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Luna 1

Luna 1 known as Mechta, E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit. Intended as an impactor, Luna 1 was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit. A malfunction in the ground-based control system caused an error in the rocket's burntime, the spacecraft missed the target and flew by the Moon at a distance of 5,900 km at the closest point. Luna 1 became the first human-made object to reach heliocentric orbit and was dubbed a "new planet" and renamed Mechta. Luna 1 was referred to as the "First Cosmic Rocket", in reference to its achievement of escape velocity. Luna 1 was the final spacecraft of the Ye-1 spacecraft series; the previous three iterations did not achieve orbit due to issues with each rocket launch.

The satellite and rocket carrying Luna 1 was referred to as the Soviet Space Rocket by the Soviet Press. Pravda writer Alexander Kazantsev called it Mechta. Citizens of Moscow unofficially deemed it a combination of Luna and Sputnik, it was renamed to Luna 1 in 1963. The spherical satellite was powered by silver-zinc accumulators. There were five antenna on one hemisphere, four whip style and one rigid, for communication purposes; the spacecraft contained radio equipment including a tracking transmitter and telemetry system. There was no propulsion system. Luna 1 was designed to impact the Moon, delivering two metallic pennants with the Soviet coat of arms that were included into its payload package, it had six instruments to study the Moon and interplanetary space. The flux-gate magnetometer could measure ± 3000 gammas, it was designed to detect lunar magnetic fields. Two micrometeorite detectors, developed by Tatiana Nazarova of the Vernadsky Institute, were installed on the spacecraft, they each could detect small impacts.

Four ion traps, used to measure solar wind and plasma, were included. They were developed by Konstantin Gringauz; the scientific payload included two gas-discharge Geiger counters, a sodium-iodide scintillation counter, a Cherenkov detector. The upper stage of the rocket contained a scintillation counter and 1 kilogram of sodium for a gas-dispersion experiment; the spacecraft weighed 361.3 kilograms at launch. Luna 1 was launched at 16:41 GMT on 2 January 1959 from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Luna 8K72 rocket; the first three stages operated nominally. The Soviet engineers did not trust automated systems for controlling the engine burns, so they communicated to the rocket via radio; the signal to stop firing the engine Block E stage was sent too late, it imparted an extra 175 m/s to Luna 1. Luna 1 missed its target by 5,995 kilometers; the spacecraft passed within 5,995–6,400 kilometers of the Moon's surface on 4 January after 34 hours of flight. Luna 1 ran out of battery power on 5 January 1959 when it was 597,000 kilometers from Earth, making it impossible to track further.

The batteries were designed for a minimum of 40 hours but lasted for 62. Luna 1 became the first artificial object to reach the escape velocity of the Earth, along with its carrier rocket's 1,472-kilogram upper stage, which it separated from after being the first spacecraft to reach heliocentric orbit, it remains between the orbits of Earth and Mars. At 00:57 UTC on 3 January, at a distance of 113,000 kilometres from Earth, 1 kilogram of sodium gas was released by the spacecraft, forming a cloud behind it to serve as an artificial comet; the cloud was released for two purposes: to allow visual tracking of the spacecraft's trajectory and to observe the behavior of gas in space. This glowing orange trail of gas, visible over the Indian Ocean with the brightness of a sixth-magnitude star for a few minutes, was photographed by Mstislav Gnevyshev at the Mountain Station of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR near Kislovodsk, it served as an experiment on the behavior of gas in outer space.

While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high-energy particles exist in the outer belt. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space; the craft was unable to detect a lunar magnetic field which placed an upper limit on its strength of 1/10,000th of Earth's. The first-ever direct observations and measurements of solar wind, a strong flow of ionized plasma emanating from the Sun and streaming through interplanetary space, were performed; that ionized plasma concentration was measured to be some 700 particles per cm3 at altitudes 20–25 thousand km and 300 to 400 particles per cm3 at altitudes 100–150,000 km. The spacecraft marked the first instance of radio communication at the half-million-kilometer distance; some doubted the veracity of the Soviets' claim of mission success. Lloyd Malan wrote about it in a book called The Big Red Lie.

Many in the West did not receive transmissions from the spacecraft though the Soviets publicized them before the flight. By the time the Earth rotated so that scientists in America could pick up signals from the spacecraft, it was 171,000 kilometers away; the Soviet Union issued stamps to commemorate their success

Dean Wicks

Dean Wicks is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders played by Matt Di Angelo. He made his first appearance on 2 January 2006, it was announced on 18 August 2007 that the characters of Deano and his sister Carly Wicks were being axed by executive producer Diederick Santer. Deano made his final appearance on 7 February 2008. On 15 January 2014, it was announced that Deano, now called Dean, would be returning and Di Angelo would begin filming the following month. Di Angelo took a three-month break from the soap from January to April 2015, with a one-off appearance in February to tie in with the show's 30th anniversary celebrations. In October 2015, it was announced that Di Angelo would be leaving the show in early 2016; the character is arrested for attempted rape with his final scenes set in court airing on 4 and 5 February 2016. On 19 August 2016, Dean is acquitted of attempted rape after standing trial off-screen; when Deano arrives in Walford in 2006, he persuades his great aunt Pat Evans to take him in and is soon joined by his stepfather Kevin Wicks and sister Carly.

Deano causes trouble by spiking Stacey Slater's alcohol with drugs and allowing Bradley Branning to take the blame, stealing The Queen Victoria public house's bust and driving recklessly, crashing a car – behaviour prompted by the anniversary of his brother Jimbo's death. Deano is unwittingly reunited with his estranged mother, Shirley Carter, during a family holiday in Dorset. Despite Kevin's efforts to stop her, Shirley makes herself known to Deano and Carly and reveals that she is their mother. Deano struggles with this and after seeing Shirley behave promiscuously, he behaves recklessly and crashes a car at high-speed injuring himself, his passenger Chelsea Fox and a pedestrian, Abi Branning. Deano nearly bonds with Shirley during his recovery. Kevin is opposed to this and during many arguments, the truth about Deano and Carly's paternity is revealed by Shirley: Kevin is not their biological father. Deano is devastated and threatens suicide by setting himself on fire but is stopped before going through with it.

Unlucky in love, Deano has unrequited crushes on Dawn Swann and Chelsea. Chelsea forces Deano into getting involved in a feud against Sean Slater. Deano is conquered and battered. Chelsea and Deano swear revenge and frame Sean for the assault of Patrick Trueman, stealing CCTV footage that would have exonerated him. Sean is imprisoned; when Carly finds the stolen CCTV footage, she gives it to the police and Sean is released. Deano and Chelsea are released on bail. Sean attacks Deano again. Afraid of spending time in prison, Deano attempts to run away twice before his trial but faces up to his responsibilities and is sentenced to six months imprisonment, he finds prison hard. On visits, his family discover that he is being bullied by the other prisoners and, after getting into trouble, he is denied early parole. Deano is permitted to attend Kevin's funeral under police supervision; when Deano is released from prison, he has changed vastly, behaving in a morose manner having been traumatised by his incarceration.

He brings a prostitute back to Shirley's flat and forces his mother to pay for her services. He headbutts Sean and when Shirley says she wants to rebuild their relationship, Deano responds with exasperation, violently pinning her against a wall, shouting in her face, showing her his prison injuries, stealing cash and jewellery from her. After rejecting his mother, Deano leaves Walford. In September 2012, Carly returns to Walford for two days and tells Shirley that Deano is doing well, owns a bar and lives with his girlfriend in Australia. Dropping his former nickname, Dean returns to the UK and develops a relationship with his maternal grandfather, Stan Carter, he follows Stan back to Walford, opening a salon there named Blades, funded by Stan, dating Lauren Branning. He acquaints himself with his mother's family, who now own The Queen Vic, but is unkind towards Shirley, verbally abusing her for her poor parenting, leading to Mick Carter punching him. Dean bonds with his mother and begins to integrate into his newfound family.

He is attracted to later, obsessed with Mick's partner, Linda Carter, who maternally hugs him after Shirley hurts him by stealing from him because she owes Phil Mitchell. Dean breaks into Phil's house. Dean gropes Linda's buttocks during a photoshoot at Blades. Although Dean helps clean Shirley up after she shoots Phil, Shirley's aunt Babe Smith refuses to let Shirley take Dean with them as she flees from the police, leaving Dean distraught. Linda comforts; when Linda protests, Dean rapes her. Linda tells no one about the ordeal but is mentally traumatised, more so when she discovers she is pregnant and fears that the baby is Dean's. Dean continues as if nothing has happened and begins dating Stacey after she moves into a flat share with him. Stacey, herself a victim of rape, starts to notice Linda flinch whenever Dean is present and works out what has happened, she ends her relationship with Dean, refusing to believe his version of events. Stacey persuades Linda to

Patchway railway station

Patchway railway station is on the South Wales Main Line, serving the Bristol suburbs of Patchway and Stoke Gifford in South Gloucestershire, England. It is 6 miles from Bristol Temple Meads, its three letter station code is PWY. It is managed by Great Western Railway, who provide all train services at the station a train every hour in each direction between Cardiff Central and Taunton; the station was opened by the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway in 1863 with a single platform, 0.5 miles west of the current location, but was resited in 1885 when the line was widened to double track. The station once had large buildings and a goods yard, but these were demolished in the late 20th century, with small brick shelters built in their place; the line through Patchway is due to be electrified by 2018 as part of the 21st-century modernisation of the Great Western Main Line. Patchway railway station is located in the Patchway area of South Gloucestershire, within the Bristol conurbation. There is a large Rolls-Royce industrial area to the west of the station, while the area to the north and east is residential.

To the south is a large amount of railway land, including the Filton Triangle depot. The station is on the South Wales Main Line between Bristol Parkway and Newport, just off the Cross Country Route north of Filton Abbey Wood and the east end of the Henbury Loop Line, it is 5 miles 77 chains from Bristol Temple Meads and 114 miles 5 chains from London Paddington via Bristol Parkway. The station is just north of Patchway Junctions 1 and 2, where the lines from Bristol Parkway, Filton Abbey Wood and Henbury converge; the next station east is Bristol Parkway, the next station south is Filton Abbey Wood, the next station west is Pilning. The station is on a rough north/south alignment. There are two platforms, connected by an open footbridge. Platform 1, on the east side of the station and adjacent to the Up Tunnel track, is for trains towards Filton Abbey Wood and Bristol Parkway. Platform 2, on the west side and adjacent to the Down Tunnel track, is for trains towards Pilning. Both platforms are 121 metres long, the tracks have a speed limit of 90 miles per hour.

The line through Patchway has a loading gauge of W8, handles over 15 million train tonnes per year. It is not electrified, though it is planned to be electrified as part of the 21st-century modernisation of the Great Western Main Line; the main access to the station is from Station Road to the east, however there is a set of steps and a turnstile into the industrial estate to the west. Facilities at the station are minimal – there are small brick shelters on each platform, but no facilities for buying tickets. There are customer help points. A small car park with 15 spaces, racks for four bicycles, is on the east side of the station on Station Road. CCTV cameras are in operation at the station. Access to the eastern platform is step-free from the car park, however there is no step-free access to trains; the only public access to the western platform is via the stepped footbridge. From 2002 to 2014, annual passenger numbers at Patchway more than quintupled, from 16,898 to 92,540, the station was noted in 2013 as having a high growth trend.

However, these numbers are still low: Patchway is the 1,730th busiest station in Great Britain. Patchway is managed by Great Western Railway; the basic service from Monday to Friday is one train per hour in each direction between Cardiff Central and Taunton, with some trains extended beyond Taunton to Exeter St Davids, Paignton or Plymouth. In addition, there is one early morning service to Portsmouth Harbour and a late night service to Westbury, with similar return workings. There is an early morning CrossCountry service from Cardiff to Manchester Piccadilly via Bristol Temple Meads, a return working in the evening. On Saturdays there is a similar level of service throughout most of the day, with one train per hour in each direction between Cardiff and Taunton, in addition to the single CrossCountry return service. On Sundays a more limited service operates, with one train every three hours between Cardiff and Westbury, with trains terminating at either Portsmouth Harbour, Brighton or Warminster.

Throughout each day, Great Western Railway services between London Paddington and South Wales pass through non-stop, two trains per hour in each direction on weekdays, one train per hour at weekends. All trains southbound call next at Filton Abbey Wood, every train westbound calls next at Severn Tunnel Junction. Despite being the next station along the South Wales Main Line, there is only one weekday service which calls at both Patchway and Bristol Parkway, that being an early morning service from Taunton to Cardiff; the local services described above are formed using Class 150, 153, 158 and 166 diesel multiple-unit trains. The CrossCountry services are operated using Class 220 and 221 Voyager diesel-electric multiple units, the non-stop services between London and Wales use Class 800s; the standard journey time to Bristol Temple Meads is 13 minutes, to Cardiff Central is 45 minutes. Patchway railway station first opened on 8 September 1863 when services began on the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway, which ran from Bristol Temple Meads to New Passage Pier, north of Bristol on the banks of the River Severn.

At New Passage, passengers were transferred to a ferry to cross the Severn to continue o

Avalude Ravukal

Avalude Ravukal is a 1978 Indian Malayalam drama film, directed by I. V. Sasi and written by Alleppey Sheriff; the film explores the life of a teenage prostitute and those of the people around her. Sasi and Kamal Haasan made guest appearances in the film. Upon release, the film received less audience in the first three days but the situation changed in the coming days and it became one of the highest-grossing films of the year. Avalude Ravukal is the first Malayalam film to receive an "A" certificate from the Central Board of Film Certification, it is considered as one of the boldest Malayalam films of all time. Sasi, the experimental and the most popular director at that time, tried to highlight a theme which most mainstream directors are afraid to get into; the film was dubbed and released in Tamil as Avalin Iravugal and in Hindi as Her Nights and were successful at the box office. It was remade in Kannada in Hindi as Patita; the story pivots around Raji, a young prostitute, three young men in her life: Two college-going youngsters, Jayan and a school teacher Chandran.

Raji loses her parents early in her life, leaving the responsibility of bringing up her younger brother Sudhakaran on her shoulders. Circumstances and her unskilled status force her into the life of a prostitute, she begins living in a cycle-rickshaw driver Damu, her ` agent' or pimp. Babu is a student. Raji falls for Babu and becomes a regular visitor at his flat though he, afraid for his reputation tries to throw her out. Raji's declares her love for Babu but says that she does not want to have sexual relations with him, as he would be like another customer. However, she cajoles him into letting her sleep at his place on the floor refusing his romantic overtures. News spreads about Babu's relationship with Raji, assumed falsely to be that of a customer and prostitute. Raji's brother Sudhakaran has a teacher-student relationship with Chandran. One day a beggar steals Chandran's wrist watch through an open window. Sudhakaran is arrested by the police, because he is a regular at Chandran's room, is the immediate suspect.

He dies from the physical trauma after his release. The real thief is arrested. From remorse, Chandran offers money to Raji, but she refuses to accept it or forgive him in any manner. Babus's father Karunakaran decides to marry his son off to his wife Lakshmi's brother's daughter, Damodaran's daughter Radha. Karunakaran and Radha visit Babu's hostel room and are shocked to see Raji in there, who, as usual, was just there to talk to Babu and be with him. They, of course, assume. Damodaran and angered, breaks off the engagement and marries Radha off to another man. Jayan, who had had a severe drinking problem, dies of liver-related complications. On his death bed he asks Babu to not abandon Raji and emphasizes it with the justification that her love for him is pure if its'impure' in the eyes of society. Raji gets gang-raped and Chandran's timely intervention saves her. Babu's mother believes her son's denials of impropriety with Raji, comes to meet Babu and Raji, she takes pity on Raji when she comes to know about her son's blind love for her.

Lakshmi accepts her as her daughter-in-law and takes her home, Babu's father is forced to accept Raji as his daughter-in-law. The music was composed by A. T. Ummer and the lyrics were written by Bichu Thirumala; the song "Raagendu Kiranangal" is today considered an all-time classic. Guna Singh composed the background score. Music for the song "Raagendu Kiranangal" was copied from the song "Pal bhar mein yeh kya ho" in the film Swami released in 1977. Avalude Ravukal on IMDb Avalude Ravukal Movie Online

2008 Kids' Choice Awards

The 21st Annual Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards was held on March 29, 2008, at the Pauley Pavilion, Los Angeles, California. The show was the first live-action/animated Kids Choice Awards show; the event was hosted by Jack Black. Voting began March 3 on Nicktropolis. A "Bring on the Nominees" special hosted by Lil' JJ aired also; the Naked Brothers Band and Miley Cyrus were musical performances for the show. A sweepstakes was announced to promote the show; the number of votes cast broke the record set in 2007. 86,708,020 kids cast 88,254,272 votes between March 3–29 in 18 categories, to honor and vote for their favorites. Votes were cast via Nick.com, TurboNick, for the first time via Nick's new mobile website. The award show attracted 7.7 million viewers. The Naked Brothers Band performed "I Don't Want to Go to School" Miley Cyrus performed "G. N. O" Harrison Ford – While presenting Favorite Voice From an Animated Movie with Shia LaBeouf, Ford replaced an orb containing the winner with a blimp, similar to the classic scene in Raiders of the Lost Ark.

Like that scene, a "booby-trap" bucket of slime was dumped onto his head. Ford joked about it and LaBeouf gave him his trademark fedora. Brendan Fraser – While presenting Favorite TV Show with Rihanna, carrying an umbrella, Fraser asked why she had one; the singer slyly replied that "this is for you", a stream of slime rose from the podium and hit Fraser's forehead. Orlando Bloom – Bloom was the mystery celebrity at the end of the show who got slimed with 27 gallons of the green goo alongside Jack Black. Jack Black – The host was slimed at the end of the show with the 27 gallons of slime collected from the slime stunts with Orlando Bloom. 1/3 – Akon performed the Slime-o-Lition Derby driving the Jack Black Bobblehead. 2/3 – Usher performed using a high pressure slime cannon shooter blasting the costume sumo wrestler five feet. 3/3 – Heidi Klum performed the human dartboard using a butt spike belt. Otis and Pip form Back at the Barnyard. Winners are listed first, in bold. Other nominees are in alphabetical order.

Cameron Diaz The Rocktopus is an eight legged octopus of rock n' roll who haunts Jack Black in his dreams. During the awards show, they settle their differences in time for the Rocktopus to activate the slimer machine; the iCarly cast was live outside the Pauley Pavilion in Hollywood, where the 2008 Kids' Choice Awards were held. The cast aired from 9/8c - 11/10c. Carly, Sam and Spencer were at the Kids' Choice Awards because Spencer was hired to make a Kids' Choice Awards Blimp out of Wieners. Although Spencer was working on his sculpture, he happened to peek around the show, like the Gift bags for the Celebrities, going into Jack Black's Dressing Room, stealing some mini wienies from the Snack table. In the end, his sculpture was destroyed. People believed that it was a fan who destroyed the sculpture as security tackled the Snack Lady. Countdown to Kids' Choice: Lil' Mama - Shawty Get LooseThe Show: The Naked Brothers Band, "I Don't Want To Go to School" Miley Cyrus, "G. N. O." Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards Press Kit Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards Main Website

It's a Great Day to Be Alive

"It's a Great Day to Be Alive" is a song written by Darrell Scott. It was recorded by American country music artist Jon Randall, it was to have been included on an album titled Great Day to Be Alive, which would have been released in the late 1990s via BNA Records.. Scott released his own version of his song on his 1997 album Aloha from Nashville; the song was recorded by The Sky Kings, an American country-rock supergroup consisting of Bill Lloyd, Rusty Young, John Cowan around 1995/1996. Their version sat unreleased until Rhino Handmade released the compilation "From Out Of The Blue" in 2000; the song was covered more famously by American country music artist Travis Tritt. It was released in December 2000 as the second single from his album Down the Road I Go, it peaked at number 2 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart and at number 33 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 chart, it was subsequently covered by Pat Green and Cory Morrow on their March 2001 album Songs We Wish We'd Written.

Deborah Evans Price, of Billboard magazine in her review of the album, called the song a "what-the-hell anthem" and a "sunny single." The music video is a live performance directed by Jon Small, begins with Travis Tritt performing the end of his 1992 cover of Elvis Presley's 1975 hit "T-R-O-U-B-L-E". It shows him performing the song to a packed crowd, with occasional cut-aways to Travis performing some of his daily routines It ends with the crowd singing the song's hook back to him, which he applauds, it was released in early January 2001. The video was recorded at the Historic Tennessee Theatre in Tennessee. "It's a Great Day to Be Alive" debuted at number 59 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of December 16, 2000. In 2015, the song was covered by Country and Irish artist Lee Matthews with an accompanying music video released in September 2015. American country music parody artist Cledus T. Judd released a parody of "It's A Great Day to Be Alive" titled "It's A Great Day to Be a Guy" on his 2002 album Cledus Envy.

Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics