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Lundy

Lundy is an English island in the Bristol Channel. It forms part of the district of Torridge in the county of Devon. About three miles long and 0.6 of a mile wide, Lundy has had a long and turbulent history changing hands between the British crown and various usurpers. In the 1920s, one self-proclaimed king, Martin Harman, tried to issue his own coinage and was fined by the House of Lords. In 1941, two German Heinkel He 111 bombers crash landed on their crews captured. In 1969, Lundy was purchased by British millionaire Jack Hayward, who donated it to the National Trust, it is managed by the Landmark Trust, a conservation charity that derives its income from day trips and holiday lettings. As of 2007, the island had a population of 28; as a steep, rocky island shrouded by fog, Lundy has been the scene of many shipwrecks, the remains of its old lighthouse installations are of both historic and scientific interest. Its present-day lighthouses are automated, one of them solar-powered. Lundy has a rich bird life, as it lies on major migration routes, attracts many vagrant as well as indigenous species.

It boasts a variety of marine habitats, with rare seaweeds and corals. In 2010, the island became Britain's first Marine Conservation Zone. In summer, visitors reach Lundy by boat from Bideford or Ilfracombe, in winter by helicopter from Hartland Point. Kayakers can kayak to the island. A local tourist curiosity is the special "Puffin" postage stamp, a category known by philatelists as "local carriage labels", a collectors' item. Lundy is the largest island in the Bristol Channel, it lies 12 miles off the coast of Devon, about a third of the distance across the channel from Devon to South Wales. Lundy is one of the islands of England. Lundy is included in the district of Torridge with a resident population of 28 people in 2007; these include a warden, a ranger, an island manager, a farmer and house-keeping staff, volunteers. Most live around the village at the south of the island. Most visitors are day-trippers, although there are 23 holiday properties and a camp site for over-night visitors, most at the south of the island.

In a 2005 opinion poll of Radio Times readers, Lundy was named as Britain's tenth greatest natural wonder. The island has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest and it was England's first statutory Marine Nature reserve, the first Marine Conservation Zone, because of its unique flora and fauna, it is managed by the Landmark Trust on behalf of the National Trust. The name "Lundy" is believed to come from the old Norse word for "puffin island", lundi being the Old Norse word for a puffin and ey, an island, although an alternative explanation has been suggested with "Lund" referring to a copse, or wooded area, it is known in Welsh as Ynys Wair,'Gwair's Island', in reference to an alternative name for the wizard Gwydion. Lundy has evidence of visitation or occupation from the Neolithic period onward, with Mesolithic flintwork, Bronze Age burial mounds, four inscribed gravestones from the early medieval period, an early medieval monastery. Beacon Hill Cemetery was excavated by Charles Thomas in 1969.

The cemetery contains four inscribed stones, dated to the 5th or 6th century AD. The site was enclosed by a curvilinear bank and ditch, still visible in the southwest corner. However, the other walls were moved when the Old Light was constructed in 1819. Celtic Christian enclosures of this type were common in Western Britain and are known as Llans in Welsh and Lanns in Cornish. There are surviving examples in Luxulyan, in Cornwall. Thomas proposed a five-stage sequence of site usage: An area of round fields; these huts may have fallen into disuse before the construction of the cemetery. The construction of the focal grave, an 11 by 8 ft rectangular stone enclosure containing a single cist grave; the interior of the enclosure was filled with small granite pieces. Two more cist graves located to the west of the enclosure may date from this time. 100 years the focal grave was opened and the infill removed. The body may have been moved to a church at this time. Two further stages of cist grave construction around the focal grave.

Twenty-three cist graves were found during this excavation. Considering that the excavation only uncovered a small area of the cemetery, there may be as many as 100 graves. Four Celtic inscribed stones have been found in Beacon Hill Cemetery: 1400 OPTIMI, or TIMI. Discovered in 1962 by D. B. Hague. 1401 RESTEVTAE, or RESGEVT, female i.e. Resteuta or Resgeuta. Discovered in 1962 by D. B. Hague. 1402 POTIT, or TIT, male. Discovered in 1961 by K. S. Gardener and A. Langham. 1403 --]IGERNI I TIGERNI, or—I]GERNI IERNI, male i.e. Tigernus son of Tigernus. Discovered in 1905. Lundy was granted to the Knights Templar by Henry II in 1160; the Templars were a major international maritime force at this time, with interests in North Devon, certainly an important port at Bideford or on the River Taw in Barnstaple. This was because of the increasing threat posed by the Norse sea raiders. Ownership was disputed by the Marisco family who may have been on the island during King Stephen's reign; the Mariscos were fined, the island was cut off from necessary supplies.

Evidence of the Templars' weak hold on the island came when King John, on his accession in 1199, confirmed the earlier grant. In 1235 William de Mar

Ottawa (Ontario provincial electoral district)

Ottawa was the name of a provincial electoral district that elected one member to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, Canada from 1867 to 1894 and two members from 1894 to 1908. The riding was created when Ontario became a province in 1867 consisting of the City of Ottawa, it was expanded in the 1894 redistribution to include the villages of Ottawa East and Hintonburg, the unincorporated community of Mechanicsville and that part of the Township of Nepean located in Lots 36, 37, 38 in Concession A of Ottawa Front. The riding was abolished in the 1908 redistribution into Ottawa West. Centennial Edition of a History of the Electoral Districts and Ministries of the Province of Ontario 1867-1967

NGC 6231

NGC 6231 is an open cluster in the southern sky located half a degrees north of Zeta Scorpii. NGC 6231 is part of a swath of young, bluish stars in the constellation Scorpius known as the Scorpius OB1 association; the star Zeta1 is a member of this association, while its brighter apparent partner, Zeta2, is only 150 ly from Earth and so is not a member. This cluster is estimated about 2–7 million years old, is approaching the Solar System at 22 km/s; the cluster and association lie in the neighboring Sagittarius Arm of the Milky Way. Zeta1 Scorpii is the brightest star in the association, one of the most radiant stars known in the galaxy. NGC 6231 includes three Wolf-Rayet stars: HD 151932, HD 152270, HD 152408; the cluster was discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna before 1654. Hodierna listed it as Luminosae in his catalogue of deep sky observations; this catalogue was included in his book De Admirandis Coeli Characteribuse published in 1654 at Palermo. It was independently observed by other astronomers after Hodierna, including Edmond Halley, Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux, Abbe Lacaille.

The cluster forms the head of the False Comet, a wider collection of stars from Scorpius OB1 running northward from Zeta Scorpii and NGC 6231 halfway toward Mu Scorpii. The tail is formed by two clusters, Collinder 316 and Trumpler 24. Trumpler 24 is surrounded by the emission nebula IC 4628 known as the Prawn Nebula, where the tail appears to fan out; the cluster is sometimes known as The Northern Jewel Box, due to its similar appearance to the NGC 4755, the Jewel Box cluster, further south in the sky. New General Catalogue SEDS NGC 6231 at DOCdb NGC 6231 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images