Blood Mountain is the highest peak on the Georgia section of the Appalachian Trail and the sixth-tallest mountain in Georgia, with an elevation of 4,458 feet. Average rainfall/ 63.48in /yr/ Average snowfall/ 34.88in /yr/. It is located on the border of Lumpkin County with Union County and is within the boundaries of the Chattahoochee National Forest and the Blood Mountain Wilderness. There are hiking trails and other recreational areas in the vicinity. Blood Mountain is the high point of the Apalachicola River watershed via the Chattahoochee River, making the mountain the highest point of any land draining to the state of Florida. There are various theories on the origin of the mountain's name; some believe that the name of the mountain comes from a bloody battle between the Cherokee and Creek Indians. Some people believe that it got its name from the reddish color of the lichen and Catawba growing near the summit; the mountain drew media attention in January 2008 when 24-year-old hiker Meredith Emerson went missing from a nearby trail.
Her body was recovered some distance away. Authorities arrested Gary Hilton on charges of murdering Emerson. On January 31 Hilton was sentenced to life in prison; this peak has scenic views from the large rock formations. There is a hiker's shelter at the top of the mountain maintained by the Georgia Appalachian Trail Club, at the bottom of the eastern side of the mountain is a hostel and store at the Walasi-Yi Interpretive Center; the summit shelter is a two-room stone cabin, built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1934 and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in January 2013. The Walasi-Yi Center started out as log cabin constructed in the early 20th century by a logging company, it was renovated and expanded by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1933-38 into a larger stone building. The Center now houses a store. There is a short but steep approach trail to the top of the mountain from a parking area to the immediate north of the Walasi-Yi Center; this hike includes views as walkers approach the summit, the final 1.5 miles, past the Flatrock Gap intersection with the Byron Reece Trail, has a number of switchbacks.
It is the most hiked segment of the Appalachian Trail in Georgia. Another approach is from the other side at Lake Winfield Scott via the Slaughter Creek Trail; this approach, easier to hike, has campsites and a number of sources of treatable water. Adjacent to the mountain are several boulder fields and stands of northern hardwoods and large buckeyes. Portions of the area were logged and now sport fast-growing tulip poplar. Near Blood Mountain are DeSoto Falls Scenic Recreation Area and campground, Vogel State Park and Sosebee Cove Scenic Area. All are accessible from Blood Mountain by road. List of mountains in Georgia Brown and Nell Jones; the Georgia Conservancy's Guide to 3rd Edition. Atlanta: 1996, Longstreet Press. ISBN 1-56352-314-0 Tucker, Margaret. "A Winter Hike on Blood Mountain." Reprinted in Brown's Guide to the Georgia Outdoors, John W. English, ed. Atlanta: 1986, Cherokee Publishing. ISBN 0-87797-128-5 Georgia's Named Summits 100 highest peaks in Georgia Georgia peaks over 4,000 feet Blood Mountain Hiking, Backpacking & Camping Guide TopoQuest map of Blood Mountain Forest Service information about Blood Mountain Hiking Trail information to summit of Blood Mountain
Auraria is a ghost town in Lumpkin County, United States, southwest of Dahlonega. Its name derives from the Latin word for gold. In its early days, it was known variously as Dean, Deans and Scuffle Town. Thousands of settlers came to these former Cherokee lands in search of gold during the Georgia Gold Rush, following the Gold Lottery of 1832. One of the first gold rush boom towns started here in June 1832, when William Dean built a cabin between the Chestatee River and Etowah River; the temporary seat of Lumpkin County in 1832, Nathaniel Nuckolls built a tavern and several buildings to house the miners. Within six months of the lottery, "one hundred family dwellings, eighteen or twenty stores, twelve or fifteen law offices, four or five taverns" were to be found in the town; the population was 1,000 by May 1833, 10,000 were in the county. The land east of Auraria was purchased by Vice President John C. Calhoun, there he established the Calhoun Mine. A traveling companion of Calhoun, Dr. Croft, suggested the town be renamed Aureola, in Nov. 1832.
The town citizens picked Auraria, suggested by John Powell. The banks of the Etowah River, Camp Creek, Cane Creek had many mines; the 40-acre gold lot on which most of Auraria stood was won by John R. Plummer, but his right to participate in the lottery was questioned. Faced with this legal challenge, the Inferior Court judges picked the site north of Auraria near the Cane Creek minining area. Auraria experienced a sharp decline; the first session of the Superior Court of Lumpkin County met in what became known as Dahlonega, Georgia on Aug. 22, 1833. Due to its location and political influence, Dahlonega received a Federal Mint for gold coins. In 1848, gold was discovered in California. Former Auraria resident Jennie Wimmer, a cook in rural California, was the first person to prove the gold's authenticity, because she was the only person on the scene who knew how to perform the proper tests; this discovery led to the California gold rush of 1849. Discoveries of gold in California and soon after in Colorado caused Auraria to fade into history.
Gold mining in Georgia decreased and all but ceased as miners went west looking for uncharted prospecting. Auraria's population dwindled, the community deteriorated. William Greeneberry Russell and a party of men of Auraria who left for Kansas Territory formed the settlement of Auraria in 1858. There are still a few old buildings standing: the collapsing Graham Hotel, they stand in lone testament to the 19th century gold rush. Auraria is located at 34°28.5′N 84°1.4′W, at an elevation of 1401 feet To get to Auraria, go to the square in Dahlonega. Follow the west road to Dawsonville, pass the college. Turn left at the bottom of that hill and continue about 3 miles; the old red house on the left is the bank. Castleberry Bridge Road to the right leads down to the Etowah River. Map: Coulter, E. Merton. Auraria: the story of a Georgia gold-mining town. Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820300214. Retrieved 20 February 2018. Lumpkin County, Georgia Auraria historical marker'Thar's Gold in Them Thar Hills': Gold and Gold Mining in Georgia, 1830s-1940s from the Digital Library of Georgia
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
The Dahlonega Mint was a former branch of the United States Mint built during the Georgia Gold Rush to help the miners get their gold assayed and minted, without having to travel to the Philadelphia Mint. It was located at in Lumpkin County, Georgia. Coins produced at the Dahlonega Mint bear the "D" mint mark; that mint mark is used today by the Denver Mint, which opened many years after the Dahlonega Mint closed. All coins from the Dahlonega Mint are gold, in the $1, $2.50, $3, $5 denominations, bear dates in the range 1838–1861. The Mint Act of 1835, established by the United States Congress on 3 March, established "one branch at the city of New Orleans for the coinage of gold and silver. Mint machinery was installed in 1837, which included "cutting presses, a fly wheel, a drawing frame, a crank shaft, a coining press, eighteen annealing pans." The coining press could make "fifty to sixty gold coins per minute."Superintendent Dr. Joseph Singleton, opened the mint in February 1838. About a thousand ounces of gold were deposited in the first week, the first coins consisting of eighty five-dollar gold pieces, were minted on 17 April.
The mint produced coins every year from 1838 through 1861. Denominations produced included $1.00. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, the Dahlonega Mint was seized by the Confederates, it is believed that after the Confederates took over the mint in 1861, that some gold dollars and half eagles were minted under the authority of the Confederate States Government. The exact number of 1861-D gold dollars produced is unknown, while 1,597 1861-D half eagles were struck; because of their low mintage, all Dahlonega-minted gold coins are rare. It is accepted that gold coins estimated to exceed $6 million were minted here. After the end of the Civil War, The United States Government decided against reopening the mint; the building was unused until the founding of North Georgia College in 1873. The mint building was used as the main academic and administrative building for the college until a fire destroyed the original building in December 1878. A new building for the college was erected on the foundations of the old mint building.
This building is now named Price Memorial Hall after William P. Price, the founder of the college, is still used by the college today. Gold leaf from this area covers the exterior of the domed roof over the rotunda of the Georgia State Capitol in Atlanta. Local media refer to the state legislature's activities as what's going on "under the gold dome". After the capitol building was gold leafed citizens of Dahlonega began a campaign to gold leaf Price Memorial Hall after the same fashion as the capitol. For other United States Mint facilities, see Historical United States mints. Six men acted as Superintendent of the Dahlonega Mint. Joseph Singleton, 1838–1841 Paul Rossignol, 1841–1843 James Fairlie Cooper, 1843–1849 Anderson Redding, 1849–1853 Julius Patton, 1853–1860 George Kellogg, 1860–1861 Historical United States mints California gold coinage Georgia Historical Marker Winter, Douglas "Gold Coins of the Dahlonega Mint" 1997. DWN Publishing Media related to Dahlonega Mint at Wikimedia Commons U.
S. Mint'Thar's Gold in Them Thar Hills': Gold and Gold Mining in Georgia, 1830s-1940s from the Digital Library of Georgia
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol