Luke 3

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Luke 3
Zacynthius Lc 3,7-8 (Mt26,39-51).jpg
Luke 3:7-8 with commentary in majuscule on the underwriting of Codex Zacynthius, a palimpsest from 7th-century. The upper writing is 13th-century minuscule of Matthew 26:39-51.
BookGospel of Luke
CategoryGospel
Christian Bible partNew Testament
Order in the Christian part3

Luke 3 is the third chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It contains an account of the preaching of John the Baptist as well as a Genealogy of Jesus; the Expositor's Greek Testament states that in this chapter "the ministry of the new era opens".[1]

Text[edit]

The original text was written in Koine Greek and is divided into 38 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter are:

Old Testament references[edit]

John the Baptist[edit]

Territories and tetrarchies in the first-century Palestine: Judea, Galilee, Iturea, Trachonitis, Abilene; also Perea, Nabatea, Idumea, Samaria, Decapolis, Chalcis, Phoenicia
Greek inscription mentioning Lysanias, possibly the tetrarch in Luke 3:1.

Luke, as in the first two chapters, provides several points of historical data, in this case six, to specify the date of the events in the first century CE.[1]

Verses 1–2[edit]

1In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar - when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene2during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John son of Zechariah in the desert.[3]

Tiberius' fifteenth year of rule was AD 29 or 30, so one can date the start of John's preaching to then; the rule of Pontius Pilate in Judea during the reign of Tiberius is well attested in history (for example, Tacitus in Annals book 15, chapter 44, written ca. AD 116).[4][5]

Comparison of Matthew 3:7-10 and Luke 3:7-9. Common text highlighted in red. From 1894 Scrivener New Testament.

Luke, like Mark 1:2–3, Matthew 3:3 and John 1:23 quotes Isaiah 40 but quotes it to the greatest length in reference to John the Baptist, it is possible that he does this to include the message that "...all flesh (or all mankind) will see God's salvation" (6) to his Gentile audience.[6] He preaches baptism of repentance, and tells people that their descent from Abraham will not save them from God, that "...out of these stones God can raise up children for Abraham. The axe is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire." (8-9)

The people ask what they should do and John says share and that tax collectors and soldiers should not abuse their positions, they ask him if he is the Christ, and he replies "I baptize you with water. But one more powerful than I will come, the thongs of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie, he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire." (16) also found in Matthew 3:11, Mark 1:7-8 and John 1:26-27. John is then locked up by Herod for rebuking him about his wife Herodias, Herod adding this crowning iniquity to all his other misdeeds.[1]

Jesus's baptism[edit]

Facsimile edition of Luke 3:22,26-27 of Codex Tischendorfianus III, from 8th or 10th century.

Luke then tells us then Jesus was one of the many who John baptized; the Holy Spirit appears to him as a dove and tells him "You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased" (cf. Matthew 3:13-17, Mark 1:9-11, John 1:32-34). Luke says that "...Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry". (23). Luke does not state how many years John baptised for, but this is when most date the start of Jesus's ministry, 29 or 30, he had to be more than thirty years old, as he was born about six months before Jesus was born, as noted in Luke 1. Most probably John was born in 4 BC.

The ancestry of Jesus[edit]

A part of Luke's genealogy of Jesus (Luke 3:23-26), from the Book of Kells, transcribed by Celtic monks c. 800

Verses 23-38[edit]

Luke then sets out, like Matthew 1, a genealogy of Jesus, starting with his legal father Joseph and lists 73 people between Joseph and Adam, who Luke says is "...the Son of God",[7] thus having 75 people between God and Jesus. This genealogy is longer than Matthew's, works retrospectively from Jesus back to Adam,[8] (whereas Matthew's runs chronologically forward from Abraham to Jesus), and has a number of other differences. Luke names Joseph's father and thus Jesus's grandfather as Heli, which could be Mary's father, as noted in the Talmud.[9] On the other hand, Matthew records the name of Joseph's father was Jacob, they then say that Jesus's great grandfather was named Matthat or Matthan, who could be the same person or, as first suggested by Julius Africanus, brothers. The lists then diverge from there, coming together again at David.

Patrilineage of Jesus according to Luke
  1. God
  2. Adam
  3. Seth
  4. Enos
  5. Cainan
  6. Maleleel
  7. Jared
  8. Enoch
  9. Mathusala
  10. Lamech
  11. Noah
  12. Shem
  13. Arphaxad
  14. Cainan
  1. Sala
  2. Heber
  3. Phalec
  4. Ragau
  5. Saruch
  6. Nachor
  7. Thara
  8. Abraham
  9. Isaac
  10. Jacob
  11. Juda
  12. Phares
  13. Esrom
  14. Aram
  1. Aminadab
  2. Naasson
  3. Salmon
  4. Boaz
  5. Obed
  6. Jesse
  7. David
  8. Nathan
  9. Mattatha
  10. Menan
  11. Melea
  12. Eliakim
  13. Jonam
  14. Joseph
  1. Judah
  2. Simeon
  3. Levi
  4. Matthat
  5. Jorim
  6. Eliezer
  7. Jose
  8. Er
  9. Elmodam
  10. Cosam
  11. Addi
  12. Melchi
  13. Neri
  14. Salathiel
  1. Zorobabel
  2. Rhesa
  3. Joannan
  4. Juda
  5. Joseph
  6. Semei
  7. Mattathias
  8. Maath
  9. Nagge
  10. Esli
  11. Naum
  12. Amos
  13. Mattathias
  14. Joseph
  1. Jannai
  2. Melchi
  3. Levi
  4. Matthat
  5. Heli
  6. Joseph
  7. Jesus

Verse 33[edit]

Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda.[10]

Parallel verses: Matthew 1:3-4

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Expositor's Greek Testament on Luke 3, accessed 20 May 2018
  2. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  3. ^ Luke 3:1-2 NIV
  4. ^ P.E. Easterling, E. J. Kenney (general editors), The Cambridge History of Latin Literature, page 892 (Cambridge University Press, 1982, reprinted 1996). ISBN 0-521-21043-7
  5. ^ Bart D. Ehrman wrote: "Tacitus's report confirms what we know from other sources, that Jesus was executed by order of the Roman governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate, sometime during Tiberius's reign." In: Ehrman, Bart D. (2001). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0195124743.
  6. ^ Brown, p. 235
  7. ^ Luke 3:38
  8. ^ Maas, Anthony. "Genealogy of Christ" The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 9 Oct. 2013
  9. ^ Talmud Yerushalmi, Hag. chap.2, 11a; Hebrew text at http://www.mechon-mamre.org/b/r/r2b.htm, records as follows: למרים ברת עלי l'miryam bart eli, "Of Mary the daughter of (H)Eli"
  10. ^ Luke 3:33 KJV

Bibliography[edit]

  • Brown, Raymond E., An Introduction to the New Testament Doubleday 1997 ISBN 0-385-24767-2

External links[edit]


Preceded by
Luke 2
Chapters of the Bible
Gospel of Luke
Succeeded by
Luke 4