Asian Institute of Management
The Asian Institute of Management AIM is an international management school. It is one of the few schools in Asia to be internationally accredited with the AACSB. It was established in partnership with Harvard Business School and uses the Harvard Business School case study teaching methodology and it was described by Asiaweek magazine as the best in the Asia-Pacific region in terms of executive education. The institute was established in 1968 in partnership with Harvard Business School, the Ford Foundation and it is located in Makati City, Philippines. AIM has a board of trustees and an international board of governors. The Washington SyCip Graduate School of Business has two programs, the 16-month Master in Business Administration and the Executive MBA program. Instruction is based primarily on the method developed at Harvard Business School. The school applies American and European management principles to problems in Asia, over the decades, the school has built up a bank of its own Asian cases.
The Stephen Zuellig Graduate School of Development Management is in the field of development management in Asia, the Zuellig School has an 11-month Master in Development Management program intended for executives and managers from developing nations. In addition, the Zuellig School conducts research, certificate courses in development management, the School teaches development managers in matters that involve social and economic development of sectors, most especially the marginalized. Development management education at AIM began in 1976 with the offering of the Rural Development Management Program, in 1985, learnings from RDMP were developed into a four-week certificate course called the Program for Development Managers. Four years later, the PDM became the core of the first offering of the Master in Development Management course, on March 13,2014, CDM was renamed the Stephen Zuellig Graduate School of Development Management in recognition of Dr. Stephen Zuelligs generous donation to the school.
Dr. Zuellig is an economist, social investor, corporate citizen, visionary, a few years before, the Stephen Zuellig Center for Asian Business Transformation was created as a Center of Excellence in AIM to help homegrown Asian businesses develop into competitive industries. A scholarship fund was established with his support, assisting development managers in maximising their potential, through his donation to the Center for Development Management, Dr. Zuellig cemented his partnership with AIM. The School of Executive Educations programs assist executives in the Asian region to become managers and leaders and it offers the 18-month Executive MBA, rated No.1 by Asiaweek in 2000. The AIM Dr. Andrew L. Tan Center for Tourism provides studies that support the tourism, the AIM Ramon V. del Rosario Sr. -Center for Corporate Social Responsibility focuses on social responsibility relative to the competitiveness of corporations and their impact on society. In 2011, AIM Policy Center expanded its research to tackle the roots of inequality, in many developing and underdeveloped countries in the world, inequality in its various forms—economic and political—constitutes a major barrier to development.
In partnership with colleagues in AIM and scholars from other institutions, of which three have been published in peer reviewed professional and academic journals and four are under review
Gawad Urian Award
The Gawad Urian Awards are annual film awards in the Philippines held since 1977. It is given by the Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino and is regarded as the counterpart of the United States New York Film Critics Circle. Due to its credible choices of winners, it is considered the most prestigious awards in the Philippines. A tie was unheard of at that time, which resulted in accusations of lessening prestige on the part of FAMAS, after a voting stint at the FAMAS, these future MPP members set up the Gawad Urian Awards. The members of the MPP who judge the annual Gawad Urian are all accomplished writers in their part, Rolando Tolentino, grace Javier Alfonso Butch Francisco Mario Hernando Bienvenido Lumbera Miguel Rapatan Benilda Santos Dr. The MPP chose the name urian for its awards An urian is a standard for gold in Tagalog, Gawad, on the other hand, is the Tagalog word for award. Due to this choice, the Gawad Urian became the first, the Gawad Urian is given in twelve categories and have been annually awarded since 1977.
In 1988, the awards for the films of 1987 were not held because the MPP deemed that there was a lack of deserving winners, which was a first in Filipino awards history. In addition to these, the Mga Natatanging Aktor at Aktres ng Dekada are given every first year of the decade to actor/s and it would be the first and the last time that the MPP would give out the award. The MPP, like the Luna Awards of the Film Academy of the Philippines, has criteria in judging the winners of the Gawad Urian. The Gawad Urian is arguably the most prestigious film award-giving body in the Philippines if the number of scandals and dubious choices are taken in account. For the thirty years that the MPP has existed, it has not been tainted with any accusations of vote buying or scandals that tainted most of its counterparts in the Philippines. This distinction made the Gawad Urian a highly coveted award in the Philippine film industry that is given to the most deserved winners. If a person wins the Gawad Urian, the person is held in high regard, the Gawad Urian is famously known for its curious choices over the hugely popular choices in the Philippine film awards season.
In 1999, the most awarded Filipino film of all time, Jose Rizal of GMA Films, lost to Bata, Paano Ka Ginawa, before the Gawad Urian, Jose Rizal won at least 10 awards from each of the award giving bodies in the Philippines. The Gawad Urian is known for its infamous ties, in 2006, the Gawad Urian became the first award-giving body in the Philippine to welcome digital films into competition. Its nominees were swamped with achievement from digital films that year, Gawad Urian Awards at the Internet Movie Database Manunuri. com
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino politician who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, while his regime started an unprecedented number of infrastructure projects and monuments, it became infamous for its corruption and brutality. United States Army documents described the claim as fraudulent and absurd and he was elected President in 1965. The Philippine national debt used to fund development projects grew from $2 billion at the beginning of his term to $26 billion by the end of 1985. Based on World Bank data, Philippine Annual Gross Domestic Product grew from $5.27 billion in 1964 to $37.14 billion in 1982, by the end of 1985, GDP stood at $30.7 billion following two years of economic contraction. All in all despite the 1984–1985 recession, GDP per capita grew at a rate of 5. 8%, or more than tripled. It was only in 1992 at the beginning of the term of Fidel Ramos when GDP per capita, Martial law was ratified by 90.
77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum,1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil and excesses of human rights led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon Aquino, widow of the opposition leader Senator Benigno Aquino. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, a government agency created by the Aquino Government, PCGG maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle—taking away billions of dollars from the country in the course of their US-backed rule between 1965 and 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couples kleptocracy made her infamous in her own right, numerous criminal graft charges have been filed against her, some of which are still ongoing, and most have been dismissed by the court due to lack of evidence.
He was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three, in December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the accused from the Marcos clan, accused was his father, his brother, Pio. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos eventually pulling the trigger, in late January 1939, they were finally denied bail and in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano. The Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, attending the prestigious College of Law. He excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a member of the universitys swimming, boxing
Club Filipino was the first exclusive social club in the Philippines, founded on November 6,1898 by Filipino high society, including Spanish mestizos and members of the native aristocracy. It is located between North Greenhills subdivision and the Greenhills Shopping Center in San Juan City, the clubs present amenities include a swimming pool, tennis and squash courts, bowling alleys, outdoor restaurant and Kalayaan Hall, an indoor events/reception room. Originally an elite Filipino country gentlemens organisation, it was originally called Club Filipino Independiente, changed to Club Internationale and finally and its served as the venue for the inauguration of President Corazon Aquino on 25 February 1986 at the height of the People Power Revolution. This was where Governor Luis Chavit Singson went public with an illegal gambling payroll scam involving then-President Joseph Ejercito Estrada in 2000. On 9 September 2009, Corazon Aquinos son, then-Senator Benigno Aquino III,6 years later, in July 31,2015, President Aquino III formally endorses Mar Roxas as the LPs presidential candidate for the 2016 elections in the Gathering of Friends held at the venue itself
Quezon City is the most populous city in the Philippines. It is one of the cities that make up Metro Manila, Quezon City was named after Manuel L. Quezon, second President of the Philippines, who founded the city and developed it with the intention to replace Manila as the national capital. The city actually held title for 28 years starting 1948 up to 1976. Quezon City is not located in and should not be confused with Quezon Province and it is the largest city in Metro Manila in terms of land area. Quezon City hosts the University of the Philippines Diliman–the national university–and Ateneo de Manila University, the Quezon Memorial Circle is a national park and shrine located in Quezon City. The park is an ellipse bounded by the Elliptical Road and its main feature is a mausoleum containing the remains of Manuel L. Quezon, the second President of the Philippines, and his wife, First Lady Aurora Quezon. Before Quezon City was created, its land was settled by the individual towns of San Francisco del Monte, Novaliches.
On August 23,1896, the Katipunan led by its Supremo Andrés Bonifacio, in the early 20th century, President Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would become the future capital of the country to replace Manila. It is believed that his trip to Mexico influenced his vision. In 1938, President Quezon created the Peoples Homesite Corporation and purchased 15.29 km2 from the vast Diliman Estate of the Tuason family, successfully lobbied the assembly to name the city after the incumbent president. President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into law without his signature on October 12,1939, instead of opposing it, Caloocan residents willingly gave land to Quezon City in the belief it will benefit the countrys new capital. During the Second World War, Imperial Japanese forces occupied Quezon City in 1942 and this caused the territorial division of Caloocan into two non-contiguous parts, the South section being the more urbanized part, and the North half being sub-rural. On June 16,1950, the Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No,537, changing the citys boundaries to an area of 153.59 km2.
Exactly six years after on June 16,1956, more revisions to the land area were made by Republic Act No. 1575, which defined its area as 151.06 km2.33 km2, on October 1,1975, Quezon City was the actual site of the Thrilla in Manila boxing fight between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. On November 7,1975 the promulgation of Presidential Decree No.824 of President Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila, Quezon City became one of Metro Manilas 17 cities and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No.940 transferred the capital back to Manila on June 24,1976, on March 31,1978, President Marcos ordered the transfer of the remains of President Quezon from Manila North Cemetery to the completed Quezon Memorial Monument within Elliptical Road. On February 22,1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue became the venue of the bloodless People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos, on February 23,1998, Republic Act
Manila Film Center
The Manila Film Center is a national building located at the southwest end of the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex in Pasay, Philippines. The structure was designed by architect Froilan Hong where its edifice is supported on more than nine hundred piles which reaches to the bed-rock about 120 feet below, the Manila Film Center served as the main theater for the First Manila International Film Festival January 18–29,1982. The building has been the subject of controversies due to an accident that happened during the stages of its construction in 1981. Under the supervision of Betty Benitez, the spouse of Deputy MHS Minister Jose Conrado Benitez, ramon M. Ignacio, Senior Technology Officer at the Technology Resource Center, conceptualized the project and its various components. He likewise prepared the feasibility study, despite the futuristic and concept creativity of Ignacio, only two of the project components were actually done. Unescos assistance was invaluable in the design of the archives, so they were asked to be consultants of the project, several ocular visits were done by Unesco in 1981 where they were responsible for major consultations needed in the structures erection.
The building was designed to have two components which were the auditoria and archives. According to Hong, the foundation was set on reclaimed land near the Manila Bay, since the deadline of the structure was tight, it required 4,000 workers, working in 3 shifts across 24 hours. One thousand workers constructed the lobby in 72 hours, a job which would normally entail six weeks of labor, the Film Center opened in 1982 costing an estimate of $25 million. An accident occurred around 3,00 a. m. on November 17,1981 during the construction of the Manila Film Center and its scaffolding collapsed, and at least 169 workers fell and were buried under quick-drying wet cement. A blanket of security was imposed by the Marcos administration. The rescuers were eventually permitted to go inside the accident site 9 hours after the collapse, after the tragedy Prime Minister Cesar Virata disapproved a $5 million subsidy which was originally intended for the film festival. Lacking in funding, Imelda Marcos created a plan that would generate enough funds to cover the festival.
A law was passed in the form of presidential decree 1986 which created a board of review for motion pictures and this entity was known as the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board. This, in turn, relaxed censorship laws circumventing within the festival, P. D.1986 an exclusive exemption of films shown at the Manila Film Center from censorship. Ultimately, the building was finished in 1982 and on the opening night, the event was attended by Ben Kingsley who played Mohandas K. Gandhi in the movie. Other celebrities in attendance were Robert Duvall and George Hamilton with Imelda Marcos who wore a Joe Salazar matching black, amidst everything, the first Manila International film festival pushed through from the 18th to the 29th of January 1982. No Charges Filed, Smash Palace, Take It All, The Beloved Woman of Mechanic Gavrilov, The French Lieutenants Woman, There Was A War When I Was A Child and Wasted Lives
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
Members of the academy including avid movie viewers, fans or enthusiasts will cast their votes on who should win the statuettes on different categories they were nominated. Established since 1952, it the oldest existing film industry award-giving body in the Philippines, the FAMAS Awards, from 1952 to 1982, was the highest Filipino film award a filmmaker or artisan could receive in the local movie industry. Nevertheless, winning a FAMAS Award is still held in regard because of its age and prestige. The FAMAS Award is one of the distinguished film award bodies in the country. Others included are the Luna Awards, the Gawad Urian Awards of the Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino, winning all four of the awards in one category for the same work is considered as winning a Grand Slam. The forerunner of the FAMAS Award was the Maria Clara Awards, established by the Manila Times Publishing, the first awards in the Philippine movie industry were doled out for the movies of 1950-1951 and for the year 1952.
The award statuette, which bore the figure of Maria Clara, for two years, the Maria Clara Awards honored the Philippine movie industrys cinematic achievements. The FAMAS Awards formally replaced the Maria Clara Awards, in its inception, FAMAS had movie writers and studio publicists as its voting members. The FAMAS Award of Merit statuette was modeled from the screen legend. The varnished gold-painted wood statuette boasts of a Balintawak-clad woman whose raised hands holds a film reel. The statuette design itself has never changed over the years, the word FAMAS was coined by Filipino movie legends Jaime de la Rosa and Rosa Rosal, who decided on naming the Philippines equivalent to the Oscars as FAME. FAMAS is the Filipino version of the word FAME, the FAMAS was the sole award-giving body for film in the Philippines from 1952 until 1976. Within that period, FAMAS alone has awarded the most outstanding performers and craftsmen of Filipino films, winning a FAMAS Award became the motivation for many film craftsmen, for it was, after all, the Philippines only counterpart of the Oscars.
The awards itself, held mostly at the Manila Hotel, in 1960, Sampaguita Pictures and Vera-Perez Productions withdrew their participation from the Academy because the agreement between producers on who receives the FAMAS Awards was not followed. The agreement was that each of the Big Four studios would receive the top awards, for example, if the Best Picture goes to one studio, the acting awards should go the other three studios and the directing award should go to another studio. The 1960 FAMAS Awards, failed to honor Sampaguita Pictures with an award, so Sampaguita Pictures and its sister company Vera-Perez Productions withdrew from the Academy. In addition, Sampaguitas mogul, Dr. Jose Perez, returned all of the FAMAS Awards that the studio have won so far by placing them on public view in his Vera-Perez Gardens, other movie studios withdrew from the Academy, though they did not return their statuettes. Because of this, in 1961, the FAMAS revamped its rules and removed studio representation membership
Herminio Jose Lualhati Alcasid, Jr. known as Ogie Alcasid is a Filipino singer-songwriter, television presenter, comedian and actor. He is currently the President of OPM and Commissioner of the Edsa People Power Commission, Ogie was a former batch member of all male singing group Kundirana batch 1985 after Gary V. in 1985. Alcasids television career started as one of the hosts of comedy show Small Brothers on ABS-CBN in 1992. He appeared on comedy programs such as ABS-CBNs Mana Mana, ABCs Tropang Trumpo, GMA Networks Bubble Gang, QTVs Ay, Robot. He branched out as a show host, beginning in ABS-CBNs Game Na Game Na in 1995. He hosted Fastbreak, a basketball game show on IBC13 in 2002 and Celebrity Duets. He was a host on SOP Rules and he got his big break in Hanggang Kailan, his first drama show, and sang its main theme with Aiza Seguerra. Since 1995, he moved to GMA Network, leaving ABS-CBN, Alcasid is recently the judge in Pinoy Idol. and hosted such game shows as Da Big Show and Hole In The Wall.
In 2013, he left GMA Network and moved to TV5, in 2016, he returned to his home network, ABS-CBN. He joined Tawag Ng Tanghalan on Its Showtime as a judge and he was a current judge of Your Face Sounds Familiar, replacing Jed Madela, before he returned to ABS-CBN, his contract on TV5 had expired. He appeared on several GMA Network shows as a guest and he appeared as a guest on Yan Ang Morning, Sunday Pinasaya, and on Eat Bulaga. as a guest judge. He was a special guest in Sarap Diva, hosted by his wife, Regine Velasquez-Alcasid, Alcasid debuted as a singer in 1989 with the release of his self-titled album. Ogie Alcasid reached gold status, while his debut single Nandito Ako was awarded Song of the Year by local radio station Magic 89.9. He has since released 18 albums, including a Christmas album, a live album and he has received a total of twelve gold records, three platinum records, and three double platinum records. Boy Pick Up The Movie Album I Do Bidoo Bidoo Raketeros 2013, Heavens Best Entertainment & Star Cinema - Ogies 1st Star Cinema Movie I Do Bidoo Bidoo, Ako Pa.2000 Aliw Awards Best Male Performance in Music Lounges, Bars and Restaurants.
2000 Awit Awards Best Ballad Recording,2000 Awit Awards Song of the Year. 2000 RX93.1 OPM Male Artist of the Year 2001 Star Awards Best Movie Theme Song of The Year 2001 Famas Best Movie Theme Song of the Year,2001 Best Male Music Video Award in the MTV Pilipinas 2001. 2001 Best Song Music Video Award in the MTV Pilipinas 2001,2001 Tanyag Na Ulirang Ama from National Mothers and Fathers Day Foundation, Inc.2001 Aliw Awards Best Male Performance in Music Lounges, Bars and Restaurants
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Manila, officially City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines. Founded on June 24,1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi and it is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay and is home to many landmarks, some of which date back to the 16th century. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as a global city, the city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, forming the historic core of Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines. The metropolitan area, which includes the much larger Quezon City, Manila is the most densely populated city proper in the world, with 41,515 people per square kilometer. The term Manila is commonly used to refer to either the whole area or the city proper. Manila is located on the shore of the Manila Bay on one of the finest harbors in the country. The city has six districts for the lower house of the Philippine Congress. Manila was once ruled by the Kingdom of Tondo before it became a province of the Majapahit Empire.
During the Bruneian invasion of the Philippines, Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei captured Seludong and renamed it Maynilà, Maynilà became a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei, established to overpower Tondo. In 1571, conquistadors arrived from Mexico, across the Pacific Ocean, Spanish missionaries soon Christianized the city, incorporated Tondo and built some of the oldest churches in the country, including San Agustin Church. The conquistadors renamed the area Nuevo Reino de Castilla, Manila became the center of Spanish activity in the Far East and one end of the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade route linking Spanish America with Asia, one of the earliest examples of globalization. Because of its location on Pacific trade routes, Manila received the moniker Pearl of the Orient. Spanish rule of the Philippine archipelago lasted for more than three centuries, until 1898, order was usually quickly restored and the city returned to the business of trade. In the 19th century, Manila was one of the most modern cities in Asia, before the Spanish–American War, it saw the rise of the Philippine Revolution.
After the war, the United States took control, switched the official language from Spanish to English, near the end of World War II, during the Battle of Manila, most of the city was flattened by intensive aerial bombardment by the United States Air Force. As a result, relatively little remains of Manilas prewar and colonial architecture, although there are ongoing projects, especially within the old walled city. Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word nilà, referring to a mangrove tree that grew on the delta of the Pasig River. The flowers were made into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on religious altars or in churches