came in from the field workers. Prices and the official record have continued to part ways since former Commerce Secretary Guillermo Moreno's decision to intervene in the statistics institute in 2007.
Private-sector economists and statistical offices of provincial governments show inflation two to three times higher than INDEC's number. Unions, including those from the public sector, use these independent estimates when negotiating pay rises. Surveys by Torcuato di Tella University show inflation expectations running at 25-30%. Since INDEC's headline inflation statistics have been lower than estimates from analysts in the private sector and lower than INDEC's implicit private consumption price index, incorporated in the measurement of real GDP. Taken from the first quarter of 2007, each index has read as follows: The discrepancy has led to exchanged accusations of politically motivated statistical legerdemain between the ruling party and most of the political opposition, on both left and right. Officials facing election have an incentive to understate the headline CPI figure. Opposition figures relied on estimates made by figures such as Orlando Ferreres; the practice yielded the ruling party no political benefit, helped contribute to their loss in the October 2009 mid-term elections.
An alternative explanation for the policy could rest on government finances: the national government has issued around US$100 billion in government bonds. Payments on US$50 billion of this are indexed to inflation. Other government bonds are tied in value to GDP growth. A 7-point underestimate in inflation could save the Central Bank of Argentina US$3 billion in inflation-indexed interest payments, while higher economic growth would cost added interest on bonds tied to GDP. Since 2007, when Guillermo Moreno, the secretary of internal trade
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Mercedes, Buenos Aires
Mercedes is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is located 100 km west from 30 km southwest of Luján, it is the administrative headquarters for the district of Mercedes as well as of the judicial district. The Catedral Basílica de Mercedes-Luján, located in the city, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mercedes-Luján. Mercedes has a population of 51,967 people as per the 2001 census. Mercedes was first established as a fortress against native indigenous attacks, its original name was "La Guardia de Luján" and it was one of several fortress built in the borders of Buenos Aires to protect this city and gather the people living in the county near. It became a town on 25 June 1752 when founded by José de Zárate during a military campaign known as "La Valerosa". In 1777 viceroy Pedro de Cevallos proposed moving the town, but it was moved to its present location by viceroy Juan José de Vértiz on 8 May 1779; when moved its name was changed to "Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes". Mercedes is one of the few towns in Argentina in which three different railways meet, thus been connected with large commercial areas as Buenos Aires as well as the Pacific Ocean, the Andes range and the pampas plains.
This was a powerful reason during the 19th century for proposing the city as the capital of Buenos Aires Province. La Plata became capital, but Mercedes became known as the "West Pearl". In 1812 the Mercedes Partido was established because of the city's increasing population and commercial activities; the first municipal government was elected in 1856. Then-governor of Buenos Aires, Mariano Saavedra named it "Ciudad de Mercedes" in 1865, the same year that railway came to Mercedes for the first time; the most important churches in the city are: Our Lady of Mercedes Cathedral located on San Martín square the location of the italianate "Palacio Municipal" and numerous cafés and restaurants. A library founded by President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is located a few streets away. Built in neogothic style and inaugurated on April 16, 1921, in 1934 received "cathedral" status by Pope bull; the Cathedral was declared National Monument of Argentina by a decree signed by president Cristina Fernández in 2010.
St. Patrick's Church: Inaugurated on March 17, 1932 and remodeled in 2003, it has 2,500 m2 and a large number of vitraux, a figure representing St. Patrick among them; this church has the largest pipe organ in South America, with 4,700 tubes. It was directly brought from Germany. A group of gargoyles decorate the exterior of the church. St. Luis Gonzaga Church: designated by architect Pedro Benoit, is the oldest in the city, having been inaugurated as a chapel in 1891, after twelve years of construction; the chapel received "church" status in December 1941. Mercedes has three railway stations, with two of them still active: Mercedes is terminus of the Sarmiento Line diesel branch from Moreno and Mercedes is part of the San Martín Railway line where long-distance services are operated by state-owned companies Trenes Argentinos and Ferrobaires to Rufino and Alberdi respectively; the station was built by the Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway. Mercedes Sarmiento and San Martín are located few meters to one another.
The third station is Mercedes built by French-owned Compañía General and inactive since the 1970s. That station is far from the city's commercial area. Railway stations with the name "Mercedes" are: Notes: 1 The building is occupied by several non-profit associations. Mercedes can be reached from the city of Buenos Aires by the "Acceso Oeste" and by National Route 5 until km. 100. From the city of Lobos by Provincial Route 41 to the north and from Chivilcoy by Route 5 to the northwest; the city can be reached from San Antonio de Areco after completing 50 km-length by Provincial Route 41. Mercedes has a bus terminal, located near the Mercedes railway station; the city of Mercedes is 34 ° 39 ` 59 ° 25' west longitude, along the Luján River. It is 35 km from the city of Luján, one of the most importante religious center and pilgrimage of Argentina; the climate of this region is the Mesopotamian type temperate humid with an annual average of 16 °C. The winter is mild with average temperatures of 9 °C, while the summer is mild with an average temperature of 23 °C.
On the outskirts of Mercedes there is an old pulpería or rural bar and store, institutions which enjoy mythical status in gaucho culture. Known as "lo de Cacho", it claims to be the last pulpería of the Pampas and retains the atmosphere of 1850, the year it opened. There is an original wanted poster for the outlaw Juan Moreira and reminders of gauchos, their culture and knife fights. There is an old war memorial called "La Cruz de Palo", it is a wooden cross remembering where the last of the native attacks to Mercedes took place on 27 October 1823. Mercedes is known for its peaches and salami, been the venue for the National Peach Fair as well as the National Salami Fair. Both fairs have their own queen elected each year. Mercedes has been the birthplace of several football players, musicians and journalists, it is most known as the town where ephemeral president Héctor José Cámpora was born as well as dictator Jorge Rafael Videla. The city was organized by a-hundred-meters-long square blocks; the streets are numbered with n
Clarín (Argentine newspaper)
Clarín is the largest newspaper in Argentina, published by the Grupo Clarín media group. It was founded by Roberto Noble on 28 August 1945 in Buenos Aires, its director since 1969 was Ernestina Herrera de Noble. Clarín is part of Periódicos Asociados Latinoamericanos, an organization of fourteen leading newspapers in South America. Clarín was created by Roberto Noble, former minister of the Buenos Aires Province, on 28 August 1945, it was one of the first Argentine newspapers published in tabloid format. It became the highest sold Argentine newspaper in 1965, the highest sold Spanish-speaking newspaper in 1985, it was the first Argentine newspaper to sell a magazine with the Sunday edition, since 1967. In 1969, the news were split into several supplements by topic. In 1976, high colour printing was benefited by the creation of AGR. For many years the Argentine author Horacio Estol was the New York correspondent of Clarin, writing about aspects of US life of interest to Argentines. Roberto Noble died in 1969, his widow Ernestina Herrera de Noble succeeded him as director.
The newspaper bought Papel Prensa in 1977, together with La Razón. In 1982, it joined a group of 20 other newspapers to create the "Diarios y Noticias" informative agency; the Sunday magazine was renamed in 1994 to a name that would last up to modern day. The newspaper started a media conglomerate in 1999 after a law reformation which allows it to collect many different media supports, that would be named after the newspaper, Grupo Clarín; this conglomerate would operate in radio, Internet, other newspapers and other areas beyond Clarín itself. On 27 December 1999, The Clarín Group and Goldman Sachs, an American investment firm, subscribed an investment agreement where the consortium, managed by Goldman Sachs, made a direct investment in Clarín Group; the operation implied an increase of capital to the Clarin Group and the incorporation of Goldman Sachs as minority partner, with a participation of 18% of the stocks. Clarín launched clarin.com, the website for the newspaper, in March 1996. The site served nearly 6 million unique visitors daily in Argentina in April 2011, making it the fifth most visited website in the country that month and the most visited of any website based in Argentina itself.
There was a conflict between the government of Fernández de Kirchner and the Clarín Group from 2008 until 2015 over a variety of issues. The Clarín Group is the biggest media holding in Argentina, not only publishes the Clarín newspaper but owns the country major cable operator Cablevisión, a major commercial broadcast television Canal 13, a number of cable networks, hundreds of radio licenses. Clarín prints and distributes around 330,000 copies throughout the country, but by 2012, circulation had declined to 270,444 copies and Clarín accounted for nearly 21 percent of Argentine newspaper market, compared to 35 percent in 1983. Clarín has a 44 percent market share in Buenos Aires. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Clarín's website is the 10th and 14th most visited in Argentina as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 3rd most visited news website in Argentina, attracting 32 million visitors per month. Clarín Awards clarín.com Grupo Clarin The Holding Clarín's Profile Info America El Trece Gran DT
Partidos of Buenos Aires
A partido is the second-level administrative subdivision only in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. They are formally considered to be a single administrative unit contain one or more population centers, are divided into localidades; the subdivision in partidos in Buenos Aires Province is distinct from all other provinces of Argentina, which call their second-level subdivisions departamento and are further subdivided into distinct municipalities. By the end of 17th century the municipal council of Buenos Aires established the first partidos in the countryside: San Isidro del Pago de la Costa in 1779 and San Vicente, Magdalena, La Matanza, Cañada de Morón, Las Conchas and San Pedro in 1784. At the head of every partido, the cabildo appointed a rural judge called Alcalde de la Santa Hermandad; the judge, or alcalde, had the mission to maintain the law and order in the surrounding rural area of Buenos Aires, fighting against cattle raiders. The alcalde was helped by a constabulary called Santa Hermandad created in the late 15th century by the Catholic Monarchs and transplanted to the colonies.
In 1821 the Governor Martín Rodríguez and his minister Bernardino Rivadavia dissolved the cabildo and since was the governor itself who appointed the judge, now called Juez de Paz. In 1856 the office of Juez de Paz was replaced by a Presidente de la Municipalidad, or Municipal President, it was appointed by the Governor from a list of three candidates presented by the Municipales, or Councillors, who were elected by the citizens of the different partidos. Since 1890 the head of the government is called Intendente, or Mayor, it is directly elected by the citizens. On October 24, 1864 the Legislature of the Province of Buenos Aires sanctioned law № 422, dividing the province into 45 partidos: Arrecifes, Barrancas al Sud, Belgrano, Cañuelas, Carmen de Areco, Chascomús, del Pilar, Exaltación de la Cruz, General las Heras, General San Martín, Junín, Las Conchas, Lomas de Zamora, Luján, Mercedes, Monte, Morón, Pergamino, Ramallo, Rivadavia, Salto, San Antonio, San Fernando, San Isidro, San José de Flores, San Nicolás, San Pedro, San Vicente, Viedma and Zárate.
Every partido is administrated by an executive and a legislative branch the mayor and a council, similar to a county council. It is considered a strong mayor-council form of government; the mayor can be reelected for a new term. If they have been re-elected, they can not be re-elected in the same position, but with an interval of one period; the council is a unicameral body, one-half of whose members are elected every two years to serve four-year terms and can be reelected for a new term. If they have been re-elected, they can not be re-elected in the same position, but with an interval of one period; the number of councillors depends on the population of every partido. According to decret-law 6769/58 the number of councillors varies as follows: Buenos Aires Province is divided into 135 partidos. Adolfo Alsina Adolfo Gonzales Chaves Alberti Almirante Brown Arrecifes Avellaneda Ayacucho Azul Bahía Blanca Balcarce Baradero Benito Juárez Berazategui Berisso Bolívar Bragado Brandsen Campana Cañuelas Capitán Sarmiento Carlos Casares Carlos Tejedor Carmen de Areco Castelli Chacabuco Chascomús Chivilcoy Colón Coronel Dorrego Coronel Pringles Coronel Rosales Coronel Suárez Daireaux Dolores Ensenada Escobar Esteban Echeverría Exaltación de la Cruz Ezeiza Florencio Varela Florentino Ameghino General Alvarado General Alvear General Arenales General Belgrano General Guido General La Madrid General Las Heras General Lavalle General Madariaga General Paz General Pinto General Pueyrredón General Rodríguez General San Martín General Viamonte General Villegas Guaminí Hipólito Yrigoyen Hurlingham Ituzaingó José C.
Paz Junín La Costa La Matanza La Plata Lanús Laprida Las Flores Leandro N. Alem Lezama Lincoln Lobería Lobos Lomas de Zamora Luján Magdalena Maipú Malvinas Argentinas Mar Chiquita Marcos Paz Mercedes Merlo Monte Hermoso Moreno Morón Navarro Necochea Nueve de Julio Olavarría Patagones Pehuajó Pellegrini Pergamino Pila Pilar Pinamar Presidente Perón Puán Punta Indio Quilmes (Q
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
Boulogne Sur Mer
Boulogne Sur Mer is a town in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is in San Isidro Partido and forms part of the Greater Buenos Aires urban conurbation, 26 km north of Buenos Aires, it has a population of 89,046. The town is named after the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer in northern France, where the Argentine general José de San Martín died in 1850. By rail, the town in served by the narrow gauge Belgrano Norte Line, which has both regular and differential services. National Route 9 passes through the town, giving direct access to the city of Buenos Aires and to provinces to the west. Goethe-Schule Buenos Aires, a German school, is in Boulogne. Boulogne History