Steven DaLuz is a contemporary American Neoluminist artist known for using chemically induced patinas on metal leaf and mixed media to produce figurative works and imagined landscapes reflecting upon the sublime as a pictorial theme. DaLuz was born in California, his works have been published in art periodicals, such as American Art Collector, Fine Art Connoisseur, The Artist, Professional Artist, The Huffington Post and Poets and Artists magazine, where he received the cover for the Nov 2009 Issue. Considered "ethereal and transcendent", his artwork has been said to combine "a spectacular dissertation on light and shadow with a brilliant collection of colors". DaLuz holds degrees in Social Psychology, Graphic Design, Fine Arts
Hudson River School
The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by Romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill and White Mountains. Neither the originator of the term Hudson River School nor its first published use has been fixed with certainty; the term is thought to have originated with the New York Tribune art critic Clarence Cook or the landscape painter Homer Dodge Martin. As used, the term was meant disparagingly, as the work so labeled had gone out of favor after the plein-air Barbizon School had come into vogue among American patrons and collectors. Hudson River School paintings reflect three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery and settlement; the paintings depict the American landscape as a pastoral setting, where human beings and nature coexist peacefully. Hudson River School landscapes are characterized by their realistic and sometimes idealized portrayal of nature juxtaposing peaceful agriculture and the remaining wilderness, fast disappearing from the Hudson Valley just as it was coming to be appreciated for its qualities of ruggedness and sublimity.
In general, Hudson River School artists believed that nature in the form of the American landscape was an ineffable manifestation of God, though the artists varied in the depth of their religious conviction. They took as their inspiration such European masters as Claude Lorrain, John Constable and J. M. W. Turner, their reverence for America's natural beauty was shared with contemporary American writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Several painters were members of the Düsseldorf school of painting, others were educated by the German Paul Weber. While the elements of the paintings were rendered realistically, many of the scenes were composed as a synthesis of multiple scenes or natural images observed by the artists. In gathering the visual data for their paintings, the artists would travel to extraordinary and extreme environments, which had conditions that would not permit extended painting at the site. During these expeditions, the artists recorded sketches and memories, returning to their studios to paint the finished works later.
A number of women artists were associated with the Hudson River School, though they tend to be less well known because they were excluded from formal training during most of the 19th century and had fewer exhibition opportunities. Notable women painters of the Hudson River School include Susie M. Barstow, an avid mountain-climber who painted the mountain scenery of the Catskills and the White Mountains; the artist Thomas Cole is acknowledged as the founder of the Hudson River School. Cole took a steamship up the Hudson in the autumn of 1825, the same year the Erie Canal opened, stopping first at West Point at Catskill landing, he hiked west high up into the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State to paint the first landscapes of the area. The first review of his work appeared in the New York Evening Post on November 22, 1825. At that time, only the English native Cole, born in a landscape where autumnal tints were of browns and yellows, found the brilliant autumn hues of the area to be inspirational.
Cole's close friend, Asher Durand, became a prominent figure in the school as well. An important part of the popularity of the Hudson River School was its celebration of its themes of nationalism and property. However, adherents of the movement were suspicious of the economic and technological development of the age; the second generation of Hudson River school artists emerged to prominence after Cole's premature death in 1848. Works by artists of this second generation are described as examples of Luminism. In addition to pursuing their art, many of the artists, including Kensett and Church, were among the founders of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Most of the finest works of the second generation were painted between 1855 and 1875. During that time, artists such as Frederic Edwin Church and Albert Bierstadt were celebrities, they were both influenced by the Düsseldorf school of painting, Bierstadt had studied in that city for several years. When Church exhibited paintings such as Niagara or The Icebergs, thousands of people paid twenty-five cents a head to view the solitary works.
The epic size of these landscapes, unexampled in earlier American painting, reminded Americans of the vast, but magnificent wilderness areas in their country. Such works were being painted during the period of settlement of the American West, preservation of national parks, establishment of green city parks. Along with museum collections, Hudson River School art has had minor periods of resurgence in popularity. Philip Verre, director of the Hudson River Museum, described that the school gained interest after World War I due to nationalist attitudes. A decline in interest took place until the 1960s, the regrowt
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States. It arose as a reaction, to protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality at the time; the doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School was of particular interest. Transcendentalism emerged from "English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism of David Hume", the transcendental philosophy of Immanuel Kant and German Idealism. Miller and Versluis regard Emanuel Swedenborg as a pervasive influence on transcendentalism, it was strongly influenced by Hindu texts on philosophy of the mind and spirituality the Upanishads. A core belief of transcendentalism is in the inherent goodness of people and nature. Adherents believe that society and its institutions have corrupted the purity of the individual, they have faith that people are at their best when "self-reliant" and independent.
Transcendentalism emphasizes subjective intuition over objective empiricism. Adherents believe that individuals are capable of generating original insights with little attention and deference to past masters. Transcendentalism is related to Unitarianism, the dominant religious movement in Boston in the early nineteenth century, it started to develop after Unitarianism took hold at Harvard University, following the elections of Henry Ware as the Hollis Professor of Divinity in 1805 and of John Thornton Kirkland as President in 1810. Transcendentalism was not a rejection of Unitarianism; the transcendentalists were not content with the sobriety and calm rationalism of Unitarianism. Instead, they longed for a more intense spiritual experience. Thus, transcendentalism was not born as a counter-movement to Unitarianism, but as a parallel movement to the ideas introduced by the Unitarians. Transcendentalism became a coherent movement and a sacred organization with the founding of the Transcendental Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on September 8, 1836 by prominent New England intellectuals, including George Putnam, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Frederic Henry Hedge.
From 1840, the group published in their journal The Dial, along with other venues. By the late 1840s, Emerson believed that the movement was dying out, more so after the death of Margaret Fuller in 1850. "All that can be said," Emerson wrote, "is that she represents an interesting hour and group in American cultivation." There was, however, a second wave of transcendentalists, including Moncure Conway, Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Samuel Longfellow and Franklin Benjamin Sanborn. Notably, the transcendence of the spirit, most evoked by the poet's prosaic voice, is said to endow in the reader a sense of purposefulness; this is the underlying theme in the majority of transcendentalist essays and papers—all of which are centered on subjects which assert a love for individual expression. Though the group was made up of struggling aesthetes, the wealthiest among them was Samuel Gray Ward, after a few contributions to The Dial, focused on his banking career. Transcendentalists are strong believers in the power of the individual.
It focuses on personal freedom. Their beliefs are linked with those of the Romantics, but differ by an attempt to embrace or, at least, to not oppose the empiricism of science. Transcendentalists desire to ground their religion and philosophy in principles based upon the German Romanticism of Herder and Schleiermacher. Transcendentalism merged "English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume", the transcendental philosophy of Immanuel Kant, interpreting Kant's a priori categories as a priori knowledge. Early transcendentalists were unacquainted with German philosophy in the original and relied on the writings of Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Victor Cousin, Germaine de Staël, other English and French commentators for their knowledge of it; the transcendental movement can be described as an American outgrowth of English Romanticism. Transcendentalists believe that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—corrupt the purity of the individual.
They have faith that people are at their best when "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals. With this necessary individuality, transcendentalists believe that all people are outlets for the "Over-soul." Because the Over-soul is one, this unites all people as one being. Emerson alludes to this concept in the introduction of the American Scholar address, "that there is One Man, - present to all particular men only or through one faculty; such an ideal is in harmony with Transcendentalist individualism, as each person is empowered to behold within him or herself a piece of the divine Over-soul. Transcendentalism has been directly influenced by Indian religions. Thoreau in Walden spoke of the Transcendentalists' debt to Indian religions directly: In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavat Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial.
I lay down the book and go to
Robert Salmon was a maritime artist, active in both England and America. Salmon completed nearly 1,000 paintings, all save one of maritime seascapes, he is considered the Father of American Luminism. Salmon was born in Whitehaven, England in October or November, 1775 as Robert Salomon, his father, Francis Salomon, was a jeweler. The young Salmon studied the work of Dutch marine painters of the 17th century, the Italian painters of vedute, the work of Claude Lorrain, but little else is known of his early training, his earliest known works, Two Armed Merchantmen Leaving Whitehaven Harbor and The ‘Estridge’ Off Dover are dated 1800. Salmon changed his name from Salomon to Salmon. Many of his marine paintings from this early period survive, are housed in the National Maritime Museum in London, his ship portraits indicate he had a familiarity with sailing ships and an intimate knowledge of how they worked. These portraits tend to follow his traditional practice of showing the same vessel in at least two positions on the same canvas.
In April, 1811 he moved from the Liverpool area to Greenock and back to Liverpool in October 1822. In 1826 he returned to Greenock he left for London in 1827, shortly thereafter he went to Southampton, North Shields and Liverpool. Along with many other young artists, Salmon believed that his artistic future lay in the United States. Before his departure in 1828, the artist executed his only extant portrait, Portrait of the Corsair, John Paul Jones, a work much a part of the Romantic ethos of his time, he assumed. He could not know, having never been to America, that the memory of America's greatest naval hero had vanished in the public mind before the painting was completed. In 1828, Salmon left Europe for the United States on the packet ship, "New York", arriving on New Years Day, 1829 and staying until 1840. Living in a small hut on Marine Railway Wharf overlooking Boston Harbor, Salmon prospered as a marine painter, accepting commissions to paint ship portraits. During the growth of Boston Harbor in the first half of the century, Salmon painted between 300-400 paintings of the Harbor, in the style of 17th century Dutch genre painting.
He was thought to be an eccentric and irascible man. Salmon soon became one of the most prominent Boston seascape painters. During the ensuing years, he divided his time between painting and working in the lithographic studio of William S. Pendleton, where he encountered William Bradford and Fitz Henry Lane; this contact between Lane and Salmon was of great importance to Lane, became evident in his marine views. During his lifetime, Salmon's work was popular, was collected by Bostonians Samuel Cabot, Robert Bennett Forbes, John Newmarch Cushing. Salmon left Boston in 1842 and for many years was believed to have died shortly after his leaving there. Instead, he went to Italy. A number of Italian views attributed to him have survived, the latest of, dated 1845, the year of his last documented work; the actual date of his death remains uncertain. Robert Salmon's works can be found at the U. S. Naval Academy. Askart.com Artcyclopedia.com Wwar.com The Estridge off Dover, 1800 - Rehs Galleries' biography and an image of an early painting
April Gornik is an American artist who paints American landscapes. Her realist yet dreamlike paintings and drawings embody oppositions and speak to America's conflicted relationship with nature. While she doesn't categorize herself as an environmental artist, she is a passionate supporter of environmental causes and has said, "I have no problem with people reading an ecological message into my work." Gornik received in 1976 her B. F. A. from the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, while attending the school she met her future husband, painter Eric Fischl. Art dealer Ed Thorp hosted her first solo exhibition in 1981, after having caught sight of her paintings while viewing Fischl's work, she is influenced by the feminist consciousness-raising of the late 20th century and, in speaking about female artists who have worked in the shadows of better known male artists, including Elaine de Kooning and Lee Krasner, she has said, "It's a problem. Women artists still receive lower prices for their art and remain less shown than their male counterparts."
Various permanent art collections include Gornik's work, including: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, Hood Museum of Art, Whitney Museum of American Art, Nasher Museum of Art, many others. Two of her paintings and Storm and Fires are held in the Smithsonian American Art Museum collection. In 2007, the Smithsonian Art Collectors Program commissioned Gornik to produce a print to benefit the educational and cultural programs of the Smithsonian Associates; the lithograph, entitled Blue Moonlight hangs in the ongoing exhibition Graphic Eloquence in the S. Dillon Ripley Center in the National Mall, Washington, D. C. Gornik has received several awards: the Neuberger Museum of Art Annual Honoree, the 18th annual Lifetime Achievement in the Arts Honoree by the Guild Hall of East Hampton, the Award of Excellence for Artistic Contributions to the Fight Against AIDS from the American Foundation for AIDS Research. Kuspit, Donald. April Gornik: Paintings and Drawings.
San Francisco: Neuberger Museum and Hudson Hills Press, 2006. ISBN 1-55595-229-1 Official website April Gornik interviewed by Robert Ayers, May 2009 Gornik's Blue Moonlight, The Smithsonian Art Collectors Program
James Augustus Suydam
James Augustus Suydam, was an American architect and artist. He is known as an American landscape painter and one of the leading members of the Hudson River School. James Augustus Suydam was born on March 27, 1819 and was descended from an old New York Dutch merchant family, his parents were Jane Suydam and John Suydam, considered "one of the old Knickerbocker merchants" and was head of Suydam & Wycoff, along with his brothers Henry P. M. Suydam and D. Lydig Suydam.. His brother, John Richard Suydam, was the mother of Jane Mesier Suydam, who married cousin Walter Lispenard Suydam, he graduated from New York University, began his career as a businessman but turned a significant portion of his energies to painting, studying under famed artist and portrait painter Minor C. Kellogg. At the age of thirty he was elected to the Century Association. One of the "regulars" who gathered to paint at North Conway, New Hampshire, he exhibited Conway Meadows at the New York Athenaeum and Boston Athenaeum, he opened his studio at the noted 10th Street Studio Building, New York City, in 1858.
The following year he was elected an honorary professional member in the prestigious National Academy of Design, which granted him full membership in 1861. He died in North Conway at the age of 46; the posthumous sale of his estate revealed that he owned works by "old masters such as Rembrandt, Dürer and Raphael and contemporaries including Rosa Bonheur, Ary Scheffer, George Caleb Bingham." In his will, he left $50,000 to the National Academy along with his collection of 92 paintings including works by Frederick E. Church, John F. Kensett, Charles Edouard Frère, Andreas Achenbach. James Suydam was described by his friend, the accomplished artist Sanford Robinson Gifford as a "thoroughly educated and accomplished man." In addition to his work as an artist, which he began only after working in law and architecture, he was read and well-versed in history and the sciences. His work as a landscape painter reflects this breadth of knowledge and reveals Suydam as a spiritual individual. Using his familiarity with science, Suydam reduced nature to calm, planar forms, distorted proportional relations so that God's creations loomed superior over the work of man.
The National Academy has most of his works such as Paradise Rocks, the Taft family's Taft Museum holds works. The Taft has a podcast website for this artist. A painting of Gifford's from 1859 which Suydam, according to a report, "donated to the academy in 1865," became the subject of a deaccession controversy at the Academy in late 2008. In 2006, a retrospective of Suydam's work was held at the National Academy Museum. Hudson River school visions: the landscapes of Sanford R. Gifford, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Suydam
David Johnson (American artist)
David Johnson was a member of the second generation of Hudson River School painters. Johnson was born in New York, he studied for two years at the antique school of the National Academy of Design and studied with the Hudson River artist Jasper Francis Cropsey. Along with John Frederick Kensett and John William Casilear, he was best known for the development of Luminism. On the back of a painting made at Haines Falls, Kauterskill Clove, in 1849, Johnson wrote "My first study from nature. Made in company with J. F. Kensett, J. W. Casilear,". By 1850, Johnson was exhibiting at the National Academy of Design in New York, where he became an associate in 1859. Johnson's signature works are small in format painted, delicately handled and richly colored. Based on copious preliminary drawings and studies of specific trees in their natural environment, his paintings are accurate and inviting representations of Northeastern scenery and'exquisite examples of the style, now called Luminism.' Johnson painted numerous Lake George scenes between the late 1860s and early 1870s, including View of Dresden, Lake George.
Johnson's greatest success was achieved during the mid-1870s, when he exhibited paintings of such popular landscape locales as the Catskills, Lake George and the White Mountains, as well as pastoral scenes of central New York state, an area which he was the only important artist of the era to frequent. He exhibited extensively in major American art centers, including Chicago and Philadelphia, at the Paris Salon of 1877. Thenceforward his work changed to reflect the influence of the French Barbizon school, a stylistic transition that met with harsh critical reception from his colleagues, but which paralleled the dilemma faced by Hudson River school painters seeking to stay relevant as aesthetic tastes changed. Bayside, New Rochelle, New York is an example of Johnson's work, when the Barbizon influence eclipsed his earlier debt to the Hudson River school. Johnson died in Walden, New York, in 1908. List of Hudson River School artists Howat, John K. et al. American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1987.
American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Johnson White Mountain paintings by David Johnson Reynolda House Museum of American Art