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Lunar phase

The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar phases change over the period of a synodic month, as the orbital positions of the Moon around Earth and of Earth around the Sun shift; the Moon's rotation is tidally locked by Earth's gravity. This near side is variously sunlit, depending on the position of the Moon in its orbit. Thus, the sunlit portion of this face can vary from 0% to 100%; the lunar terminator is the boundary between the darkened hemispheres. Each of the four "intermediate" lunar phases is around 7.4 days, but this varies due to the elliptical shape of the Moon's orbit. Aside from some craters near the lunar poles, such as Shoemaker, all parts of the Moon see around 14.77 days of daylight, followed by 14.77 days of "night".. In western culture, the four principal phases of the Moon are new moon, first quarter, full moon, third quarter; these are the instances when the Moon's ecliptic longitude and the Sun's ecliptic longitude differ by 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°, respectively.

Each of these phases occur at different times when viewed from different points on Earth. During the intervals between principal phases, the Moon's apparent shape is either crescent or gibbous; these shapes, the periods when the Moon shows them, are called the intermediate phases and last one-quarter of a synodic month, or 7.38 days, on average. However, their durations vary because the Moon's orbit is rather elliptical, so the satellite's orbital speed is not constant; the descriptor waxing is used for an intermediate phase when the Moon's apparent shape is thickening, from new to full moon, waning when the shape is thinning. The eight principal and intermediate phases are given the following names, in sequential order: Non-Western cultures may use a different number of lunar phases; when the Sun and Moon are aligned on the same side of the Earth, the Moon is "new", the side of the Moon facing Earth is not illuminated by the Sun. As the Moon waxes, the lunar phases progress through new moon, crescent moon, first-quarter moon, gibbous moon, full moon.

The Moon is said to wane as it passes through the gibbous moon, third-quarter moon, crescent moon, back to new moon. The terms old moon and new moon are not interchangeable; the "old moon" is a waning sliver until the moment it aligns with the Sun and begins to wax, at which point it becomes new again. Half moon is used to mean the first- and third-quarter moons, while the term quarter refers to the extent of the Moon's cycle around the Earth, not its shape; when an illuminated hemisphere is viewed from a certain angle, the portion of the illuminated area, visible will have a two-dimensional shape as defined by the intersection of an ellipse and circle. If the half-ellipse is convex with respect to the half-circle the shape will be gibbous, whereas if the half-ellipse is concave with respect to the half-circle the shape will be a crescent; when a crescent moon occurs, the phenomenon of earthshine may be apparent, where the night side of the Moon dimly reflects indirect sunlight reflected from Earth.

In the Northern Hemisphere, if the left side of the Moon is dark the bright part is thickening, the Moon is described as waxing. If the right side of the Moon is dark the bright part is thinning, the Moon is described as waning. Assuming that the viewer is in the Northern Hemisphere, the right side of the Moon is the part, always waxing. In the Southern Hemisphere, the Moon is observed from a perspective inverted, or rotated 180°, to that of the Northern and to all of the images in this article, so that the opposite sides appear to wax or wane. Closer to the Equator, the lunar terminator will appear horizontal during the evening. Since the above descriptions of the lunar phases only apply at middle or high latitudes, observers moving towards the tropics from northern or southern latitudes will see the Moon rotated anti-clockwise or clockwise with respect to the images in this article; the lunar crescent can open upward or downward, with the "horns" of the crescent pointing up or down, respectively.

When the Sun appears above the Moon in the sky, the crescent opens downward. The crescent Moon is most and brightly visible when the Sun is below the horizon, which implies that the Moon must be above the Sun, the crescent must open upward; this is therefore the orientation in which the crescent Moon is most seen from the tropics. The waxing and waning crescents look similar; the waxing crescent appears in the western sky in the evening, the waning crescent in the eastern sky in the morning. When the Moon as seen from Earth is a thin crescent, Earth as viewed from the Moon is fully lit by the Sun; the dark side of the Moon is dimly illuminated by indirect sunlight reflected from Earth, but is bright enough to be visible from Earth. This phenomenon is called earthshine and sometim

Stephen Betham

Stephen Betham is the former Head Coach of the Samoa national rugby union team, that participated in the World Rugby Pacific Nations Cup. Betham, who played for Samoa U-20's at a young age, has spent most his rugby career as a coach. Betham was head coach of the Samoa sevens side from 2009, where he led the team to victory in the 2010 USA Sevens, 2010 Adelaide Sevens, 2010 Hong Kong Sevens and 2010 Edinburgh Sevens to claim the 2009–10 IRB Sevens World Series title in his first year in charge. Samoa failed to make as much of an impact in 2010/11, finishing fifth on the table, only making a Cup final once, losing to England 29–21 in the 2010 Dubai Sevens. In 2012, he was appointed head coach of the Manu Samoa team, on a four-year contract until after the 2015 Rugby World Cup; this came just weeks after being named assistant coach for Manu Samoa, with the Australian Adrian Thompson in the sights of the Samoa Rugby Union, though Thompson turned the job down, to give Betham the role of head coach.

His first match in charge came on 5 June 2012 during the 2012 IRB Pacific Nations Cup, where Betham led Samoa to a 20–18 victory over Tonga. This was backed up by a further 2 victories over Fiji 29–26, Japan 27–26 to claim Samoa's first PNC title since 2010. On 23 June, Samoa push a strong Scotland side in Apia, to go down narrow losers 17–16. During Samoa's end-of-year tour, Betham led Samoa to a 26–19 victory over Wales at the Millennium Stadium, Samoa's first win over Wales since 1999; that saw Samoa rise to seventh in the World Rugby Rankings, Samoa's highest positioning and the highest any tier 2 nation had got to. In 2013, Samoa played in a quadrangular tournament with hosts South Africa and Italy. After beating Scotland for their first time, 27–17 Italy 39–10, Samoa would face the Springboks in the tournament decider. South Africa dominated the full 80 minutes, scoring 8 tries to win 56–23. In November 2013, Bethan led Samoa to a white wash end-of-year tour, losing to Ireland 40–9, Georgia 16–15.

In 2014, Samoa returned to the PNC, opened their campaign with an 18–all draw against Tonga in Apia, followed by an 18–13 win over Fiji. Between those tests, they beat Italy 15–0 in a Mid year test; that year, Italy claimed revenge, beating Samoa 24–13, before Manu Samoa went down 28–9 to England in London. In July 2015, Betham led Samoa to a first home match against the All Blacks. Despite leading 16–12 at half time, the All Blacks claimed the victory 25–16. Betham led Samoa to the final of the 2015 World Rugby Pacific Nations Cup, haven beaten the United States 21–16, Canada 21–20, to set up a second encounter with Fiji in the final. Samoa and Fiji had played each other in the Cross-pool matches, but that ended in a 30–all draw. Fiji were victors in the final running out 39–29 winners. On 19 October 2015, Betham stood down as Samoan head coach following a disappointing 2015 Rugby World Cup. Samoa came fourth in their Pool, with their only victory coming against the United States 25–16. Samoa who were expected to finish second in their group, went on to lose to South Africa 46–6, Japan 26–5, a record defeat, Scotland 33–36.

That meant they failed to automatically qualify for the 2019 Rugby World Cup. World Rugby Pacific Nations Cup Winners: 2012 Runners-up: 2014, 2015. South African quadrangular tournament Runners-up: 2013

NF Magazine

Nintendo Force, or NF Magazine, is a bi-monthly magazine that centers upon various Nintendo hardware products. In December 2012, IGN editor and magazine founder Lucas M. Thomas announced his intention to release the magazine, stating that he had begun to plan for the magazine upon hearing of Nintendo Power's cancellation; the magazine includes staff members from Destructoid, GoNintendo, IGN, Nintendojo,, the writer and founder of the online comic Brawl in the Family, Nintendo World Report, among others. Its first issue was released January 11, 2013, hosted under HP's MagCloud service with a price of $17.99 for one print/digital issue and $4.99 for just a digital copy. The debut issue had 80 pages, including a review of Fire Emblem: Awakening and a preview of Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon as its main overview. NF Magazine was created with the intention of "continuing the legacy" of Nintendo's official Nintendo Power magazine after its cancellation in 2012 after 24 years, it focuses on news and previews of the latest Nintendo games, as well as interviews with people in the gaming industry.

NF Magazine's design is similar to Nintendo Power, including some of the same sections that were a staple in Nintendo Power. The two magazines have many differences, both aesthetically and content-wise. Force has a larger section on retro games, includes many full-color comics, a feature Nintendo Power used less in its issues; the Inbox section is. There are polls and reader response letters similar to Nintendo Power's Pulse section. A column on the second page entitled Don't Anger the Ox serves as a throwback to Power's "Don't Hassle the Hoff", which spotlights editor David Oxford's response to a single letter; the new section with the Ox is much tamer than the original Hoff section in Nintendo Power. The News section provides information on announced Nintendo-related games and products, as well as some of the editors' reactions to the news in the form of their Mii characters' speech bubbles, it contains the same "Collector's Corner" as was featured in Nintendo Power's "Power Up" section, spotlighting video game-related merchandise.

It includes a throwback to Nintendo Power's "A Winner Is.../Dodongo Dislikes..." column in the form of "Yeah!/Unyeah...", which highlights brief highs and lows in the gaming industry. The Download section provides information on released and upcoming digital releases for games and apps on the Nintendo eShop. In the first issue, there was an interview with Jools Watsham of Renegade Kid, it contains short reviews of digital games with a recommendation grade. Around their third issue, NF Magazine changed the Recommended/Not Recommend rating system to the score increments used in the Review Section; the highest rated games so far are Earthbound, Super Mario Brothers 2, The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, each scored a perfect 10. Throughout the magazine, there are two or three comics per issue related to Nintendo games, including one by webcomic Brawl in the Family's artist Matthew Taranto; the Previews section has information on upcoming games spread throughout pages accompanied by numerous screenshots and artwork.

The Retro section takes a look at older video games in the industry, such as those for the Nintendo Entertainment System and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. It features the same "Star Power" column as was featured in Nintendo Power's "Power Up" section, spotlighting a video game character. A section where staff writers review the latest games; the games are rated on a scale of 1–10 with increments of.5. The highest rated games so far using this system are The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, Super Smash Bros. for Wii U, each with a perfect 10. The only Games with a 9.5 are Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon, Mario & Luigi: Dream Team, Donkey Kong Country: Tropical Freeze. The games with a 9.0 are Fire Emblem Awakening, Etrian Odyssey IV: Legends of the Titan and Animal Crossing: New Leaf. Among the worst games are Sonic & All-Stars Racing Transformed for Nintendo 3DS, which got a 4.5, Wreck-It Ralph for Wii, which got a 3.0. The Community section is dedicated to Nintendo culture, covering Nintendo-related art and websites from fans.

Nintendo Power Nintendo of America IGN Official website

Svetlana Durkovic

Svetlana Durkovic, Đurković, born 1974 in Zagreb, Croatia) is a feminist, anthropologist and LGBTIQ human rights activist known as a co-founder of Organization Q, the first LGBTQIA organization in Bosnia and Herzegovina. She is the first out queer person in that country and has worked to eradicate discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in Bosnia and Herzegovina; as of 2018, she lives and works in Maryland, Washington, D. C.. Durkovic was lived with her family in Sarajevo, her mother, of Macedonian origin, her father, of Montenegrin descent, were both refugees during World War II. Shortly before the Bosnian War broke out in 1991, Durkovic was in the United States in Halifax County High School on a student exchange program living with a family of local attorneys; as the war progressed she could not return to BiH, she gained refugee status in America and graduated from Halifax County High School. On April 22, 1992, she lost contact with her family in Sarajevo during the siege of that city.

Their next communication was 15 months later. Durkovic returned to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002. Durkovic completed her B. A. course with Honors in Anthropology, with a minor in Art History at Longwood University in May 1996 and her M. A. in Social Sciences at the University of Chicago in August 1998. She worked for the American Sociological Association from 1998 to 2000 as a Governance Coordinator and as a Minority Affairs Program Assistant. Upon returning to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002, she and Istok Bratic started the first initiative one human rights for LGBTIQ persons in the country, The Bosnia 14 September; this was the first educational and information web portal for LGBTIQ persons in BiH. In 2004, Durkovic co-founded the first LGBTIQ Organization Q, she was an early public advocate for LGBTIQ human rights, appearing on national television and social media in BiH from 2002 to 2009. Parallel to her experience in Organization Q, she has worked in the UN Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN Development Programme, UNICEF.

She worked as a coordinator and instructor in educational programs, training events and seminars related to gender, sex and human rights across BiH and the Balkan region, as well as for the Women Studies Program Žarana Papić. Due to her work and visibility as LGBTIQ human rights defender, she has received death threats. DShe is one of the founders of the first LGBTIQ organization in BiH, Organization Q, registered in 2004, it was founded as a non-profit and non-governmental organization in Bosnia and Herzegovina dedicated to protection of human rights of LGBTIQ persons, as well as empowerment and public visibility of queer identity and culture, leading to the improvement of equality based on gender, sexual orientation, sexual identity, gender identity and/or expression, sexual characteristics. Durkovic was the president of Organization Q, served as Executive Director, she has conducted research and co-authored publications and reports dealing with discrimination and social exclusion of the LGBTIQ population, namely in the areas of human rights, media and health.

Durkovic was one of the organizers and the public spokesperson for the Queer Sarajevo Festival 2008, the first of its kind in Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in September 2008. Before the festival opening, many publications, including the popular SAFF and Dnevni Avaz, used derogatory language, calling for the festival organizers to be lynched, doused with petrol, or expelled from the country. Death threats were issued on the Internet against individual activists, including Durkovic; when the festival opened on September 24, 2008, at the Academy of Fine Arts in Sarajevo, a group of 70 religious extremists and hooligans attacked and injured eight people, including journalists and participants. The following day, a YouTube video appeared threatening the event organizers, showing digitally manipulated images of a beheaded Durkovic; the organizers terminated the festival the next day due to the reaction of the media, public and religious representatives. 1+1=0: Analysis of high-school textbooks about LGBTIQ issues in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

With Jelena Poštić and Amir Hodžić, LGBTIQ Workbook: About sex, sexual orientation and sexuality. With Alma Selimovic, About Sex and Sexual and Reproductive Health: SOS Kinderdorf Workshops, Italian Cooperation for Development in BiH. With Poštić and Hodzić, Creation of Sex? Gender?. With Poštić and Hodžić, Creation of Sex? Gender? Second edition in 2008; the Invisible Q? Human rights issues and concerns of LGBTIQ persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2008. With Slobodanka Dekić and Tamara Šmidling, Off to the side: Collection of works about Sexuality. “Evolving of Gender Norms and Perspectives in BiH: From Social to Individual”), in Na tragu novih politika: Kultura i obrazovanje u Bosni i Hercegovini. With Damir Banović, Rights and Freedoms of LGBTIQ Persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Analysis of Relevant Legal Acts. With Taida Horozović and Slobodanka Dekić, Analysis of terminology concerning LGBTIQ population in written media in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Main author, Zvornik Municipality, Republika Srpska and Herzegovina, Rights-based Municipal Assessment and Planning Project, UNDP and UNOHCHR, Sarajevo, 2003

Renouveau municipal de Montréal

The Renouveau municipal de Montréal was a political party in Montreal, Canada, that contested seats in the Montréal-Nord borough in the 2009 Montreal municipal election. The RMM's leader was Michelle Allaire, a chartered accountant and accounting and finance teacher at the Université du Québec à Montréal, her campaign literature indicates that she has a Master of Business Administration degree from HEC Montréal. In 2009, she said the RMM would work to restore Montreal-Nord's image and develop work programs for area youth. Allaire had served as a city councillor in Montréal-Nord from 1986 to 2001 as a member of mayor Yves Ryan's political party, the named Renouveau municipal. Montréal-Nord became part of the newly amalgamated city of Montreal in 2001, she subsequently ran for the Action démocratique du Québec in the 2003 provincial election and for the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2008 federal election. Allaire planned to run for Montréal-Nord borough mayor in the 2009 election as a candidate of Louise O'Sullivan's Parti Montréal Ville-Marie, but she instead chose to launch a separate party.

Along with Allaire's campaign for borough mayor, the RMM fielded candidates for Montréal-Nord's two city council and two borough council seats. The party received a total of 7,917 votes, none of its candidates were elected; the RMM seems to have disappeared after this time. The party's full results from 2009 are as follows: Source: Rapport officiel du recensement des votes, City of Montreal


Efuru is a novel by Flora Nwapa, published in 1966 as number 26 in Heinemann's African Writers Series, making it the first book written by a Nigerian woman to be published. The book is about an Igbo woman who lives in a small village in colonial West Africa. Throughout the story, Efuru wishes to be a mother, though she is an independent-minded woman and respected for her trading ability; the book is rich in portrayals of the Igbo culture and of different scenarios which have led to its current status as a feminist and cultural work. The story is set in West African Igbo rural community; the protagonist, Efuru, is a beautiful woman. She is the daughter of a hero and leader of his tribe, she falls in love with a poor farmer called Adizua and runs away with him, upsetting her people as he did not perform the traditional wine carrying and pay her bride price. She supports her husband financially and is loyal to him, which makes her mother-in-law and aunt by marriage fond of her. At this point, she accepts to be helped around her house by a young girl named Ogea in order to help her parents who are in financial difficulty.

However, Adizua soon abandons their daughter Ogonim as his own father has done in past. After her daughter dies, Efuru discovers that he had a child with her, her in-laws try to convince her to stay with him, i.e. remain in waiting in their marital house. Efuru tries to look for him, but after failing, she leaves his house and goes back to the house of her father who receives her as she can care for him better than others. Efuru meets Gilbert, an educated man in her age group, he asks to marry her and follows traditions by visiting her father, she accepts. The first year of their marriage is a happy one. However, Efuru is not able to conceive any children, she is chosen by the goddess of the lake, Uhamiri, to be one of her worshipers, Uhamiri being known to offer her worshipers wealth and beauty but few children. Efuru's second marriage also fails as her husband mistreats her in favor of his second and third wives. Efuru – The protagonist. Born into the respected Nwashike Family, Efuru is raised by her father, Nwashike Ogene.

The novel portrays her as a beautiful, kind-hearted, strong-willed, understanding and more free-spirited female character compared to the other female characters. In certain scenarios, Efuru does not follow the traditions of her people, for example, she marries Adizua although he cannot pay her dowry. However, she undergoes the customary circumcision although it is painful. Overall, Efuru does not try to rebel against her society's constructs and mentality but breaks away from what a reader of this century would deem as “anti-feminist” ideas. Nwashike Ogene – Efuru's father, he is a respected member of their society because of his own father, who fought against the Aros people, due to the fact that he was an excellent fisher and farmer, abilities valued among his people, when he was younger. He is praised for being wise and understanding but surprises people with how lenient he is with his daughter when she does not follow traditions, he gives up on trying to bring Efuru home after he is told that she is happy with Adizua and after the marriage falls apart, Nwashike Ogene still lets his daughter return home.

Adizua – Efuru's first husband. He is portrayed as a lazy, irresponsible character unlike Efuru, willing to continue her trade after only one month of “feasting”, i.e. eating in order to heal after her circumcision, because of the little money they had. He is deemed unworthy to marry Efuru because of his unknown father who did not achieve anything to bring honor to the family. Within this context, he becomes less worthy when he elopes with another woman, he does not return for their daughter's funeral. Efuru leaves him although it is customary to wait for the return of the wrongdoing husband. Ajanapu – Adizua's aunt and Efuru's aunt-in-law. A sensitive and talkative mother of seven who acts as a mother-figure to Efuru. Throughout the story, Ajanupu does not hesitate to give advice and a majority of the time her advice is helpful to Efuru; the author comments on how she could be a midwife, convincing, because of the clear expertise she shows when it is Efuru's time to deliver her baby. Ossai – Adizua's mother and Efuru's mother-in-law.

Her quiet and reserved persona is most noticeable when she is with her sister, showing readers the contrast between the two. Although her son does not follow pre-marital customs, she treats Efuru well. Nwosu – Ossai's cousin, he is known as a great farmer but the flood ruins his harvest, causing him to fall into debt and to beg Efuru to take his daughter, Ogea as a maid and borrow ten pounds. He and his wife have trouble paying back the ten pounds but Efuru's patient character prevents any tension to form among them. Nwabata – Ogea's mother, she is an hardworking farmer who works with her husband on their rented plot of land. Her love for her husband and ignorance become apparent when she cried after she heard that her husband needed surgery. Ogea – Efuru's maid and Nwosu's daughter, she started working at Efuru's house at the age of ten. Ogea helps Efuru take care of Ogonimy, resulting in a deep bond between the characters, why Ogea's reaction to Ogonim's passing is justified despite how present side-characters at the funeral told her to stop.

Ogonim – Efuru's firstborn daughter. A healthy baby girl until the age of two when she dies. Gilbert – He is Efuru's childhood friend and on her second husband, his Igbo name is Enerberi but it changed to