Luna 13 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program. The Luna 13 spacecraft was launched toward the Moon from an Earth-orbiting platform and accomplished a soft landing on December 24, 1966, in the region of Oceanus Procellarum; the petal encasement of the spacecraft was opened, antennas were erected, radio transmissions to Earth began four minutes after the landing. On December 25 and December 26, 1966, the spacecraft television system transmitted panoramas of the nearby lunar landscape at different Sun angles; each panorama required 100 minutes to transmit. The spacecraft was equipped with a mechanical soil-measuring penetrometer, a dynamograph, a radiation densitometer for obtaining data on the mechanical and physical properties and the cosmic ray reflectivity of the lunar surface. Transmissions from the spacecraft ceased on December 28, 1966. Luna 13 became the third spacecraft to land on the surface of the Moon; the probe landed in the Ocean of Storms at 18:01 UT on 24 December 1966, between the Krafft and Seleucus craters at 18°52' north latitude and 62°3' west longitude.
Unlike its predecessor, the heavier Luna 13 lander carried a suite of scientific instruments in addition to the usual imaging system. A three-axis accelerometer within the pressurized frame of the lander recorded the landing forces during impact to determine the soil structure down to a depth of 20 to 30 centimetres. A pair of spring-loaded booms was deployed. One of these booms carried a penetrometer, designed to measure the forces required to penetrate the lunar regolith – the penetrating force being supplied by a minute explosive charge; the other boom carried a backscatter densitometer, used to infer the density of the lunar near-surface regolith. Four radiometers recorded infrared radiation from the surface indicating a noon temperature of 117 ±3 °C while a radiation detector indicated that radiation levels would be less than hazardous for humans; the lander returned a total of five panoramas of the lunar surface, showing a more smooth terrain than seen by Luna 9. One of the two cameras failed.
After a successful mission, contact was lost at 06:13 UTC on 28 December when the on-board batteries were exhausted. List of artificial objects on the Moon Zarya - Luna 13 chronology Soviet Lunar Images Luna-13 sends photographs of Moon
Kaalam Maari Pochu is a Tamil language film released in 1956 with Gemini Ganesan and Anjali Devi in lead roles. It is a remake of the Telugu film Rojulu Marayi; the film was produced in Telugu with the title Rojulu Marayi by C. V. R. Prasath and directed by Tapi Chanakya; the Tamil film was produced with new cast. Dialogues and songs were written for the Tamil version; the dialogues were written by Muhavai Rajamanickam, a freedom fighter and was the leader of the united Communist Party of India. He was a famous writer in Tamil Language; the film was shot on rural locations with real-life farmers partaking. The story focuses social and economic issues faced by farmers in rural areas and intertwined with a love story. A money lender in the village surreptitiously grabs the lands of poor farmers after lending them money; the un-educated poor farmers lose their lands due to ignorance. The son of a poor farmer, educated, bares the truth about the money lender and in the presence of the District Collector gives back the lands to the owners.
The dialogues and songs are written in such a way to promote social equality. Gemini GanesanAnjali DeviT. S. BalaiahGirijaK. A. ThangaveluM. R. SanthanalakshmiT. S. DurairajS. V. SubbaiahT. K. BalachandranWaheeda Rehman Producer: K. L. Narayana Direction: T. P. Chanakya Screenplay: K. L. Narayana, Tapi Chanakya, C. V. R. Prasad Dialogues: Muhavai Rajamanickam Cinematography: Kamal Ghosh Art: Ch. E. Prasad Rao Settings: Sengaiah Make-up: Hari Babu, Nageswara Rao, Bodha Raju, Navaneedham Editing: Sanjeevi Audio Recording: Surya Narayana, A. Krishnan, Koteeswara Rao Choreography: Vempati Satyam Photography: P. Gangadhar Rao Lab: Vijaya Music was composed by Master Venu and Lyrics by Muhavai Rajamanickam. Playback singers are M. L. Vasanthakumari, Jikki, K. Rani, Thiruchi Loganathan, T. M. Soundararajan and S. C. Krishnan. All the songs in the film were a hit; the song "Kallam kabadam theriyadhavane" sung by Jikki and group with Waheeda Rahman's dance was so popular that the tune was copied into some films.
The song "kallam kabadam theriyadhavane" became popular. Those days, the songs were recorded for gramophone records and released well before the films are released. Accordingly, this song was released early. There was another film "Madurai Veeran"" released one month before the release of Kaalam Maari pochu. In Madurai Veeran, there is a song "Summa irundha sothukku kastam" that had the same tune as "Yaeru pooti povaye" song. Avichi Meiyappa Chettiar was the distributor of Kaalam Maari pochu, he thought. At first, he advertised something like "Do not be deceived by duplicates!". He filed a case against the producer of Madurai Veeran, Lena Chettiar that he has stolen the tune of his film song. A well renowned lawyer named; the Judge observed that the tune of the songs are based on folklore music and no one can claim a right of ownership to such folklore music. The case was dismissed. Like the Telugu film, this Tamil film was a hit at the box office. Kaalam Maari Pochu Title video
Arthur William Carr was an English cricketer. He played for the Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club and the English cricket team, captaining both sides. A promising young batsman, Carr was given his first game of first-class cricket for Nottinghamshire in 1910, while still at school, he played well and was rewarded with the captaincy of Nottinghamshire in 1919. Carr was selected for England's tour of South Africa in 1922–23, made his debut in the first Test against the South African cricket team, he was named a Wisden Cricketer of the Year for 1923. For the Ashes series against Australia in 1926, Carr was named captain of England. In the third Test at Leeds, he controversially put Australia into bat after winning the toss, compounded it by dropping Charlie Macartney at slip in the first over of the match. Macartney scored a hundred before lunch and England was lucky to avoid defeat, he came down with tonsillitis during the fourth Test of the series, although he recovered in time for the fifth Test, was replaced as captain by Percy Chapman.
He was bitterly disappointed with this decision, although he captained England twice more in his final two Tests against South Africa in 1929, from on he put most of his effort into captaining Nottinghamshire into a dominant position within the English County cricket competition. In 1930 and the following years, Carr was instrumental in developing the Bodyline bowling tactic together with future England captain Douglas Jardine and the two Nottinghamshire fast bowlers Harold Larwood and Bill Voce. Carr used this tactic of instructing his bowlers to aim at the bodies of batsmen and placing a close set field on the leg side to take catches fended away from the body with the bat and perfected it as he led Nottinghamshire to success in the county competition. Jardine used Larwood and Voce in similar fashion on the 1932–33 English tour of Australia, the tactic resulting in injuries to Australian batsmen and raising the ire of the Australian public. After this tour and the subsequent fallout, Carr was subjected to Bodyline bowling by other English county teams, was shaken by several balls that nearly hit him on the head.
He denounced the tactic. Dissension within the Nottinghamshire club over his role in Bodyline led him being sacked as captain in 1934, he never played first-class cricket again. Carr played 11 Test matches, scoring 237 runs at an average of 19.75. His first-class career spanned 468 matches, in this he made 21,051 runs at an average of 31.56 including 45 hundreds. He bowled medium pace at first-class level, taking 31 wickets at an average of 37.09. Wynne-Thomas, Peter. Arthur Carr: The Rise and Fall of Nottinghamshire's Bodyline Captain. Sheffield: Chequered Flag Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9932152-9-2
Jeju Province Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, is one of the nine provinces of South Korea. The province is situated on Jeju Island transliterated as Cheju or Cheju Do, the country's largest island, it was known as Quelpart to Europeans and during the Japanese occupation as Saishū. The island lies in the Korea Strait, southwest of South Jeolla Province, of which it was a part before it became a separate province in 1946, its capital is Jeju City and it is home to South Korea's tallest mountain, Mt. Halla. According to legend, three demi-gods emerged from Samseong, said to have been on the northern slopes of Mt. Halla and became the progenitors of the Jeju people, who founded the Kingdom of Tamna, it has been claimed that three brothers, including Ko-hu, who were the 15th descendants of Koulla, one of the progenitors of the Jeju people, were received by the court of Silla, at which time the name Tamna was recognized, while the official government posts of Commander and Governor were conferred by the court upon the three.
However, there is no concrete evidence of when the "Three Names" appeared nor for the exact date of when Ko-hu and his brothers were received by Silla. It may be supposed that the "Three Names" Founding Period occurred during the Three Kingdoms Period on the mainland of Korea. Taejo, founder of Goryeo, attempted to establish the same relationship between Goryeo and Tamna as Tamna had had with Silla. Tamna refused to accept this position and the Goryeo court dispatched troops to force Tamna to submit. Ko ja-gyeon, chief of Tamna, submitted to Goryeo in 938 and sent his son, Prince Mallo, to Goryeo's court as a de facto hostage. In 1105, the Goryeo court abolished the name Takna, used up to this time and, from that year on, the island was known as "Tamna-gun" and Goryeo officials were sent to handle the affairs of the island. Tamna-country was changed to Tamna-county in 1153 during the reign of King Uijong and Choi Cheok-kyeong was posted as Tamna-Myeong or Chief of Tamna. During the reign of Gojong of Goryeo, Tamna was renamed "Jeju," which means "province across the sea".
In 1271, General Kim Tong-jeong escaped with what remained of his Sambyeolcho force from Jindo and built the Hangpadu Fortress at Kwiil-chon from where they continued their fight against the combined Korean government-Mongolian army but within two years, faced by an enemy army of over 10,000 troops, the Sambyeolcho was annihilated. During the Joseon Dynasty, Jeju islanders were treated as foreigners and Jeju was considered as a place for horse breeding and exile for political prisoners. In the 17th Century, Injo of Joseon issued an edict prohibiting islanders from travelling to the Korean mainland. Jeju islanders staged several major uprisings, including the Kang Je Geom Rebellion, Bang Seong Chil Rebellion, the Lee Jae Su Rebellion. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, including Jeju, inaugurating a period of hardship and deprivation for the islanders, many of whom were compelled to travel to the mainland or Japan for work. Residents of Jeju were active in the Korean independence movement during the period of Japanese rule.
On Jeju, the peak of resistance came in 1931–32 when haenyeo from six eastern villages launched a protest against the Japanese-controlled Divers Association. Before it was brutally crushed, the protests spread and 17,000 people participated, with over 100 arrested in Korea's largest protest movement led by women and fisheries workers. On April 3, 1948, against a background of an ongoing ideological struggle for control of Korea and a variety of grievances held by islanders against the local authorities, the many communist sympathizers on the island attacked police stations and government offices; the brutal and indiscriminate suppression of the leftist rebellion resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of both villagers and communist radicals and the imprisonment of thousands more in internment camps. While claims have been made that the U. S. government oversaw and supported "anti-communist" activities administratively if not in the field, validation remains to be made. It is a fact the US was involved in counter-insurgence operations across Korea at this time leading up to the Korean War and UN involvement.
The Northwest Youth League, a Korean government sponsored watchdog group made up of refugees who had fled North Korea repressed any and all "communist sympathizers" with a campaign of shooting on sight anyone entering or leaving the president's "enemy zone" and using open, armed violence and what would be labeled today as terrorist activities. This led with many other islanders being raped and tortured. Intolerance by mainland Korean officials of islanders in general at the time, government- and organization-sponsored isolation of the island and a rumored cover-up of evidence linking the rebellion's suppressors with foreign powers and people who have gone unprosecuted is believed to be the primary cause of public ignorance, hedging on denial, over the April 3, 1948 genocide on Cheju-do. A documentary by the BBC and PBS, Korea: The Unknown War and many activities and publications, including Sun-i Samch'on by Hyun Ki Young, by organizations and persons from within Cheju-do and around the world continue to attempt shedding the light on this event.
The Uprising has become a symbol of Jeju's Independence from Korean Peninsula. The provincial administrative building was burned to the ground in September 1948 and a new building was completed in 1-do, 2-dong in December, 1952. Jeju Volcanic Island
James Patrick Powers is an American prelate of the Catholic Church and the eleventh bishop of the Diocese of Superior, Wisconsin. Powers was born in Baldwin, Wisconsin on February 6, 1953, he graduated from St. Croix Central High School, in Hammond and from Saint Paul Seminary School of Divinity in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Powers was ordained a priest of the Superior Diocese on May 20, 1990, he served as administrator of the diocese from December 2014 to February 2016, in addition to serving as Pastor of St. Joseph Catholic Church in Rice Lake, Wisconsin. Powers was appointed to by Pope Francis as bishop of Superior on December 15, 2015, he was consecrated and installed as bishop on February 18, 2016. Diocese of Superior
The Teatro del Libertador General San Martín is the premier stage theatre, opera house and concert hall in Córdoba, Argentina. Noting the absence of a concert hall in his native Córdoba, Provincial Justice Minister Ramón J. Cárcano proposed the establishment of one to Governor Ambrosio Olmos in 1887. Securing the project's approval and funding from the Córdoba Legislature, Cárcano commissioned a fellow Italian Argentine, architect Francesco Tamburini, for the project's design. Creating an eclectic Italianate theatre, Tamburini's design was juxtaposed with Arturo Nembrini Gonzaga's interior verdigris accents, façade reliefs and quadriga, all nods to the Beaux Arts architecture so in demand in Argentina at the time; the entirety of the theatre's materials and machinery was imported for the purpose from Europe. The landmark institution was inaugurated on April 1891, as the Rivera Indarte Theatre. Popularly known as the Teatro de la Calle Ancha during the early 20th century, the grand concert hall was designed for a capacity of 1,000 spectators.
Its concert hall featured a rising floor to stage level, made available during the many social balls held there since then. Among the first prominent drama theatre directors to stage productions there was María Guerrero, who popularized the theatre of Spain in Argentina after 1897. Subsequent years saw numerous internationally renowned classical performers, as well, notably Enrico Caruso, Titta Ruffo, Tito Schipa and Arthur Rubinstein; the theatre additionally houses the Luis de Tejeda and Rafael Grisolía halls, each with capacities of around 100 and reserved for seminars, as well as for the theatre's Youth Orchestra. A museum of the institution's extensive stagecraft collection was organized into the Cristóbal de Aguilar Musical and Theatre Museum in 1970; the institution was renamed in honor of General José de San Martín in 1950 by order of President Juan Perón on the occasion of the centennial of the Liberator's death. It was renamed Rivera Indarte in 1956, regained the San Martín denomination in 1973.
Gobierno de la Provincia de Córdoba: Teatro del Libertador