Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, launched in October 2010 on iOS. A version for Android devices was released a year and half in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited website interface in November 2012, apps for Windows 10 Mobile and Windows 10 in April 2016 and October 2016 respectively; the app allows users to upload photos and videos to the service, which can be edited with various filters, organized with tags and location information. An account's posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tags and locations, view trending content. Users can "like" photos, follow other users to add their content to a feed; the service was distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square aspect ratio, but these restrictions were eased in 2015. The service added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, as well as "Stories"—similar to its main competitor Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each.
After its launch in 2010, Instagram gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, 800 million as of September 2017. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for US$1 billion in cash and stock; as of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded to the service. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, illegal or improper content uploaded by users; as of 14 January 2019, the most liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with a sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture has over 50 million likes. Instagram began development in San Francisco, when Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger chose to focus their multi-featured HTML5 check-in project, Burbn, on mobile photography; as Krieger reasoned, Burbn became too similar to Foursquare, both realized that it had gone too far.
Burbn was pivoted to become more focused on photo-sharing. The word Instagram is a portmanteau of instant telegram. On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a $500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn. Josh Riedel joined the company in October as Community Manager, Shayne Sweeney joined in November as an engineer, Jessica Zollman joined as a Community Evangelist in August 2011. Kevin Systrom posted the first photo to Instagram on July 16, 2010; the photo shows Systrom's girlfriend's foot. On October 6, 2010, the Instagram iOS app was released through the App Store. In February 2011, it was reported that Instagram had raised $7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca, Adam D'Angelo; the deal valued Instagram at around $20 million. On April 3, 2012, Instagram was released for Android phones, it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day. In March 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Instagram was raising a new round of financing that would value the company at $500 million, details that were confirmed the following month, when Instagram raised $50 million from venture capitalists with a $500 million valuation.
The same month, Facebook bought Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock, with a plan to keep the company independently managed. Britain's Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012, on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U. S. closed its investigation. On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook was closed; the deal, made just prior to Facebook's scheduled IPO, cost about a quarter of Facebook's cash-on-hand, according to figures documented at the end of 2011. The deal was for a company characterized as having "lots of buzz but no business model", the price was contrasted with the $35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005. Mark Zuckerberg noted that Facebook was "committed to building and growing Instagram independently", in contrast to its past practices. According to Wired, the deal netted Systrom $400 million based on his ownership stake in the business; the exact purchase price was 23 million shares of stock. In November 2012, Instagram launched website profiles, allowing anyone to see users' feeds from their web browsers.
However, the website interface was limited in functionality, with notable omissions including the lack of a search bar, a news feed, the ability to upload photos. In February 2013, the website was updated to offer a news feed, in June 2015, the website was redesigned to offer bigger photos. On October 22, 2013, during the Nokia World event held in Abu Dhabi, Systrom confirmed the upcoming release of the official Instagram app for Windows Phone, after pressure from Nokia and the public to develop an app for the platform; the app was released as a beta version on November 21, 2013, was lacking the ability to record and upload video, though an Instagram spokesperson stated that "We're not finished, our team will continue developing the Windows Phone app to keep releasing features and bringing you the best Instagram possible". In April 2016, Instagram upgraded the app to Windows 10 Mobile, adding support for video and direct messages, followed by updates in October 2016 that
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Doctor Strange (2016 film)
Doctor Strange is a 2016 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the fourteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the film was directed by Scott Derrickson, who wrote it with Jon Spaihts and C. Robert Cargill, stars Benedict Cumberbatch as the title character, along with Chiwetel Ejiofor, Rachel McAdams, Benedict Wong, Michael Stuhlbarg, Benjamin Bratt, Scott Adkins, Mads Mikkelsen, Tilda Swinton. In the film, former surgeon Stephen Strange learns the mystic arts after a career-ending car accident. Various incarnations of a Doctor Strange film adaptation had been in development since the mid-1980s, until Paramount Pictures acquired the film rights in April 2005 on behalf of Marvel Studios. Thomas Dean Donnelly and Joshua Oppenheimer were brought on board in June 2010 to write a screenplay. In June 2014, Derrickson was hired to re-write the film with Spaihts. Cumberbatch was chosen for the eponymous role in December 2014, necessitating a schedule change to work around his other commitments.
This gave Derrickson time to work on the script himself. The film began principal photography in November 2015 in Nepal, before moving to the United Kingdom and Hong Kong, concluding in New York City in April 2016. Doctor Strange had its world premiere in Hong Kong on October 13, 2016, was released in the United States on November 4, 2016, in 3D and IMAX 3D; the film grossed over $677 million worldwide, was met with praise for its visuals and cast. The positive elements received awards attention, including an Academy Award nomination for Best Visual Effects. A sequel is with Derrickson returning to direct. In Kathmandu, the sorcerer Kaecilius and his zealots enter the secret compound Kamar-Taj and behead its librarian, they steal a few pages from an ancient, mystical text belonging to the Ancient One, a long-lived sorcerer who has taught every student at Kamar-Taj, including Kaecilius, in the mystic arts. The Ancient One pursues the traitors. In New York City, Stephen Strange, a wealthy and arrogant neurosurgeon injures his hands in a car accident, leaving him unable to operate.
Fellow surgeon and former lover Christine Palmer tries to help him move on, but Strange vainly pursues experimental surgeries to heal his hands, nearly bankrupting himself. Strange learns about a paraplegic who mysteriously regained use of his legs. Pangborn directs Strange to Kamar-Taj, where he is taken in by Mordo, a sorcerer under the Ancient One; the Ancient One demonstrates her power to Strange, revealing the astral plane and other dimensions such as the Mirror Dimension. She reluctantly agrees to train Strange, whose ambition remind her of Kaecilius. Strange studies under the Ancient One and Mordo, from ancient books in the library, now guarded by Master Wong. Strange learns that Earth is protected from threats from other dimensions by a shield generated from three buildings called Sanctums, in New York City and Hong Kong, which are all connected and accessible from Kamar-Taj; the sorcerers' task is to protect the Sanctums, though Pangborn instead chose to channel mystical energy only into walking again.
Strange progresses and secretly reads the text from which Kaecilius stole pages, learning to bend time with the mystical Eye of Agamotto. Mordo and Wong warn Strange against breaking the laws of nature, drawing a comparison to Kaecilius' desire for eternal life. Kaecilius uses the stolen pages to contact Dormammu of the Dark Dimension, where time is non-existent. Kaecilius destroys the London Sanctum to weaken Earth's protection; the zealots attack the New York Sanctum, killing its guardian, but Strange holds them off with the help of the Cloak of Levitation until Mordo and the Ancient One arrive. Mordo becomes disillusioned with the Ancient One after Strange reveals that the Ancient One has been drawing power from the Dark Dimension to sustain her long life. After a fight in the Mirror Dimension of New York, Kaecilius mortally wounds the Ancient One and escapes to Hong Kong. Before dying, she tells Strange that he too will have to bend the rules to complement Mordo's steadfast nature in order to defeat Kaecilius.
Strange and Mordo arrive in Hong Kong to find Wong dead, the Sanctum destroyed, the Dark Dimension engulfing Earth. Strange uses the Eye to reverse time and save Wong enters the Dark Dimension and creates a time loop around himself and Dormammu. After killing Strange to no avail, Dormammu gives in to Strange's demand that he leave Earth and take Kaecilius and his zealots with him in return for Strange breaking the loop. Disillusioned by Strange and the Ancient One defying nature's laws, Mordo departs. Strange returns the Eye to Kamar-Taj, takes up residence in the New York Sanctum to continue his studies. In a mid-credits scene, Strange decides to help Thor, who has brought his brother Loki to Earth to search for their father Odin. In a post-credits scene, Mordo confronts Pangborn and steals the mystical energy that possessed him, telling him that Earth has "too many sorcerers". Benedict Cumberbatch as Dr. Stephen Strange: A neurosurgeon who, after a car accident that led to a journey of healing, discovers the hidden world of magic and alternate dimensions.
Cumberbatch described Strange as arrogant, with the film "about him going from a place where he thinks he knows it all to realizing he knows nothing." He compared the character to the version of Sherlock Holmes that he portrays in Sherlock, calling both characters "intelligent" and having "smatterings of the same colors". The film's mysticism resonated with Cumberbatch, for w
Gloria Marie Steinem is an American feminist and social political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader and a spokeswoman for the American feminist movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Steinem was a columnist for New York magazine, a co-founder of Ms. magazine. In 1969, Steinem published an article, "After Black Power, Women's Liberation", which brought her to national fame as a feminist leader. In 2005, Jane Fonda, Robin Morgan co-founded the Women's Media Center, an organization that works "to make women visible and powerful in the media"; as of May 2018, Steinem travels internationally as an organizer and lecturer, is a media spokeswoman on issues of equality. Steinem was born on March 25, 1934, in Toledo, the daughter of Ruth and Leo Steinem, her mother was Presbyterian of German and some Scottish descent. Her father was Jewish, the son of immigrants from Württemberg and Radziejów, Poland, her paternal grandmother, Pauline Perlmutter Steinem, was chairwoman of the educational committee of the National Woman Suffrage Association, a delegate to the 1908 International Council of Women, the first woman to be elected to the Toledo Board of Education, as well as a leader in the movement for vocational education.
Pauline rescued many members of her family from the Holocaust. The Steinems lived and traveled about in a trailer, from which Leo carried out his trade as a roaming antiques dealer. Before Steinem was born, her mother Ruth age 34, had a "nervous breakdown," which left her an invalid, trapped in delusional fantasies that turned violent, she changed "from an energetic, fun-loving, book-loving" woman into "someone, afraid to be alone, who could not hang on to reality long enough to hold a job, who could concentrate enough to read a book." Ruth spent long periods out of sanatoriums for the mentally ill. Steinem was 10 years old when her parents separated in 1944, her father went to California to find work, while she and her mother continued to live together in Toledo. While her parents divorced under the stress of her mother's illness, Steinem did not attribute it at all to chauvinism on the father's part — she claims to have "understood and never blamed him for the breakup." The impact of these events had a formative effect on her personality: while her father, a traveling salesman, had never provided much financial stability to the family, his exit aggravated their situation.
Steinem concluded that her mother's inability to hold on to a job was evidence of general hostility towards working women. She concluded that the general apathy of doctors towards her mother emerged from a similar anti-woman animus. Years Steinem described her mother's experience as pivotal to her understanding of social injustices; these perspectives convinced Steinem that women lacked political equality. Steinem attended Waite High School in Toledo and Western High School in Washington, D. C. graduating from the latter while living with her older sister Susanne Steinem Patch. She attended Smith College, an institution with which she continues to remain engaged, from which she graduated as a member of Phi Beta Kappa. In the late 1950s, Steinem spent two years in India as a Chester Bowles Asian Fellow, where she was associated with the Supreme Court of India as a Law Clerk to Mehr Chand Mahajan Chief Justice of India. After returning to the U. S. she served as director of the Independent Research Service, an organization funded in secret by a donor that turned out to be the CIA.
She worked to send non-Communist American students to the 1959 World Youth Festival. In 1960, she was hired by Warren Publishing as the first employee of Help! magazine. Esquire magazine features editor Clay Felker gave freelance writer Steinem what she called her first "serious assignment", regarding contraception, her resulting 1962 article about the way in which women are forced to choose between a career and marriage preceded Betty Friedan's book The Feminine Mystique by one year. In 1963, while working on an article for Huntington Hartford's Show magazine, Steinem was employed as a Playboy Bunny at the New York Playboy Club; the article, published in 1963 as "A Bunny's Tale", featured a photo of Steinem in Bunny uniform and detailed how women were treated at those clubs. Steinem has maintained that she is proud of the work she did publicizing the exploitative working conditions of the bunnies and the sexual demands made of them, which skirted the edge of the law. However, for a brief period after the article was published, Steinem was unable to land other assignments.
In 1965, she wrote for NBC-TV's weekly satirical revue, That Was The Week That Was, contributing a regular segment entitled "Surrealism in Everyday Life". Steinem landed a job at Felker's newly founded New York magazine in 1968. In 1969, she covered an abortion speak-out for New York Magazine, held in a church basement in Greenwich, New York. Steinem had had an abortion herself in London at the age of 22, she felt what she called a "big click" at the speak-out, said she didn't "begin my life as an active feminist" until that day. As she recalled, "It is supposed to make us a bad person, but I must say, I never felt that. I used trying to make myself feel guilty, but I never could! I think the person who said:'Honey, if men could get pregnant, abortion wou
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Sharp Objects (miniseries)
Sharp Objects is an American psychological thriller television miniseries based on Gillian Flynn's debut novel of the same name that premiered on July 8, 2018, on HBO. The series was created by Marti Noxon, directed by Jean-Marc Vallée, stars Amy Adams, Patricia Clarkson, Chris Messina, Eliza Scanlen, Matt Craven, Henry Czerny, Taylor John Smith, Madison Davenport, Miguel Sandoval, Will Chase, Jackson Hurst, Sophia Lillis, Lulu Wilson, Elizabeth Perkins, it follows Camille Preaker, an troubled reporter who returns to her hometown to cover the murders of two young girls. The series received positive reviews, with many praising its visuals, dark atmosphere and acting the performances of Adams and Scanlen. Among its accolades, Clarkson won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film and Adams received a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film. Crime reporter Camille Preaker, suffering from alcoholism and discharged from a psychiatric hospital after years of self-harming, returns to her hometown of Wind Gap, Missouri, to investigate the murders of two young girls.
Upon arriving to her childhood home, she finds herself once again under the critical eye of her mother, Adora, a small-town socialite, which forces Camille to confront her personal demons. Amy Adams as Camille Preaker, an alcoholic reporter discharged from a psychiatric hospital Patricia Clarkson as Adora Crellin and Camille's overbearing socialite mother Chris Messina as Detective Richard Willis, a detective from Kansas City who arrives in Wind Gap to assist with the ongoing murder investigations Eliza Scanlen as Amma Crellin, Camille's half-sister and Adora's and Alan's daughter Matt Craven as Bill Vickery, the police chief of Wind Gap Henry Czerny as Alan Crellin, Amma's father, Adora's husband, Camille's stepfather Taylor John Smith as John Keene, the brother of Wind Gap's second murder victim, Natalie Keene Madison Davenport as Ashley Wheeler, the girlfriend of John Keene Miguel Sandoval as Frank Curry, the editor of the St. Louis Chronicle who gives Camille the assignment that leads her back to Wind Gap Will Chase as Bob Nash, the father of Wind Gap's first murder victim, Ann Nash Jackson Hurst as Kirk Lacey, a teacher at Wind Gap Middle School Sophia Lillis as young Camille Preaker Lulu Wilson as Marian Crellin, Camille's half sister who died in front of her when they were children, Adora's and Alan's first child together, Amma's sister Elizabeth Perkins as Jackie O'Neill, the town gossip and longtime family friend of the Crellins In 2008, it was reported that Gillian Flynn's novel Sharp Objects was in development by French production company Pathé with Andrea Arnold set to direct.
By 2012, it was reported that the novel had been optioned by Alliance Films with Jason Blum expected to serve as a producer. Subsequently, Marti Noxon approached Blum with her vision for an eight episode television series. On July 8, 2014, it was announced that Blumhouse Productions and Entertainment One would be developing and producing a drama based on the debut novel from Gillian Flynn. Marti Noxon would serve as the showrunner and executive producer, while Jean-Marc Vallée would serve as the director and executive producer. On April 1, 2016, it was announced that HBO had given the production an eight episode straight-to-series order. On May 15, 2018, it was announced that the series would premiere on July 8, 2018. On July 25, 2018, HBO president of programming Casey Bloys confirmed that, unlike other HBO series Big Little Lies, ordered as a limited series before being renewed for a second season, Sharp Objects will not return for more episodes following its limited run. On February 19, 2016, Variety reported.
In March 2017, it was announced that Patricia Clarkson, Eliza Scanlen, Elizabeth Perkins, Madison Davenport, Chris Messina, Matt Craven, Taylor John Smith had been cast in series regular roles. It was announced that Will Chase, Jackson Hurst, Jennifer Aspen had joined the cast in a recurring capacity. On May 22, 2017, it was announced that David Sullivan, Reagan Pasternak, Sydney Sweeney, Hilary Ward, Sophia Lillis had been cast in recurring roles. Principal photography for the series commenced on March 6, 2017. Filming locations included Barnesville, Georgia, it was reported. Showrunner Noxon described the alleged "toe-to-toe screaming matches" she and the other producers would get into with director Vallée over his refusal to adhere to the series' scripts. Noxon has described Vallée as "much more interested in imagery and telling stories through pictures, he's brilliant at that...but I love language... I studied theatre at Wesleyan before I became a writer, the beauty of language in the Southern Gothic tradition, is so important to me."
Noxon together with Gillian Flynn, Jessica Rhoades, Amy Adams, another male producer would have to pressure Vallée to include the dialogue of the script in his scenes, to his displeasure. Each episode features a title sequence with a different interpretation of the song "Dance and Angela" by Franz Waxman from the score of the 1951 film A Place in the Sun. An electronic treatment of the song, by Jeffrey Brodsky, was used for the second episode. All music featured in the series is diegetic; the series secured the rights to four songs by Led Zeppelin, a band, notoriously hard to get the rights for. Music supervisor Susan Jacobs stated, "We were trying
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai